D.C. United


D.C. United
D.C. United
A shield with stylized black eagle facing left on a red field under the words "D.C. United". On the eagles chest is a red star with a soccer ball.
Full name D.C. United
Nickname(s) United, DCU, Black-and-Red
Founded 1994
Stadium RFK Stadium
Washington, D.C.
(Capacity: 45,596)
Owner William H.C. Chang
President Kevin Payne
Head Coach United States Ben Olsen
League Major League Soccer
2011 Eastern Conference: 7th
Overall: 13th
Playoffs: DNQ
Website Club home page
Home colors
Away colors
Third colors
Current season

D.C. United is an American professional soccer (association football) club based in Washington, D.C. which competes in Major League Soccer (MLS), the top professional soccer league in the United States and Canada. It is one of the ten charter clubs of MLS, having competed in the league since its inception, in 1996.

Over the club's history, D.C. United has been considered to be the flagship franchise of MLS winning 12 international and domestic titles. Domestically, United has been one of the most successful MLS clubs. United has won the U.S. Open Cup twice, and holds an MLS record for most MLS Cup and MLS Supporters' Shields apiece, winning each honor four times. United was the also the first club to win both the MLS Cup and MLS Supporters' Shield consecutively.[1]

On the international stage, D.C. United has competed in both the CONCACAF Champions League and its predecessor, the CONCACAF Champions' Cup. The club is also the only American soccer club to ever compete in a CONMEBOL (South American) competition, participating in the 2005 and 2007 editions of the Copa Sudamericana. In 1998, the club won the CONCACAF Champions' Cup.[2] Subsequently, United won the now-defunct Copa Interamericana, a competition between the CONCACAF on CONMEBOL champion that year to determine the best soccer club in the Americas. In the 1998, and final edition of the Copa Interamericana, D.C. United defeated Vasco da Gama of Brazil to take the title.[3]

The team's home field is the 45,596-seat Robert F. Kennedy Memorial Stadium, owned by the District of Columbia and located on the Anacostia River. The team has proposed building a new 24,000-seat soccer-specific stadium at multiple possible sites in the Washington metropolitan area.[4] The team is owned by San Francisco-based William H.C. Chang through the consortium D.C. United Holdings. The team's head coach is long-time starting midfielder Ben Olsen, who has coached the team since 2010.

Players such as Jaime Moreno, Marco Etcheverry, and Eddie Pope are among the team's most successful stars. D.C. United has a strong fan base, with three supporters' clubs and one of the highest attendance averages in Major League Soccer.[5] The club's official nickname is the "Black-and-Red" and home uniforms are black and white with accents of red. The team's name alludes to the "United" appellation commonly found in the names of soccer teams in the United Kingdom and elsewhere.[6]

Contents

History

For the current season see 2011 D.C. United season

Prior to the 1994 FIFA World Cup, the United States Soccer Federation fulfilled promises to FIFA by aiding in the foundation of a new professional league. On June 15, 1994, Major League Soccer selected Washington, D.C. out of twenty-two applicants to host one of the first seven teams, with three more added before the league's launch.[7] Like many team names in MLS, the team's name was chosen as a reflection of the names of European clubs, such as Leeds United.

A team celebrates in the center of a soccer field while fans in stand on both sides cheer.
D.C. United won the 2004 Eastern Conference championship in what has been called one of the best games in MLS history.

On April 6, 1996, D.C. United played in the league's inaugural match against the San Jose Clash in Spartan Stadium in San Jose, California.[7] In the league's early years, D.C. was the most successful of all the teams. Bruce Arena, the club's first coach, led the team to the first "double" in modern U.S. soccer history in 1996, beating the Los Angeles Galaxy to take the first MLS Cup and the USL First Division club the Rochester Raging Rhinos to win the U.S. Open Cup. D.C. repeated its MLS Cup victory in 1997 against the Colorado Rapids, with the match hosted at RFK Stadium. The team also saw early successes in CONCACAF competitions, winning both the Champions' Cup and the Interamerican Cup in 1998.[1]

