A Little Night Music

A Little Night Music

Infobox Musical
name=A Little Night Music

caption=Original Broadway production poster
music=Stephen Sondheim
lyrics=Stephen Sondheim
book=Hugh Wheeler
basis=1955 Ingmar Bergman film
"Smiles of a Summer Night"
productions=1973 Broadway
1974 West End
1975 Austria
1978 Stockholm
1978 Film
1989 West End revival
1995 West End revival
2001 Barcelona
2008 West End revival planned
awards= Tony Award for Best Musical
Tony Award for Best Book
Tony Award for Best Score

"A Little Night Music" is a musical with music and lyrics by Stephen Sondheim and book by Hugh Wheeler. Inspired by the Ingmar Bergman film "Smiles of a Summer Night", it involves the romantic lives of several couples, with the music set almost entirely in waltz time. The musical included the song "Send in the Clowns". The title is an English (mis)translation of the German name for Mozart's Serenade No. 13 for strings in G major.



"A Little Night Music" opened on Broadway at the Shubert Theatre on February 25, 1973, and closed on August 3, 1974 after 601 performances and 12 previews. It moved to the Majestic Theatre on Sept. 17, 1973 where it completed its run. It was directed by Harold Prince with choreography by Patricia Birch and design by Boris Aronson. The cast included Glynis Johns (Desiree Armfeldt), Len Cariou (Fredrik Egerman), Hermione Gingold (Madame Armfeldt), Victoria Mallory, Mark Lambert, Laurence Guittard, Patricia Elliott, George Lee Andrews, and D. Jamin Bartlett. It won the New York Drama Critics' Circle Award and the Tony Award for Best Musical.


The London production opened at the Adelphi Theatre on April 15, 1975 and starred Jean Simmons, Joss Ackland, David Kernan, Liz Robertson, and Diane Langton, with Hermione Gingold reprising her role as Madame Armfeldt. It ran for 406 performances. During the run, Angela Baddeley replaced Gingold, and Virginia McKenna replaced Simmons.

A new London revival opened on October 6, 1989 at the Piccadilly Theatre, directed by Ian Judge, designed by Mark Thompson, and choreographed by Anthony Van Laast. It starred Lila Kedrova as Madame Armfeldt, Dorothy Tutin as Desiree Armfeldt, Peter McEnery and Susan Hampshire. The production ran for 144 performances, closing on February 17, 1990.

In 1995, a revival by the Royal National Theatre opened at the Olivier Theatre on September 26, 1995 in a production directed by Sean Mathias, with set designed by Stephen Brimson Lewis, costumes by Nicky Gilabrand, lighting by Mark Henderson and choreography by Wayne McGregor. It starred Judi Dench (Desiree), Sian Phillips (Madame Armfeldt), Joanna Riding, Laurence Guittard and Patricia Hodge. The production closed on August 31, 1996. Dench received the Laurence Olivier Awards for Best Actress in a Musical.

"A Little Night Music" will be revived at the Menier Chocolate Factory from November 22, 2008 until March 8, 2009. The production is directed by Trevor Nunn, sets and costumes by David Farley and Jason Carr will be writing new orchestrations. The cast includes Hannah Waddingham as Desiree, Alexander Hanson as Frederik, Jessie Buckley (Anne), Maureen Lipman (Mme. Armfeldt), Alistair Robins (the Count), Gabriel Vick (Henrik) and Kasia Hammarulund (Petra). [Benedict, David. [http://www.variety.com/article/VR1117993701.html?categoryid=15&cs=1 "Waddingham to star in 'Night Music'",] "Variety", October 10, 2008]


Zarah Leander played Madame Armfeldt in the original Austrian staging (in 1975) as well as in the original Swedish staging in Stockholm in 1978 (here with Jan Malmsjö as Fredrik Egerman), performing "Send In The Clowns" and "Liaisons" in both stagings. The successful Stockholm-staging was directed by Stig Olin.

