- History of Portugal (1578–1777)
History of Portugal
caption=The Marquês of Pombal
The history of Portugal from the dynastic crisis in 1578 to the end of the reign of the Marquis of Pombal in 1777 is a period of transition. The
Portuguese Empirewas near its height at the start of this 200 year period and continued to enjoy the widespread influence in the world that had characterized the two previous centuries. By the end of this period, the fortunes of Portugal and its empire had declined, culminating with the Távora affair, the catastrophic 1755 Lisbon earthquake, and the accession of Maria I, the first ruling Queen of Portugal.
The opulent use of
Brazilian gold, the absolutistregime, the movement toward the independence of Brazil, the Methuen Treatyand the Lisbon earthquake contributed to the collapse of Portugal's position in Europe and the world. These events and those which occurred at the end of Aviz dynasty and the period of Iberian Unionforced Portugal to depend on its colonies, first Indiaand then Brazil. This shift from India to Brazil was a natural consequence of the rise of the Dutch as well as the British Empire. A similar shift occurred after Brazil gained its independence, which caused Portugual to focus more on its possessions in Africa.
1700s, known as the Pombaline Era after Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo, Marquis of Pombal, was a period of dictatorship and wide-ranging reforms. The Marquis of Pombal was appointed by Joseph I, who had little inclination to rule. He initiated many reforms intended to modernize the country and attacked the power of the privileged nobility and clergy, notably in the case of the Távora affair and the expulsion of the Jesuits. He was also the leader of the reconstruction of Lisbonafter the earthquake in 1755. Soon after the death of Joseph in 1777, however, his daughter Maria I dismissed Pombal and prohibited him from coming within 20 miles of her.
Loss of independence
Battle of Alcazarquivirin 1578saw both the death of the young king Sebastian and the end of the House of Aviz. Sebastian's successor, the Cardinal Henry of Portugal, was 70 years old. Henry's death was followed by a dynastical crisis, with three grandchildren of Manuel I claiming the throne: Catherine, Duchess of Braganza, married to John, 6th Duke of Braganza, António, Prior of Crato and Philip II of Spain. António had been acclaimed King of Portugalby the people of Santarémon July 24, 1580and then in many cities and towns throughout the country. However, Philip II marched into Portugal and defeated the troops loyal to the Prior of Crato in the Battle of Alcântara. Philip II was crowned Philip I of Portugal in 1580 (recognized as official king by the Cortes of Tomarin 1581) and the Portuguese House of Habsburg(also called the Philippine Dynasty) began.
Portugal's status was maintained under the first two kings of the
Iberian Union, Philip I and his son Philip II of Portugal and III of Spain. Both monarchs gave excellent positions to Portuguese nobles in the Spanish courts, and Portugal maintained an independent law, currency, and government. It was even proposed to move the Spanish capital to Lisbon. However, the joining of the two crowns deprived Portugal of a separate foreign policy, and Spain's enemies became Portugal's. The war with Englandled to a deterioration of the relations with Portugal's oldest ally (since the Treaty of Windsor in 1386) and the loss of Hormuz. War with the Dutch led to invasions of many countries in Asia, including Ceylon(today's Sri Lanka), and commercial interests in Japan, Africa( Mina), and South America. Even though Portuguese were unable to capture the entire island of Ceylon, they were able to keep the coastal regions of Ceylon under their control for a considerable time. Brazil was partially conquered by both Franceand the Seventeen Provinces. The Dutch intrusion into Brazil was longer lasting and more troublesome to Portugal. The Seventeen Provinces captured a large portion of the Brazilian coast including Bahia, Salvador, Recife, Pernambuco, Paraíba, Rio Grande do Norte, Ceará, and Sergipe, while Dutch privateers sacked Portuguese ships in both the Atlantic and Indian Oceans.
Restoration of independence
When Philip II died, he was succeeded by Philip III (and IV of Spain) who had a different approach on Portuguese issues.
Taxes raised affected mainly the Portuguese merchants (Carmo Reis 1987). Portuguese nobility began to lose its importance at the Spanish " Cortes", and government posts in Portugal were occupied by Spaniards. Ultimately, Philip III tried to make Portugal a Spanish province and Portuguese nobles lost all of their power.