In October 1998, Arena left the team to direct the U.S. men's national team. Arena's departure marked the beginning of a downturn in the team's fortunes.[8] While the club again won the MLS Cup in 1999 under coach Thomas Rongen, lackluster results in 2000 and 2001 led to Rongen's departure and his replacement by Ray Hudson in 2002. The team did not, however, fare much better under Hudson, and Piotr Nowak replaced him before the start of the 2004 season.[9] The club's first season under Nowak was marred by injuries in the early going, and some players were known to have complained about Nowak's methods.[10] Nevertheless a strong finish, assisted in large measure by the late-season acquisition of Argentine midfielder Christian Gómez, propelled United into the playoffs as the second seed. There they advanced past the New England Revolution on penalty kicks in what has been called one of the best games in MLS history.[11][12][13][14][15] United then defeated the Kansas City Wizards to take their fourth MLS Cup.[1]

On November 18, 2003, MLS made sports history by signing Freddy Adu, a 14-year-old soccer prodigy and on January 16, 2004 he was officially selected by United with the first pick in the 2004 MLS SuperDraft. When Adu entered United's regular-season opener as a second-half substitute on April 3, 2004, he became the youngest player in any professional sport in the United States since 1887.[16] On December 11, 2006, D.C. United traded Adu and goalkeeper Nick Rimando to Real Salt Lake in exchange for a major allocation, goalkeeper Jay Nolly, and future considerations.[17]

In 2005, the club made MLS history by becoming the first United States-based team to participate in Copa Sudamericana, entering in the Round of sixteen.[18] Since 2006, United has played well against international competition, beating Scottish champions Celtic F.C. and drawing Real Madrid in Seattle. In addition, the 2006 MLS All-Star Team, which included eight United players and was managed by United's manager Piotr Nowak, defeated English champions Chelsea.[9] In 2006 and 2007, the United became the first club in league history to win the MLS Supporters' Shield consecutively.

Since their back-to-back Shields, the club has not qualified for the playoffs, marking a downturn in the club's form. United won their last major title in 2008, winning the U.S. Open Cup. In 2008 and 2009, United had dry spells at the tail end of the season, ultimately causing them to miss out on the playoffs. 2010, was otherwise an absymal campaign, winning six matches, drawing four and losing 20, marking their worst record in history. In 2011, United for a record-breaking fourth year, failed to qualify for the playoffs in the second to last week of the campaign.

Colors and badge

A shield with stylized black eagle facing right on a red field under the words "D.C. United". Below the eagle are three white stars with soccer balls.
Logo used from 1996 to 1998

The team's colors and original logo were announced on October 17, 1995 along with those of the other ten original teams during a presentation in New York City.[7] Black and white are D.C. United's primary colors, though the team's nickname is the "Black-and-Red." Red is used to accent the home jersey while white is the main color of the team's away kit. The three stripes along the shoulder — in white at home and black on the road — do not represent the three jurisdictions of the Washington Metropolitan Area (Washington, D.C., Maryland, and Virginia); rather, they represent the fact that the team's kits are made by Adidas. The team's shirt sponsor is German motor company Volkswagen[9] In 2011, the team introduced a predominantly red third kit with black accents to be worn four or more times in the season.[19] The team has also previously used white away uniforms with red stripes. White and red are the colors of the flag of Washington, D.C., and the stripes are also reminiscent of those used on the flag. Goalkeepers usually distinguish themselves with a red or green colored shirt.

The team's original shield was implemented in 1996 consisting of the team's name, D.C. United, above a black Bald Eagle facing right on a red field, clawing three soccer balls overlaid on three white stars. The three stars and balls were again intended to represent the region's three jurisdictions. The bird, associated with the federal government based in Washington, D.C., symbolizes many of the attributes of the team, including speed and power. The logo was redesigned before the 1998 season. The current design reoriented the eagle facing left, and removed the three stars below it, whose metaphor was retained by three raised wing feathers. At the center of the eagle is a single gold colored star and soccer ball, which represents the team's victory in Major League Soccer's inaugural cup in 1996.[20] The logo can also be adorned with four gold stars above it, representing the MLS Cups the team has won.