Film version

In 1978, a film version of "A Little Night Music" was made, starring Elizabeth Taylor, Lesley-Anne Down, and Diana Rigg, with Len Cariou, Hermione Gingold, and Laurence Guittard reprising their Broadway roles. The setting for the film was moved from Sweden to Austria, and was filmed on location. Stephen Sondheim wrote lyrics for the "Night Waltz" theme ("Love Takes Time") and wrote an entirely new version of "The Glamorous Life" which has been incorporated into several subsequent productions of the stage musical. The film marked legendary Broadway director Hal Prince's second time as a motion picture director. Critical reaction to the film was mixed to negative, with much being made of Miss Taylor's wildly fluctuating weight from scene to scene. There was praise for Diana Rigg's performance, and orchestrator Jonathan Tunick received an Oscar for Best Music, Original Song Score and Its Adaptation or Best Adaptation Score. A soundtrack recording was released on LP, and the film was, for a time, available on VHS and laserdisc. A DVD release was issued in June of 2007. (For more information see imdb title|id=0076319|title=A Little Night Music.)

Opera companies

This work has also become part of the repertoire of several opera companies. The New York City Opera has performed it in 1990, 1991, and 2003, the Houston Grand Opera in 1999, and the Los Angeles Opera in 2004.

Cast recordings

In addition to the original Broadway and London cast recordings, and the motion picture soundtrack (no longer available), there are recordings of the 1990 studio cast, the 1995 Royal National Theatre revival (starring Judi Dench), and the 2001 Barcelona cast recording sung in Catalan. In 1997 an all-jazz version of the score was recorded by Terry Trotter.


Act 1
Based on the Ingmar Bergman film "Smiles of a Summer Night", the play is set in Sweden at the turn of the century. It tells the story of the middle aged Fredrik Egerman, a successful lawyer. He has recently married an 18-year-old trophy wife named Anne, a vain girl who is wholeheartedly in love with Fredrik, but too immature to grasp the concept of marriage. The two have been married for eleven months, but Anne still refuses to sacrifice her virginity. Fredrik sings of his inability to make love to his wife ("Now"). Meanwhile, his son Henrik, who is older than his stepmother by one year, is feeling extremely frustrated with himself. He is a seminary student and, as such, has acquired a rather negative world view ("Later"). Anne is intrigued by his actions, but fails to understand the subtext of what he is saying. The next morning, Anne promises her husband that she will consent to sex shortly ("Soon"). Anne's maidservant Petra, a blunt girl slightly older than the teen herself, offers her rather crass advice on the situation.

Meanwhile, another important character is revealed--Desiree Armfeldt, a prominent actress. She and Fredrik were lovers many years ago. Desiree is a rather selfish woman who has shipped her daughter Fredrika to live with her grandmother, the aging and severe Madame Armfeldt. Fredrika misses her mother, but Desiree continually puts off going to see her ("The Glamorous Life"). Upon learning that her theater company will be performing near Fredrik's estate, the actress cannot resist inviting him to the play. He brings Anne along, and she is instantly suspicious of Desiree's amorous actions. Claiming to have a headache, Anne demands that Fredrik bring her home immediately. At home, Petra has been trying to seduce Henrik.

That night, Fredrik's old memories of Desiree float back to the surface of his mind ("Remember"). He slips out to see her, and the two share a happy but obviously strained reunion. They reflect on their new lives, and Fredrik tries to explain how much he loves Anne ("You Must Meet My Wife"). Desiree responds with a sarcastic tone. She happily boasts of her own adultery--she has been seeing a married count. Upon learning that Fredrik has had to go for eleven months without sex, though, Desiree agrees to accommodate him--as an old favor for a friend.

The scene moves to the home of Mme. Armfeldt, who offers advice to young Fredrika. The elderly woman reflects poignantly on her own checkered past, and wonders what happened to the typical tryst ("Liaisons"). Back in Desiree's apartment, Count Carl-Magnus Malcom announces his arrival in his typical booming voice. Fredrik and Desiree fool the suspicious but gullible count into believing that nothing went on between the pair, but the military man is still suspicious. He takes an instant disliking to Fredrik and goes back to his own wife, the Countess Charlotte. Charlotte is apparently aware of her husband's infidelity, but Carl is too absorbed in his own thoughts about Desiree to talk to her ("In Praise of Women"). When she persuades him to blurt out the whole story, a twist is revealed--Charlotte's little sister is a school friend of Anne's.