This situation culminated in a revolution by the nobility and high
bourgeoisieon December 1 1640, 60 years after the crowning of Philip I. The revolution was planned by Antão Vaz de Almada, Miguel de Almeidaand João Pinto Ribeiro. They, together with several associates, killed Secretary of State Miguel de Vasconcelosand imprisoned the king's cousin, the Duchess of Mantua, who had governed Portugal in his name. The moment was well chosen, as Spain was at the time fighting the Thirty Years' Warand also facing a revolution in Catalonia.
The support of the people apparent almost immediately and soon John, 8th Duke of Braganza, was acclaimed King of Portugal throughout the country as John IV. By
December 2 1640, John was already sending a letter as sovereign of the country to the Town Hallof Évora.
War with Spain and recovery of the colonies
The subsequent war with Spain, named the Restoration War ( _pt. Guerra da Restauração), consisted mainly of small skirmishes near the border and 5 significant battles, being the
Battle of Montijoon May 26 1644, the Battle of the Lines of Elvas(1659), the Battle of Ameixial(1663), the Battle of Castelo Rodrigo(1664), and the Battle of Montes Claros(1665); the Portuguese were victorious in all of these battles.
The victories were made possible because John IV made several decisions in order to strengthen the Portuguese forces. On
December 11 1640, the Council of War was created to organize all the operations (Mattoso Vol. VIII 1993). Next, the king created the Junta of the Frontiers, to take care of the fortresses near the border, the hypothetical defense of Lisbon, and the garrisons and sea ports. In December 1641, a tenancy was created to assure upgrades on all Portuguese fortresses that would be paid with regional taxes. John IV also organized the army establishing the Military Laws of King Sebastian and developed an intense diplomatic activity restoring good relations with England.
After gaining several decisive victories, John quickly tried to make peace with Spain. His demand that Spain recognize Portugal as an independent kingdom was not fulfilled until the reign of his son Afonso VI during the regency of Peter of Braganza (another son of John and future King Peter II of Portugal).
John IV to John V
The Portuguese Royal
House of Braganzabegan with John IV. The Dukes of the House of Braganza were a branch of the House of Avizcreated by Afonso V for his half-uncle Afonso, Count of Barcelos, illegitimate son of John I, first monarch of the House of Aviz. The Braganzas soon became one of the most powerful families of the kingdom and for the next decades would inter-marry many Portuguese royal family members. In 1565, John, 6th Duke of Braganzamarried Princess Catherine, granddaughter of King Manuel I. This connection with the Royal Family proved determinant in the rise of the House of Braganza to a Royal House. Catherine was one of the strongest claimants of the throne during the dynastical crisis of 1580but lost the struggle to her cousin Philip II of Spain. Eventually Catherine's grandson became John IV of Portugal as he was held to be the legitimate heir.
John IV was a beloved monarch, a patron of fine art and music, and a proficient composer and writer on musical subjects. He collected one of the largest libraries in the world (Madeira & Aguiar, 2003). Among his writings is a defense of Palestrina and a Defense of Modern Music (Lisbon, 1649). Abroad, the Dutch took
Malacca(January 1641) and the Sultan of Omancaptured Muscat ( 1648). By 1654, however, most of Brazil was back in Portuguese hands and had effectively ceased to be a viable Dutch colony. John married his daughter Catherine of Braganzato Charles II of England, offering Tangiersand Bombayas a dowry. John IV died in 1656and was succeeded by his son Afonso VI.
Afonso VI became King of Portugal when he was thirteen years old. The young king suffered from an illness that paralyzed the left side of his body as well as leaving him mentally unstable. After a six year regency of
Luisa de Guzman, the Queen Mother, Afonso assumed the control of the country. His reign would be short due to a conspiracy of his wife, Queen Marie Françoise of Savoy, who joined with Afonso's brother, Prince Peter, to secure an annulmentof her marriage to the king in 1667based on his impotence. Peter would later marry Marie Françoise. In the same year, Peter managed to gain enough support to force the king to relinquish control of the government and to name him Prince Regent.