Kit evolution

  • Home
1996–2001
2002–2003
2004–2005
2006–2007
2008–2009
2010–2011
  • Away
1996–1997
1998–1999
2000–2002
2003–2004
2005
2006–2007
2008–2009
2010–2011
  • Third/Special
1997–1998
1999–2000
2003
2007
2011

Sponsorship

Season Manufacturer Sponsor Ref.
1996–2001 Adidas MasterCard [21]
2002–2004 None
2005–2007 Sierra Mist
2008– Volkswagen [9]

Stadium

 A large circular stadium with a curving overhang behind a mostly unused parking lot.
RFK Stadium has been home to D.C. United for the team's entire existence.

Robert F. Kennedy Memorial Stadium (RFK) has been home to D.C. United since the club's founding in 1996. RFK was built in 1961 as a dual use baseball and American football stadium. Prior to 1996, it periodically hosted soccer matches, including the 1980 Soccer Bowl, the 1993 Supercoppa Italiana, and five matches during the 1994 FIFA World Cup. When the Washington Nationals baseball team shared the field from 2005 to 2007, there were criticisms regarding problems with the playing surface and even the dimensions of the field.[22] The D.C. United Training Complex is located north of the stadium, and is where the Reserve Division team plays.[23]

Several regional university stadiums have been used by the team for Lamar Hunt U.S. Open Cup matches, including Klöckner Stadium in Charlottesville, Virginia in 1996,[24] and George Mason Stadium in Fairfax, Virginia in 2010.[25] Similarly, the team has also used the Maryland SoccerPlex in Germantown, Maryland for multiple early-round games in U.S. Open Cup and CONCACAF Champions' Cup since it opened in 2001.[26][27][28] Exhibition games have also been played in nearby FedEx Field in Landover, Maryland.[29]

In July 2006, D.C. United proposed building a new stadium along the Anacostia River as part of a redevelopment plan for Anacostia Park. However disputes with the city government about the proposal forced the team to consider other sites.[4][30] In February 2009, the team announced plans for a new stadium in nearby Prince George's County, Maryland close to FedEx Field. Dubbed the Prince George's County Soccer Stadium, this proposal ran into similar trouble when the County Council voted to send a letter to the Maryland General Assembly opposing the stadium plan.[31] Fear that the lack of a new stadium might cause the team to leave the Washington, D.C. area caused protests on May 9, 2009.[32]

In October 2009, the Baltimore Sun reported that Baltimore mayor Sheila Dixon has asked the Maryland Stadium Authority to explore the possibility of building a 17,000- to 20,000-seat soccer stadium that could serve as D.C. United's permanent home, as well as host concerts, lacrosse games and other events, to woo D.C. United to Baltimore. The proposed stadium complex, according to Dixon's letter, would be part of a "green mixed-use project" with access to light rail, Interstates 95 and 295. A potential location mentioned for the stadium is in the 42-acre (170,000 m2) Westport Waterfront project.[33] A feasibility study has been commissioned by the Maryland Stadium Authority was expected to be released in December 2010.[34] Since then two sites in Washington, D.C. have also been proposed, one near Buzzard Point, and one as part of a redevelopment of Capital City Market.[35]

Club culture

Supporters and rivalries

Fans wearing black cheer with several large graphics in a stadium's bleachers.
Supporters display a tifo supporting head coach Ben Olsen during a regular season match against the FC Dallas

D.C. United has four major supporters groups; La Barra Brava, the Screaming Eagles, La Norte and the District Ultras. Each group has a designated section of the home stadium. La Barra Brava, Spanish for "The Brave Fans", was founded in 1995 by Latino fans in the Washington, D.C. area, mostly Bolivian immigrants in support of original United players Marco Etcheverry and Jaime Moreno. They seek to bring a South American style to home games.[36] All four clubs host public tailgates before home matches, and are known for singing during games.[37] La Norte, which takes its name from its location on the North side of the stadium, is noted for its streamers, large drum, and harassment of the opposition.[38] The District Ultras is known for its tifo; large hand-painted banners made specifically for a particular match.