Charlotte goes to Anne, who is talking with Petra. Charlotte explains what Fredrik did; Anne reacts with shock and horror. The older woman explains to Anne that such is the lot of a wife, and that no pain is greater ("Every Day A Little Death"). Meanwhile, Desiree goes to her mother and requests that Madame Armfeldt host a party for Fredrik, Anne, and Henrik. Though reluctant, the elderly woman agrees. She sends out a personal invitation; upon receiving it, the Egerman household is sent into a frenzy ("A Weekend in the Country"). Anne does not want to accept the invitation, but Charlotte convinces her to do so to make Desiree look old compared to the teen's youth. Meanwhile, the Count has plans of his own--as a birthday present to his wife, the pair will attend the party uninvited. Carl plans to defeat Fredrik in a duel during the event, while Charlotte hopes to seduce the lawyer into sex to make her husband insanely jealous and end his insalubrious activities.

Act 2
Act Two opens on Mme. Armfeldt's estate, which is bathed in the golden glow of perpetual sunset due to the summer season ("Night Waltz One and Two"). Everyone arrives, each holding their own purposes and desires--except, perhaps, Petra, who catches the eye of Mme. Armfeldt's fetching manservant, Frid. All of the women begin to act against each other. Henrik meets Fredrika, and confesses his deep love for Anne to her. Meanwhile, in the garden, Fredrik and Carl reflect on how difficult it is to be annoyed with Desiree ("It Would Have Been Wonderful"). Dinner is served, and all characters believe that the future hinges on that meal ("Perpetual Anticipation").

At dinner, Charlotte begins to flirt with Fredrik, while Anne and Desiree trade insults. Soon, everyone is shouting and scolding everyone else--except Henrik, who finally stands up for himself. He shrieks at them for being completely amoral, and flees the scene. Stunned, everyone reflects on the situation and wanders away. Fredrika tells Anne of Henrik's secret love, and the two dash off searching for him. Meanwhile, Desiree meets Fredrik and asks if he still wants to be "rescued" from his life. Fredrik answers honestly--he loves Desiree, but only as a dream. Hurt and bitter, Desiree can only reveal her opinions on the nature of life through the play's most famous song ("Send in the Clowns").

At the lake on the estate, Anne finds Henrik, who is ready to commit suicide. The clumsy boy cannot complete the task, and Anne tells him that she has feelings for him, too. The pair begins to kiss, which leads to Anne's first sexual encounter. Meanwhile, not far away from the young couple, Frid sleeps in Petra's lap. The maid thinks of the joy and freedom that she longs to have before she is trapped in marriage forever ("The Miller's Son"). Henrik and Anne, full of happiness, leave on a train to start a new life together. Fredrik finds out, but is surprisingly calm about the situation. Charlotte confesses her plan to the lawyer, and the two embrace in a goodbye. Carl sees this and is flooded with jealousy. He challenges Fredrik to a game of Russian Roulette, and the lawyer injures his ear. Feeling victorious, Carl begins to romance Charlotte, granting her wish at last. Desiree descends and asks about the situation. Now free of the bonds that once held him, Fredrik is able to confess his love for the actress. Desiree reveals that Fredrika is Fredrik's daughter, and the two promise to start a new life together ("Finale").

In the play's quiet and powerful final moments, Mme. Armfeldt sits alone with Fredrika, and asks about what has happened over the course of that night. She then follows with a surprising question-"What is it all for?" Fredrika sits silently before choosing love as her answer; though it is difficult and causes strange things to happen, it is necessary- "because, in the end, I think that's the only thing that's real". Mme. Armfeldt smiles at this response and comments that the "night has already smiled twice"-on the young, and on the fools. As the two wait for the "third smile", Mme. Armfeldt closes her eyes, nods off to sleep, and dies peacefully.