Peter continued as Prince Regent but "de facto" ruler of Portugal for the next 16 years. When Afonso died in
1683, Peter succeeded him as Peter II of Portugal. Peter II is considered the first absolutist monarch of Portugal. He dismissed the historic legislative " Cortes" in 1697and ruled alone. He encouraged the focusing of Portuguese exploration of Brazil after silverwas found in the territory. Peter's reign also saw the signing of the Methuen Treatyof trade with England.
Peter was succeeded by his son John V in
1706. With continuing revenues of the Brazilian gold and silver, John enjoyed a luxurious life as well as great autocratic power. His cognomens were "the Magnanimous", "the Magnificent" or "the Portuguese Sun-King" and he is perhaps the best example of an absolutist monarch in Portugal. His long reign was characterized by a strengthening of the king's powers, made possible by the large revenues flowing to Portugal from Brazil.
John V used the crown's treasure to develop Portugal's weakened economy by creating new manufacturers across the country; however, the majority of the investment was used to patronize the arts and intellectuals and regain Portugal's lost prestige among its European neighbors (Carmo Reis 1987). His foreign policy followed two simple rules: political neutrality in European conflicts, and constant negotiations with the
Popeto be recognized as a lawful monarch. To this purpose, he spent large sums of gold in bribes to church officials and embassies to the Pope. Portugal was eventually recognized as a lawful sovereign stateby Pope Benedict XIVin 1748and the title "Most Faithful King" bestowed upon John V and his successors by a papal bull.
John V's last years of life were dedicated to devout acts and to subservience to the clergy (Madeira & Aguiar 2003). His early economic measures, which were unpopular among the upper nobility (Mattoso Vol. IV 1993), became ineffective and public affairs were so dependent on the monarch's rule that they became almost inoperative (Carmo Reis 1987). John V died on
July 31 1750and was succeeded by his son Joseph I.
Empire in Brazil
A consequence of the
personal unionwith Spainwas the loss of the Portuguese monopoly of the Indian Ocean. English, French and Dutch conquered Portuguese possessions in Asia. Of the huge Empire of Manuel I and John III, the Portuguese were reduced to the stronghold of Goa, several small strongholds in India, Macauon the coast of China, and the island of Timor. Trade posts in Africa were lost to the English ( Gulf of Guinea) and Dutch (Natal and Western Africa). Faced with this situation, the Portuguese focused their commercial interests on Brazil, which was partially under Dutch control. After several years of open warfare, the Dutch formally withdrew in 1661after an English mediation. Sugarcultivation was introduced in Brazil at the beginning of the 17th century, and proved to be a great success. The colony's economy was based on plantationagriculture and powered by slave labor. In the late 1600s, Brazilian explorers known as "bandeirantes" found gold in what is today the state of Minas Gerais(General Mines). The Portuguese colonists began an exploration of Brazil's interior beyond the line of the Treaty of Tordesillas(later according with Spain the Treaty of Madrid). Settlements in southeastern Brazil, nearer the gold regions, grew at a rapid pace, eventually eclipsing the older settlements of the northeastern coast.
The world's first great
gold rushbegan with thousands of colonists and slaves pouring into the rugged mountains north of Rio de Janeiro. The rush would eventually spread to many other regions of Brazil. In the 1720s, the rush suffered another stimulus with the discovery of diamonds and the two mining industries grew fast. By the 18th century, perhaps 80 percent of the gold in Europe originated in Brazil.
In Lisbon, gold from Brazil had an enormous impact on Portuguese society. The
Royal Familyhad the right to collecting one-fifth of the gold mined in Brazil, growing rich and recovering the prestige of the previous centuries. The gold rush also caused emigrationto Brazil and deprived Portugal of a large part of its population. The population was denuded to such an extent that John V prohibited emigration in 1709 (Mattoso Vol. IV 1993). It was also during this period that the Amerindians gained total freedom, a decision that contrasted with the growing slave trade.