D.C. United's primary rival is the New York Red Bulls. The two teams compete annually for the Atlantic Cup, a competition instituted by the two clubs. The cup is awarded to the team that gets the most points across the teams' meetings throughout the season. The Los Angeles Galaxy are United's second rival, one with whom D.C. has jockeyed over the years to represent MLS as its signature franchise.[39] The teams, who met in the first MLS Cup, have the oldest rivalry in Major League Soccer.[40] D.C. United also has a burgeoning rivalry with the Philadelphia Union as the two teams represent two cities separated by only 120 miles.[41] D.C. United is also unique among MLS teams for its rivalry with the Charleston Battery of the United Soccer Leagues, as they compete every time they face one another for the Coffee Pot Cup, a trophy established by the two sides' supporters.[42]

Ownership and marketing

A black and white costumed bald eagle mascot with exaggerated features and an orange beak raising his wings. He wears a black soccer jersey with a white WV logo and the team's shield on it.
D.C. United's mascot, Talon, wearing a jersey with the Volkswagen logo on the front

Billionaire investor George Soros was the primary financial backer and director of Washington Soccer L.P., the group that owned the operating rights to D.C. United when the league was founded in 1995.[43] Kevin Payne, former President of Soccer USA Partners and current CEO of D.C. United, was instrumental in organizing this ownership group. By 1998 the group was looking for new investors, and on February 15, 2001, it agreed to sell the team to Anschutz Entertainment Group (AEG), founded by Colorado billionaire Philip Anschutz, with AEG exercising its option to become the sole investor-operator on January 8, 2002.[7] AEG, who also own Major League Soccer's Los Angeles Galaxy and Houston Dynamo, ran the team until 2007.

On January 8, 2007, the operating rights to D.C. United were sold to D.C. United Holdings, a newly-formed group venture that included real estate developer Victor MacFarlane, founder of MacFarlane Partners, and William H.C. Chang, chairman of Westlake International Group. Other investors included D.C. United president Kevin Payne and Blue Devil Development, headed by former Duke basketball players Brian Davis and Christian Laettner.[44] In April 2009, Victor MacFarlane sold his share of the team to his partner William Chang after two stadium proposals had fallen through.[45] In October 2009, Chang also bought out Davis and Laettner to fully control the team.[46] Chang is also one of the primary investors of Major League Baseball's San Francisco Giants.[7]

Volkswagen Group of America, the American subsidiary of Volkswagen AG, is the jersey sponsor of D.C. United. Volkswagen agreed to pay over $14 million over five-years, beginning on May 6, 2008, putting the automotive company's logo on the front of the team jersey as well as other details. The deal is the second highest in MLS history.[47] As part of the sponsorship, Volkswagen will provide complimentary parking to the first fifty Volkswagens at every D.C. United home game. Other sponsors include Adidas, GEICO, Verizon Wireless, and Papa John's Pizza.[48] In May 2007, United entered into an initial one-year strategic partnership with Brazilian club Atlético Mineiro. The goal of the partnership is to enhance the sporting and commercial success of the respective clubs by sharing expertise and experience as well as creating new opportunities for the clubs in both areas.[49]

Broadcasting

D.C. United are televised on Comcast SportsNet. Dave Johnson handles play by play, and former United coach Thomas Rongen does color commentary. Certain home matches are shown in High Definition on Comcast SportsNet HD. Select matches are also available on ESPN 2 and ESPN 2 HD.[50] Color commentary has previously been provided by Gordon Bradley, Clint Peay, and Garth Lagerway. All matches are broadcast via radio on WDCN-LP in Spanish. Herbert Baires does play-by-play.[51]

Players

First team roster

As of July 18, 2011.[52]

Note: Flags indicate national team as has been defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.

