- Pope Urban V
English name=Urban V
September 28, 1362
December 19, 1370
other=Urban infobox popestyles
papal name=Pope Urban V
Blessed Pope Urban V (1310 –
December 19, 1370), born Guillaume Grimoard, was Popefrom 1362 to 1370.
He was a native of Grizac in
Languedoc(today part of the commune of Le Pont-de-Montvert, "département" of Lozère). He became a Benedictineand a doctor in Canon Law, teaching at Montpellierand Avignon. He held the office of abbot of Saint-Victorin Marseille; and at Avignon, on his way back from Naples, whither he had been sent as papal legate, he was elected Pope Urban V ( September 28, 1362) in succession to Pope Innocent VI(1352–62).
As Pope he was a severe disciplinarian, discountenanced the pomp and luxury of the cardinals, introduced considerable reforms in the administration of justice, and liberally patronised learning. He founded the University of Hungary. In
Toulouse, he saved the university of music. In Montpellier, he restored the school of medicineand founded the college of Saint Benoitwhose church became a cathedral decorated with numerous works of art. He founded a college in Quézac and Bédouès, and a church and library in Ispagnac.He supported more than 1,000 students of all classes with food and lodging. Even during war they were nourished well. He provided them with books and the best professors.
His pontificate witnessed one of the last flickers of crusading zeal in the expedition of
Peter I of Cyprus, who took Alexandriaon ( October 11, 1365), but soon afterwards abandoned it. He enforced a crusade against the Turks to take back Alexandria. He also sent many missions to Bosnia, Lithuania, Bulgariaand China.
The great feature of Urban V's reign was the effort to restore the
Papacyto Italy, and to suppress its powerful rivals for the temporal sovereignty there. In 1363 he excommunicated Bernabò Visconti, the last great figure of Ghibellinism in northern Italy, which occupied the Papal city of Bolognaand valiantly resisted the troops of Gil de Albornoz, the Papal vicar in Italy at the time. Urban ordered a crusade to be preached throughout Italyagainst him and his kindred, accused to be robbers of the church's estate; but in the march of following year he found it necessary to purchase peace: through the mediation of Emperor Charles IV, he removed his ban against Visconti, obtaining Bologna only after a grevious payment. Around Rome, he also planted vine-yards.
Continued troubles in
Italy, as well as pleas from figures such as Petrarchand St. Bridget of Sweden, caused Urban V to set out for Rome, which he reached on October 16, 1367. However, although greeted by the clergy and people with joy, and despite the satisfaction of being attended by the Emperor in St. Peter's, and of placing the crown upon the head of the Empress, it soon became clear that by changing the seat of his government he had not increased its power. In Rome he was otherwise able to receive the homage of the king of Cyprus, Queen Joan I of Naplesand the Byzantine emperor John V Palaeologus, and coronated Charles IV as Holy Roman Emperor.
Unable any longer to resist the urgency of the French cardinals, and with numerous cities of the Papal States in revolt, he took ship again at
Cornetoon September 5, 1370, arriving at Avignonon the 24th of the same month.A few days later he fell ill, and died on December 19. He was succeeded by Pope Gregory XI(1370–78).
His canonization was demanded by
Valdemar IV of Denmarkand promised by Pope Gregory XI as early as in 1375, but did not take place owing to the disorders of the time. Urban V's cultus was approved by Pope Pius IX(1846–78) in 1870.
*cite book|last=Rendina|first=Claudio|year=1994|title=I papi. Storia e segreti|publisher=Newton Compton|city=Rome
*"From the 9th edition (1883) of an unnamed encyclopedia"
* [http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/15214a.htm "Catholic Encyclopedia": Bl. Urban V]
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