*Fredrik Egerman: A successful lawyer. He is married to the 18-year-old Anne and has one son from a previous marriage, Henrik. Fredrik currently feels that his life is empty, and hopes that his old flame Desiree will be able to give him fulfillment. He is reluctant to admit his true feelings. - Baritone
*Anne Egerman: Fredrik's new, naive wife. She is quite foolish, and is obsessed with material goods such as new dresses and hats. She honestly feels affection for Fredrik, but is too simple-minded to grasp the concept of love. She is, though, quite aware of jealousy.
*Henrik Egerman: Fredrik's son and Anne's stepson. He is a pessimist who enjoys reading the works of negative philosophers as he studies to enter a seminary. He feels that the entire world is a sea of sin, and is terrified when he realizes that he loves his stepmother. - Tenor
*Petra: Anne's maid and best friend. She is a saucy young woman who is perhaps the freest of the characters to love and enjoy life. Anne tells her everything, often appreciating the maid's blunt advice and sexual prowess.
*Desiree Armfeldt: A self-absorbed actress. Desiree floats through life enjoying herself, ignoring her more mature duties as a mother. She had an affair with Fredrik years ago, which led to the birth of her daughter.
*Fredrika Armfeldt: Desiree's daughter, born of the actress's and Fredrik's affair (unbeknownst to Fredrik). She is young, but often exhibits more maturity than the other characters in the play. She spends most of her time listening to the advice of her grandmother.
*Madame Armfeldt: Desiree's mother. She is old, serious, and waiting to die. She had a highly successful career as a courtesan, and kept her head even during her numerous trysts with royalty. She is currently raising Fredrika, offering her odd but important advice. - Alto
*Count Carl-Magnus Malcom: A military buffoon who is Desiree's latest lover. He boasts of typically "manly" things, but is easily confused. He is suspicious of Desiree cheating on him with Fredrik, while ignoring his wife. - Baritone
*Charlotte Malcom: Count Carl's wife. She seems to be quite aware of his infidelity, and though she knows that her husband is an idiot, she cannot help but love him. She conspires with Anne to destroy Desiree.
*Frid: Madame Armfeldt's manservant. He enjoys an encounter with Petra when everyone comes to the Armfeldt estate.
*The Liebeslieder Singers: a group of five singers that act as a Greek chorus. They wander about the actors and tell the audience of what is happening.

Harold Prince (producer-director) explained that these characters represent "...people in the show who aren't wasting time...the play is about wasting time." ("New York Times", Mel Gussow, p. 54, 3/27/73)

Sondheim, Wheeler and Harold Prince (who directed the film version) created a work that is far more complex and sophisticated than first appearances might suggest. The characters, from royalty to bourgeoisie to servant, present a cross section of Swedish society at that particular place and time. The characters' ages range from adolescent (Desiree's daughter) to elderly (Madame Armfeldt). Each character's views on life, love and sex are explored in depth and with great compassion and humor. (Sondheim went so far as to write a song for the otherwise mute manservant Frid, which was cut in previews, because, as Prince barked at him one evening, "Who cares what Frid thinks?")

The "Weekend in the Country" that the characters spend is at the height of midsummer, which in Sweden means that the sun never sets completely. The characters wander around the vast estate and grounds bathed in a golden twilight. This hazy, limbo-like setting allows them to explore their passions and realize who it is and what it is that they truly desire.


Virtually all of the music in the show is written in waltz (3/4) time or variants thereof (such as compound meter, a time signature like 12/8, for example); brief passages in "Overture", "Glamorous Life", "Liaisons", and "The Miller's Son" are in duple meter. The work is often performed as an operetta in many professional opera companies; the score makes heavy demands on performers, with extensive use of counterpoint. There is an oblique Mozart reference in the title — "A Little Night Music" is an occasionally used translation of "Eine kleine Nachtmusik", the nickname of Mozart's Serenade No. 13 for strings in G major, K. 525. The elegant, harmonically-advanced music in this musical pays indirect homage to the compositions of Maurice Ravel, especially his "Valses nobles et sentimentales" (whose opening chord is "borrowed" for the opening chord of the song "Liaisons"); part of this effect stems from the style of orchestration that Jonathan Tunick used. The score contains Sondheim's best-known song, "Send in the Clowns", as well as such songs as "The Glamorous Life," "You Must Meet My Wife," "Every Day a Little Death," "Liaisons," "In Praise of Women," "A Weekend in the Country," and "The Miller's Son".