No. Position Player
1 United States GK Steve Cronin
2 United States DF Brandon McDonald
3 United States MF Austin da Luz
4 United States DF Marc Burch
5 Canada DF Dejan Jaković
6 United States MF Kurt Morsink
7 Canada MF Dwayne De Rosario
8 Montenegro MF Branko Bošković
9 United States FW Charlie Davies (on loan from Sochaux)
11 Zimbabwe FW Joseph Ngwenya
12 United States DF Jed Zayner
13 United States MF Chris Pontius
14 Honduras MF Andy Najar
15 United States DF Ethan White
No. Position Player
16 United States FW Josh Wolff (captain)
17 United States MF Conor Shanosky
18 United States DF Devon McTavish
19 United States MF Clyde Simms
20 United States MF Stephen King
21 United States DF Daniel Woolard
22 United States DF Chris Korb
23 United States DF Perry Kitchen
24 United States MF Brandon Barklage
25 United States MF Santino Quaranta
28 United States GK Bill Hamid
29 United States FW Blake Brettschneider
31 United States GK Joe Willis

Reserves and academy

This list shows players who have played for the team in official 2011 MLS Reserve Division games, but are not part of the senior roster.[53] For the full list of academy squads, see D.C. United Academy.

Note: Flags indicate national team as has been defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.

No. Position Player
United States DF Suli Dainkeh
United States DF Collin Martin
United States DF Bradley Vorv
United States MF Cody Albrecht
United States MF Seth C'deBaca
No. Position Player
Ethiopia MF Mikias Eticha
United States MF Jalen Robinson
United States MF Tyler Rudy
Ethiopia FW Iyassu Bekele
United States FW Marcus Salandy-Defour

Former players

For details of former players, see All-time D.C. United roster and Category:D.C. United players.

Club captains

For a list of club captains, see All-time D.C. United roster#Club captains.

Player records

For player records, including player awards, see List of D.C. United records and statistics.

Team management

Front Office and Ownership
Position Staff
President & Chief Executive Officer United States Kevin J. Payne
Executive Vice President United States Stephen Zack
Senior Vice President, Marketing Communications United States Doug Hicks
Chief Financial Officer United States Michael Williamson
Vice President, Business Development United States Dawn Ridley

Last updated: August 3, 2011
Source: D.C. United Official Website

Coaching staff
Position Staff
Head Coach United States Ben Olsen
Asst. Coach United States Chad Ashton
Asst. Coach Netherlands Sonny Silooy
Asst. Coach & Goalkeeping Coach Canada Pat Onstad
General Manager United States Dave Kasper
Special Projects Manager United States Bryan Namoff
Team Administrator Peru Francisco Tobar
Equipment Manager United States David Brauzer
Head Athletic Trainer United States Brian Goodstein
Asst. Athletic Trainer / Asst. Strength Coach Canada Pete Calabrese
Assistant, Team Operations Costa Rica Steve Olivarez
Physical Therapist Bolivia Gabriel Manoel
Asst. Equipment Manager England Tim Hall

Last updated: August 3, 2011
Source: D.C. United Official Website

Head coaching history

Former player Ben Olsen took over head coaching duties on an interim basis in August 2010.
Dates Name Notes
1996–1998 United States Bruce Arena Led the club to their first titles, and their first doubles, and to date their only continental title.
1999–2001 Netherlands Thomas Rongen First club head coach outside of the United States.
2001–2003 England Ray Hudson
2004–2006 Poland Piotr Nowak
2007–2009 United States Tom Soehn
2010 United States Curt Onalfo
2010–present United States Ben Olsen

Honors

A table holding seven golden trophies of various sizes. The table is cover by a cloth with the team's shield on it.
D.C. United trophy collection as of 2007.

League

  • MLS Cup
    • Winners (4): 1996, 1997, 1999, 2004
    • Runners-up (1): 1998
  • MLS Eastern Conference
    • Winners (Regular Season) (5): 1997, 1998, 1999, 2006, 2007
    • Winners (Playoff) (5): 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2004