The conditions for the Brazilian independence started to form. As the Portuguese elites received most of the profits from gold mining in Brazil, the plantations and mine owners started to protest the reassertion of imperial control and the constant imposition of new taxes. The first sign of Brazilian
nationalism, the Minas Conspiracy, was felt during the rule of the Marquis of Pombal. A revolt led by prominent figures as well as military officers failed and Royal courts sentenced most of the conspirators to prison or exile. This situation was aggravated when the Napoleonic Warsstarted. During the reign of Maria I and regency of her son Prince John, the isolation of Spain's colonies in relation to mainland Spain led to a series of independence wars throughout Latin America, creating a tense situation between the colony and Lisbon. With the transfer of the Royal court to Rio de Janeiro, the tense situation was attenuated as Prince Regent John declared Brazil a Vice-Kingdom and Portugal's official name became the "Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and Algarves".
Methuen Treatywas signed between Peter II of Portugaland Charles II of Englandin 1703. It was named for John Methuen, the British Ambassador Extraordinary to Portugal where he negotiated the treaty. The Methuen Treaty cemented allegiances in the War of Spanish Successionand created favorable trading terms for both nations, especially regarding port wine. The commercial part of the treaty established that English textiles would be preferred in Portugal, and that Portuguese wines (mainly port) would be preferred in England by paying only two thirds of the rates settled with France. The Methuen Treaty played a major part in the development of the port wine industry as the decisions provided great stimulus to wine production in the hinterland of Oporto.
In the alliance with
Englandin the War of Spanish Succession, the Portuguese gained the protection of both English and Dutch. Portugal suffered French attacks in Rio de Janeiro and Cape Verdebut managed to secure the colonies. In Europe, the Portuguese stood by the Grand Allianceand, led by the Portuguese General Marquis of Minas and English Count Galway, advanced into Spanish Castile, but sustained defeat in the Battle of Almanzaon April 14 1707against Spain and France lead by the Duke of Berwickand the Marquis of Pópoli. The joint forces of the Portuguese and English suffered 5,000 casualties and 8,000 soldiers were made prisoners. An armisticewas signed with France in 1713 and peace was made with Spain in 1715.
Marquis of Pombal
When John V died in
1750, he was succeeded by his son Prince Joseph Emmanuel, who reigned as Joseph I. He loved the palatial life, opera, and was devoted to the Catholic Church(Mattoso Vol. IV 1993). He enjoyed the Royal Family's riches of the Brazilian gold and decided, instead of ruling, to delegate all his powers to Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo (pronounced|sɨβɐʃtiˈɐ̃ũ ʒuˈzɛ dɨ kɐɾˈvaʎu i ˈmɛlu), future Count of Oeirasand Marquis of Pombal(IPA| [põˈβaɫ] ).
De Melo sought to overhaul all aspects of economic, social and colonial policy to make Portugal a more efficient contender with the other great powers of Europe, and thus secure its own power status as a result. Impressed by the English economic success, which he had witnessed while serving as
ambassadorin London, he successfully implemented similar economic policies in Portugal. He was responsible for the abolition of slavery in the Portuguese strongholds in India, development of the port wineindustry, and the end of discrimination against non-Catholic Christians in Portugal. He also reorganized the army and navy, bringing the total Portuguese military strength to around 70,000 troops.
Age of Enlightenment, Portugal was considered one of Europe's unenlightened backwaters; it was a country of three million with 200,000 people in 538 monasteries in 1750. De Melo seems to have been deeply embarrassed by Portugal's much lamented backwardness. Having lived in two major centres of European enlightement as his country's ambassador to both Viennaand London, he increasingly identified the Jesuits with their alleged doctrinaire grip on science and education as an inherent drag on an independent, Portuguese style illuminism. Especially in England, he came in contact with the anti-Jesuit tradition of that country and in Vienna he made friends with Gerhard van Swieten, a staunch adversary of the Austrian Jesuits and their influence. As prime ministerde Melo engaged the Jesuits in a dirty propagandawar, which was watched closely by the rest of Europe, and he launched some conspiracy theories about the order's desire for power.
The Marquis did not confront only the Jesuits. In the course of the Távora Affair he accused both the
Society of Jesusand a series of powerful noble families surrounding the Távora family of treasonand attempted regicide. De Melo was an important precursor for the suppression of the Jesuitsthroughout Europe and its colonies which culminated in 1773, when Pope Clement XIVabolished the order.
Further reforms were carried out in education. He created the basis for secular public primary and
secondary schools, introduced vocational training, created hundreds of new teaching posts, added departments of mathematics and natural sciences to the University of Coimbra, and introduced new taxes to pay for these reforms.