Musical numbers

;Act I
*Overture -- Mr. Lindquist, Mrs. Nordstrom, Mrs. Anderssen, Mr. Erlanson and Mrs. Segstrom (Quintet)
*Night Waltz -- Company
*Now -- Fredrik Egerman
*Later -- Henrik Egerman
*Soon -- Anne Egerman, Henrik Egerman and Fredrik Egerman
*The Glamorous Life -- Fredrika Armfeldt, Desiree Armfeldt, Malla, Madame Armfeldt and Quintet
*Remember? -- Quintet
*You Must Meet My Wife -- Desiree Armfeldt and Fredrik Egerman
*Liaisons -- Madame Armfeldt
*In Praise of Women -- Count Carl-Magnus Malcolm
*Every Day a Little Death -- Countess Charlotte Malcolm and Anne Egerman
*Weekend in the Country -- Company;Act II
*Night Waltz I (The Sun Won't Set) -- Quintet
*Night Waltz II (The Sun Sits Low) -- Quintet
*It Would Have Been Wonderful -- Fredrik Egerman and Count Carl-Magnus Malcolm
*Perpetual Anticipation -- Mrs. Nordstrom, Mrs. Segstrom and Mrs. Anderssen
*Send in the Clowns -- Desiree Armfeldt
*Silly People -- Frid (cut in rehearsals}
*The Miller's Son -- Petra
*Send in the Clowns (reprise) -- Desiree Armfeldt, Fredrik Egerman
*Last Waltz -- Orchestra

Awards and nominations

1973 Tony Awards

* Tony Award for Best Musical - Harold Prince, producer (WINNER)
* Tony Award for Best Book of a Musical - Hugh Wheeler (WINNER)
* Tony Award for Best Original Score - Stephen Sondheim (WINNER)
* Tony Award for Best Actress in a Musical - Glynis Johns (WINNER)
* Tony Award for Best Featured Actress in a Musical - Patricia Elliott (WINNER)
* Tony Award for Best Costume Design - Florence Klotz (WINNER)
* Tony Award for Best Actor in a Musical - Len Cariou
* Tony Award for Best Featured Actor in a Musical - Laurence Guittard
* Tony Award for Best Featured Actress in a Musical - Hermione Gingold
* Tony Award for Best Scenic Design - Boris Aronson
* Tony Award for Best Lighting Design - Tharon Musser
* Tony Award for Best Direction of a Musical - Harold Prince

1973 Drama Desk Awards

* Drama Desk Awards for Outstanding Book - Hugh Wheeler (WINNER)
* Drama Desk Award for Outstanding Lyrics - Stephen Sondheim (WINNER)
* Drama Desk Award for Outstanding Music - Stephen Sondheim (WINNER)
* Drama Desk Award for Outstanding Performance - Starring: Patricia Elliott (WINNER)
* Drama Desk Award for Outstanding Performance - Starring: Glynis Johns (nominee)
* Drama Desk Award for Outstanding Director - Harold Prince (WINNER)
* Drama Desk Award for Most Promising Performer - D'Jamin Bartlett (WINNER)

1973 Theatre World Awards

* D. Jamin-Bartlett
* Patricia Elliott
* Laurence Guittard

1995 Olivier Awards

*Olivier Award for Best Costume Designer - Nicky Gillibrand
*Olivier Award for Best Theatre Choreographer - Wayne McGregor
*Olivier Award for Best Actress in a Musical - Judi Dench (WINNER)
*Olivier Award for Best Supporting Performance in a Musical - Sian Phillips


External links

* [http://www.sondheimguide.com/night.html Sondheimguide]
* [http://www.mtishows.com/show_home.asp?ID=000048 MTI Shows]
* [http://stageagent.com/Shows/View/735 A Little Night Music info page on StageAgent.com] - A Little Night Music plot summary & character descriptions

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