Cup

Minor Cups

Continental

  • CONCACAF Champions' Cup: 1
    • 1998

Doubles

Record

Key

Key to regular season record
  • GP = Games played
  • W = Won
  • T = Tied
  • L = Lost
  • GF = Goals for
  • GA = Goals against
  • Pts = Points
  • Pos = Final overall position
Key to leagues, divisions and cups
Key to playoff rounds
  • Conf. SF = Conference Semifinals
  • Conf. F = Conference Finals
Key to U.S. Open Cup rounds
  • QR1 = First Qualifying Round
  • QR2 = Second Qualifying Round
  • QR3 = Third Qualifying Round
  • R4 = Fourth Round
  • R3 = Third Round
  • QF = Quarterfinals
  • SF = Semifinals

Seasons

Team records

A Hispanic soccer player with shiny brown hair smiles and faces left. He is wearing a red jersey with white and black details and a VW logo.
Jaime Moreno holds most of D.C. United's offensive records.

No active D.C. United players hold team records. Last Updated October 24, 2009[54]

  • All-Time regular season record: 188-152-58 = .521 win % (Through 2008 season)
  • All-Time regular season home record: 118-52-28 = .643 win % (Through 2008 season)
  • All-Time regular season away record: 70-100-30 = .400 win % (Through 2008 season)[citation needed]

Award winners

MLS Best XI

Six soccer players in black and five in white views from above look up for a moving soccer ball coming toward them.
D.C. United players, including Ben Olsen and Luciano Emilio, look for a corner kick against Real Madrid C.F.

The MLS Best XI is an acknowledgment of the best eleven players in the league in a given season for Major League Soccer.[55]

Other awards

Team MVP

Year Name Country
2004 Jaime Moreno  Bolivia
2005 Christian Gómez  Argentina
2006 Christian Gómez  Argentina
2007 Luciano Emilio  Brazil
2008 Jaime Moreno  Bolivia
2009 Clyde Simms  United States
2010 Andy Najar  Honduras

National Soccer Hall of Famers

  • United States John Harkes - (MF), (1996–98), (Inducted 2005), (Player Category)
  • United States Jeff Agoos - (DF), (1996–00), (Inducted 2009), (Player Category)
  • United States Bruce Arena - (Coach), (1996–98), (Inducted 2010), (Builder Category)
  • United States Eddie Pope - (DF), (1996-02), (Inducted 2011), (Player Category)
  • United States Earnie Stewart - (MF), (2003–04), (Inducted 2011), (Player Category)

Hall of Tradition

Seven large black shield-shaped banners are hung on a green wall, with white text for the name and number, or role that the individual played.
Banners for the "Hall of Tradition" members are displayed at RFK Stadium.

In 2003, D.C. United introduced the "Hall of Tradition" (formerly "Tradition of Excellence"), an honor bestowed upon players, coaches & front office staff deemed by United to have been crucial to the team's success.[56]

  • United States John Harkes - (MF), (1996–98), (Inducted May 14, 2003)
  • Bolivia Marco Etcheverry, (MF), (1996–03), (Inducted October 20, 2007)
  • Betty D'Anjolell (Executive), (1995–98), (Inducted June 29, 2008)
  • United States Jeff Agoos - (DF), (1996–00), (Inducted October 16, 2008)
  • El Salvador Raúl Díaz Arce (FW), (1996–97), (2000), (Inducted September 2, 2009)
  • Danilo Noel Dirón - (Broadcaster), (1997–08), (Inducted September 2, 2009)
  • United States Eddie Pope - (DF), (1996–02), (Inducted July 18, 2010)