But De Melo's greatest reforms were economic and financialref|financial, with the creation of several companies and
guilds to regulate every commercial activity. He demarcated the region for production of Port, the first attempt to control wine quality and production in Europe. He ruled with a strong hand by imposing strict laws upon all classes of Portuguese society from the nobility to the working class, and through his widespread review of the country's tax system. These reforms gained him enemies in the upper classes, especially among the high nobility, who despised him as a social upstart. When the appatic King Joseph died on February 24 1777, he was succeeded by the first Queen of Portugal, Maria I. The Queen disliked the Marquis and the Marquis was not fond of the new Queen (Madeira & Aguiar 2003), so she dismissed him from his post and prohibited him of leaving his Marquessateof Pombal.
Expulsion of the Jesuits
The expulsion of the Jesuits from Portugal has been seen as a quarrel with Prime Minister
Sebastião de Melo, Marquis of Pombal. Melo's quarrel with the Jesuits began over an exchange of South American colonial territory with Spain. By a secret treaty of 1750, Portugal relinquished to Spain the contested colony of San Sacramentoat the mouth of the Uruguay Riverin exchange for the Seven Reductions of Paraguay, the autonomous Jesuit missions that had been nominal Spanish colonial territory. The Jesuits, disagreeing with transfers of Guaranipopulations from one territory to another, caused some disturbances in the regionref|disturbances and Portugal, fearing an attempt to build an independent empire in the New World, forbade the Jesuits to continue the local administration of their former missions. Portuguese Jesuits were removed from the court.
April 1, 1758, a brief was obtained from the aged Pope Benedict XIV, appointing the Portuguese Cardinal Saldanha, recommended by Pombal, to investigate allegations against the Jesuits that had been raised in the King of Portugal's name. Benedict was skeptical as to the gravity of the alleged abuses. He ordered a minute inquiry, but so as to safeguard the reputation of the Society, all serious matters were to be referred back to him. Benedict died the following month, however, on May 3. On May 15, Saldanha, having received the papal brief only a fortnight before, omitting the thorough visitation of Jesuit houses that had been ordered, and pronouncing on the issues which the pope had reserved to himself, declared that the Jesuits were guilty of having exercised illicit, public, and scandalous commerce, both in Portugal and in its colonies. Pombal moved quickly during the papal " sede vacante". In three weeks, the Jesuits were stripped of all Portuguese possessions, and before Cardinal Rezzonico had been made pope as Clement XIII on July 6, 1758, the Portuguese dispossession of the Society was a "fait accompli."
The last straw for the Court of Portugal was the attempted assassination of the king on
September 3, 1758, of which the Jesuits were alleged to have had prior knowledge (see the Távora affair below). Among those arrested and executed was Gabriel Malagrida, the Jesuit confessor of Leonor of Tavora. The Jesuits were expelled from the kingdom; important non-Portuguese members of the Order were imprisoned. The Order was civilly suppressed in 1759. The Portuguese ambassador was recalled from Rome and the papal nunciosent home in disgrace. Relations between Portugal and Rome were broken off until 1770.
The Távora affair (pronounced|ˈtavuɾɐ) was a political scandal of the
18th centuryPortuguese court. The events triggered by the attempted murder of King Joseph I in 1758 ended with the public execution of the entire Távora family and its closest relatives in 1759. Some historians interpret the whole affair as an attempt by the Prime Minister de Melo (future Marquis of Pombal) to limit the growing powers of the families of the high nobility.
Clashes between de Melo and nobility were common because the nobility despised him for his quick ascension to power. The clashes were tolerated by the king who trusted his prime minister's judgment.
On the night of
September 3 1758, Joseph I was riding an unmarked carriage in a secondary and unfrequented road in the outskirts of Lisbon. The king was returning from an evening with his mistress to the tents of Ajuda. Somewhere along the way two to three men intercepted the carriage and fired on its occupants. Joseph I was shot in an arm and his driver was badly wounded, but both survived and returned to Ajuda.
Immediately de Melo took control of the situation. Concealing the attack and the king's injuries, he proceeded with a swift enquiry. A few days afterwards, two men were arrested for the shootings and
tortured. The men confessed their guilt and stated that were following orders of the Távora family, which was plotting to put the Duke of Aveiroin the throne. Both were hanged the following day, even before the attempted regicidewas made public.
In the following weeks the Marchioness Leonor of Távora, her husband, the Count of Alvor, as well as all of their sons, daughters and grandchildren were imprisoned. The conspirators, the Duke of Aveiro and the Távoras' sons-in-law, the Marquis of Alorna and the Count of Atouguia, were arrested with their families. Gabriel Malagrida, the Jesuit confessor of Leonor of Tavora was also arrested.
They were all accused of high
treasonand attempted murder of the king. The evidence presented in their common trial was very simple: (a) the confessions of the executed killers; (b) the murder weapon that belonged to the Duke of Aveiro and (c) the assumption that only the Távoras would have known the whereabouts of the king in that evening, since he was returning from a liaison with Teresa of Távora, who was also arrested.
The Távoras denied all charges but were eventually sentenced to death. Their estates were confiscated by the crown, their name erased from the peerage and their
coat-of-armsoutlawed. The original sentence ordered the execution of all of them, including women and children. Only the intervention of Queen Mariana and Princess Maria Francisca, the heiress to the throne, saved most of them.
The Marchioness, however, was not spared. She and her other defendants who had been sentenced to death were publicly tortured and executed on
January 13, 1759in a field near Lisbon. The king was present along with his bewildered court. The Távoras were their peers and kin, but the prime minister wanted the lesson to be learned. Afterwards, the ground was salted to prevent future growth of vegetation. Nowadays, this field is a square of Lisbon, called "Terreiro Salgado", the salty ground.
Gabriel Malagrida was
burned at the stakea few days afterwards and the Jesuit Order declared outlaws. All its estates were confiscated and all the Jesuits expelled from Portuguese territory, both in Europe and the colonies. The Alorna family and the daughters of the Duke of Aveiro were sentenced to life imprisonment in monasteries and convents.
Sebastião de Melo was made
Count of Oeirasfor his competent handling of the affair, and later, in 1770, was promoted to Marquis of Pombal, the name by which he is known today.
1755 Lisbon earthquake
November 1, 1755, at 9:20 AM, a massive earthquake(estimated magnitude 9 on the Richter scale) struck Lisbon, followed by a tsunamiand a fire, resulting in the near-total destruction of the city. The earthquake accentuated political tensions in Portugal and profoundly disrupted the country's 18th century colonial ambitions.
Of a Lisbon population of 275,000, up to 90,000 were killed and eighty-five percent of Lisbon's buildings were destroyed, including famous palaces and libraries, as well as most examples of Portugal's distinctive
16th century Manuelinearchitecture.
Owing to a stroke of luck, the Royal Family escaped unharmed from the catastrophe. King Joseph I and the court had left the city, after attending
massat sunrise, fulfilling the wish of one of the King's daughters to spend the holiday away from Lisbon. After the catastrophe, Joseph developed a fear of living within walls, and the court was accommodated in a huge complex of tents and pavilions in the hills of Ajuda, then on the outskirts of Lisbon. The King's claustrophobianever waned, and it was only after Joseph's death that his daughter Maria I began building the royal Ajuda Palace, which still stands on the site of the old tented camp.
Like the king, Prime Minister Sebastião de Melo survived the earthquake and is reported to have said, "Now? Bury the dead and feed the living." With the pragmatism that characterized his coming rule, the Prime Minister immediately began organizing recovery and reconstruction. He sent firefighters into the city to extinguish the flames and ordered teams to remove the thousands of corpses. Contrary to custom and against the wishes of representatives of the Church, many corpses were loaded onto barges and buried at sea beyond the mouth of the
River Tagusto prevent disease. To halt disorder, especially looting, in the ruined city, gallowswere constructed at high points around the city and at least 34 people were executed. The Portuguese Army was mobilized to surround the city to prevent the able-bodied from fleeing, so that they could be pressed into clearing the ruins.