See also

References

General
Notes
  1. ^ a b c "History & Tradition". D.C. United. http://www.dcunited.com/club. Retrieved 12 July 2011. 
  2. ^ "PLUS: SOCCER -- CONCACAF CUP; D.C. United Wins Tournament". The New York Times. August 17, 1998. http://www.nytimes.com/1998/08/17/sports/plus-soccer-concacaf-cup-dc-united-wins-tournament.html. Retrieved July 12, 2011. 
  3. ^ "D.C. United downs Vasco da Gama to take InterAmerican Cup". CNN/SI. December 7, 1998. http://sportsillustrated.cnn.com/soccer/news/1998/12/05/interamerican_cup/index.html. Retrieved July 12, 2011. 
  4. ^ a b Kravitz, Derek (June 18, 2009). "Fans Asked to Choose Where Team Should Find New Home". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/06/17/AR2009061703623.html. Retrieved July 9, 2009. 
  5. ^ Goff, Steven (July 30, 2005). "New United Investors Win Trust". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/07/29/AR2005072901752.html. Retrieved April 11, 2009. 
  6. ^ "Football Culture. Names Explained". British Council Korea. Archived from the original on February 3, 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080203010544/http://www.britishcouncil.org/korea-sport-footballculture-names-explain-3.htm. Retrieved December 11, 2006. 
  7. ^ a b c d e "General Overview". Major League Soccer. 2009. Archived from the original on June 25, 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080625214719/http://web.mlsnet.com/about/. Retrieved June 26, 2009. 
  8. ^ "America's one and only United". FIFA. September 24, 2008. http://www.fifa.com/classicfootball/news/newsid=887744.html. Retrieved September 6, 2009. 
  9. ^ a b c d "D.C. United Tradition". Major League Soccer. 2007. http://web.mlsnet.com/t103/load.jsp?section=about&content=tradition. Retrieved July 20, 2011. 
  10. ^ Wise, Mike (November 13, 2004). "Nowak Creates A United State". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A46503-2004Nov12.html. Retrieved July 20, 2011. 
  11. ^ Dure, Beau (November 11, 2004). "Harkes keeps both feet in the soccer world". USA Today. http://www.usatoday.com/sports/soccer/2004-11-11-asked-harkes_x.htm. Retrieved June 19, 2007. 
  12. ^ Dell'Apa, Frank (July 26, 2005). "10 of the best... MLS games". ESPN. http://soccernet.espn.go.com/columns/story?id=337632&root=extratime&&cc=5901. Retrieved July 20, 2011. 
  13. ^ Goff, Steven (November 3, 2006). "Revolution Ready to Take Another Shot". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/11/02/AR2006110201524.html. Retrieved June 19, 2007. 
  14. ^ "D.C. United & Comcast SportsNet to launch 'Brunch with D.C. United'". Major League Soccer. January 25, 2006. Archived from the original on October 14, 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20071014172906/http://web.mlsnet.com/news/team_news.jsp?ymd=20060125&content_id=51051&vkey=pr_dcu&fext=.jsp&team=dcu. Retrieved June 19, 2007. 
  15. ^ Lifton, David (May 11, 2005). "Looking back: Unforgettable in every way". Major League Soccer. Archived from the original on April 7, 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20070407082306/http://web.mlsnet.com/news/team_news.jsp?ymd=20050511&content_id=29379&vkey=news_dcu&fext=.jsp&team=dcu. Retrieved June 19, 2007. 
  16. ^ Slater, Matt (November 22, 2006). "Doubts raised in US over Adu move". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport2/hi/football/teams/m/man_utd/6169400.stm. Retrieved July 20, 2011. 
  17. ^ "Ready for Freddy! Real Salt Lake acquires teen phenom Freddy Adu from D.C. United". mlsnet.com. December 11, 2006. http://real.saltlake.mlsnet.com/news/team_news.jsp?ymd=20061211&content_id=80226&vkey=pr_rsl&fext=.jsp&team=t121. Retrieved July 20, 2011. 
  18. ^ "United Ousted From Copa Sudamericana". The Washington Post. September 23, 2005. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/09/22/AR2005092202000_pf.html. Retrieved July 20, 2011. 
  19. ^ Goff, Steve (January 29, 2011). "D.C. United introduces a third jersey". The Washington Post. http://voices.washingtonpost.com/soccerinsider/2011/01/dc_uniteds_third_jersey.html. Retrieved February 8, 2011. 
  20. ^ Hicks, Doug. "D.C. United S.C.". FootballCrests.com. http://www.footballcrests.com/clubs/dc-united-sc. Retrieved June 6, 2009. 
  21. ^ "Team Uniform History: 1996–2005". MLSnet.com. D.C. United. Archived from the original on November 16, 2008. http://dcunited.mlsnet.com/images/2005/12/15/Ipl4M7K5.jpg. Retrieved August 30, 2011. 
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