Not long after the initial crisis, the prime minister and the king quickly hired
architects and engineers, and less than a year later, Lisbon was already free from debris and undergoing reconstruction. The king was keen to have a new, perfectly ordained city. Big squares and wide rectilinearavenues were the signatures of the new Lisbon. At the time, somebody asked the Marquis of Pombal the need of such wide streets. The Marquis answered: "one day they will be small." The chaotic traffic of modern Lisbon reflects the prescience of the reply.
Pombaline buildings were among the first seismically-protected constructions in the world. Small wooden models were built for testing, and earthquakes were simulated by marching troops around them. Lisbon's "new" downtown, known as the
Pombaline Downtown("Baixa Pombalina"), is one of the city's famed attractions. Sections of other Portuguese cities, like the Vila Real de Santo Antónioin Algarve, were also rebuilt along Pombaline principles.
History of Portugal
History of Portugal (1777-1834)(from the beginning of the reign of Maria I to the end of the Civil War in 1834)
List of Portuguese monarchs
# [http://workmall.com/wfb2001/portugal/portugal_history_absolutism.html Portuguese absolutism]
# [http://workmall.com/wfb2001/portugal/portugal_history_development_of_brazil.html Portuguese development of Brazil]
* [http://www.zum.de/whkmla/region/spain/braganca.html Second half of the 18th century in Portugal]
* [http://www.zum.de/whkmla/region/spain/portabs.html Absolutism in Portugal]
* [http://www.zum.de/whkmla/region/samerica/brazil162461.html Brazil under Dutch domination]
* [http://www.zum.de/whkmla/region/samerica/brazil16611750.html Brazil from 1661-1750]
* [http://workmall.com/wfb2001/brazil/brazil_history_gold_mining_displaces_cane_farming.html Changes to Brazil's economy]
* [http://www.badley.info/history/Portugal.country.year.index.html Portugal Chronology World History Database]
* [http://www.zum.de/whkmla/military/17cen/dutchbrazil16301654.html Dutch-Portuguese war over Brazil]
* [http://www.zum.de/whkmla/military/17cen/mombasa1699.html Omani conquest of Mombasa]
* [http://www.zum.de/whkmla/military/17cen/malacca1641.html Dutch conquest of Malacca]
* [http://www.zum.de/whkmla/military/17cen/elmina1637.html Dutch conquest of Elmina]
* [http://www.zum.de/whkmla/military/17cen/goa16361639.html Dutch blockade of Goa]
* [http://www.zum.de/whkmla/military/18cen/spansucc.html The War of Spanish Succession]
* [http://nisee.berkeley.edu/lisbon/ Images and historical depictions of the 1755 Lisbon earthquake]
* [http://www.lisbon-and-portugal.com/travel/1755-lisbon-earthquake.html The 1755 Lisbon Earthquake]
* [http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9071428 Encyclopaedia Britannica on the Távoras Conspiracy]
*Carmo Reis, A. do (1987). "Atlas de História de Portugal" (5th ed.). Edições Asa.
*Mattoso, José (dir.) (1993). "História de Portugal" (Vol. IV; 1st ed.). Círculo de Leitores. ISBN 972-42-0715-3
*Mattoso, José (dir.) (1993). "História de Portugal" (Vol. VIII; 1st ed.). Círculo de Leitores. ISBN 972-42-0972-5
*Maderia, Carlos (dir.); & Aguiar, João (2003). "Portugal 860 anos - Figuras 1580-1926". Livros SuperInteressante.
* Portugal. (2005, November 11). MSN Encarta. Retrieved 19:00, November 11, 2005 from [http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761558260/Portugal.html http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761558260/Portugal.html]
* Country Studies - Brazil. (2005, November 13). Countrystudies.us. Retrieved 17:15, November 13, 2005 from [http://countrystudies.us/brazil/8.htm http://countrystudies.us/brazil/8.htm]
* Geographic.org - Portugal. (2005, November 13). Geographic.org. Retrieved 17:30, November 13, 2005 from [http://workmall.com/wfb2001/portugal/portugal_history_index.html http://workmall.com/wfb2001/portugal/portugal_history_index.html]
* Geographic.org - Brazil. (2005, November 13). Geographic.org. Retrieved 17:30, November 13, 2005 from [http://workmall.com/wfb2001/brazil/brazil_history_index.html http://workmall.com/wfb2001/brazil/brazil_history_index.html]
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