Duchy of Livonia (1629–1721)


Duchy of Livonia (1629–1721)

Infobox Former Country
native_name = "Hertigdömet Livland"
conventional_long_name = Duchy of Livonia
common_name = Livonia
continent = Europe
region = Baltic
status = Vassal
empire = Sweden
status_text = Dominion of the Swedish Empire
event_start = Truce of Altmark
year_start = 1629
date_start = September 25
event_end = Treaty of Nystad
year_end = 1721
date_end = August 30
event1 = Treaty of Oliva
date_event1 = April 23, 1660
event2 = Great Northern War
date_event2 = 170021
event3 = Conquered by Russia
date_event3 = 1713
event_pre = Conquered by Sweden
date_pre = 1621
p1 = Duchy of Livonia (1561–1621)
image_p1 =
s1 = Governorate of Livonia
flag_s1 = Flag of Russia.svg





flag_type = Flag


symbol = Coat of arms of Sweden
symbol_type = Coat of Arms



image_map_caption = Baltic provinces of Swedish Empire in the 17th century. Swedish Livonia south of Swedish Estonia
capital = Riga |latd=56 |latm=58 |latNS=N |longd=24 |longm=8 |longEW=E
common_languages = Swedish, Estonian, Latvian, Livonian, Low German
religion = Lutheranism
government_type = Principality
leader1 = Gustav II Adolf
year_leader1 = 161132
leader2 = Frederick I
year_leader2 = 172051
title_leader = King of Sweden
representative1 = Jacob De la Gardie
year_representative1 = 162228
representative2 = Erik Dahlberg
year_representative2 = 16961702
title_representative = Governor-General
legislature = Diet

The Duchy of Livonia ( _sv. Hertigdömet Livland) was a dominion of the Swedish Empire [ [http://books.google.com/books?id=aI9vp3a8E8cC&pg=PA189&vq=%22Duchy+of+Livonia%22&source=gbs_search_r&cad=1_1&sig=ACfU3U3zVHY5Wrz--6628IyvnJ-26P1mag Colloquial Latvian By Christopher Moseley] from the 1620s until 1721. Swedish Livonia, which constituted the southern part of Estonia and northern part of Latvia (Vidzeme region), represented the conquest of the major part of what was the Polish-Lithuanian domain of Livonia and was completed by 1629. Parts of Livonia and the city of Riga was under Swedish control as early as 1621, and the situation was formalized in Truce of Altmark 1629, but the whole territory was not ceded until the Treaty of Oliva in 1660. The minority part of the Wenden Voivodeship retained by the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth was renamed the Inflanty Voivodeship ("Livonian principality"), which today corresponds to the Latgale region of Latvia. Aside from Stockholm, Riga was the largest city in the Swedish Empire at the time.

The territory in turn was conquered by Russian Empire during the Great Northern War and formed the Governorate of Livonia. It was formally ceded to Russia in the Treaty of Nystad in 1721.

Governors-General

The dominion was ruled by appointed Governors-General, but retained its own diet.

* Jacob De la Gardie (162228)
* Anders Eriksson Hästehufvud (1628)
* Johan Skytte (162933)
* Bengt Oxenstierna (163443)
* Herman Wrangel (1643)
* Erik Eriksson Ryning (1644)
* Gabriel Bengtsson Oxenstierna (164547)
* Magnus Gabriel De la Gardie (164951)
* Gustaf Horn (165253)
* Magnus Gabriel De la Gardie (165557)
* Axel Lillie (1661)
* Bengt Oxenstierna (1662-65)
* Clas Åkesson Tott (the younger) (1665-72)
* Krister Klasson Horn (1674-86)
* Jacob Johan Hastfer (168795)
* Erik Dahlberg (16961702)
* Carl Gustaf Frölich (1702-06)
* Adam Ludwig Lewenhaupt (1706-09)
* Henrik Otto Albedyll (1709)
* Niels Jonsson Stromberg af Clastorp (1709-10)

Military

Swedish infantry and cavalry regiments

;Infantry regiments:

* "Garnisonsregementet i Riga" (Garrison Regiment in Riga)
* "Guvenörsregementet i Riga" (Governor's Regiment in Riga)
* "Livländsk infanteribataljon I" (Livonian Infantry Battalion I)
* "Livländsk infanteribataljon II" (Livonian Infantry Battalion II)
* "Livländsk infanteribataljon III" (Livonian Infantry Battalion III)
* "Livländsk infanteribataljon IV" (Livonian Infantry Battalion IV)
* "Livländskt infanteriregemente I" (Livonian Infantry Regiment I)
* "Livländskt infanteriregemente II" (Livonian Infantry Regiment II)
* "Livländskt infanteriregemente III" (Livonian Infantry Regiment III)
* "Livländskt infanteriregemente IV" (Livonian Infantry Regiment IV)
* "Livländskt infanteriregemente V" (Livonian Infantry Regiment V)

;Cavalry regiments:

* "Laurentzens fridragoner" (Wolter Wolfgang Laurentzen's Free Dragoons)
* "Lewenhaupts frikompani" (Adam Ludwig Lewenhaupt's Free Company)
* "Adelsfanan i Livland och Ösel " (Livonian and Öselian Banner of Nobles)
* "Livländsk dragonskvadron I" (Livonian Dragoon Squadron I)
* "Livländsk dragonskvadron II" (Livonian Dragoon Squadron II)
* "Livländskt dragonregemente I" (Livonian Dragoon Regiment I)
* "Livländskt dragonregemente II" (Livonian Dragoon Regiment II)
* "Öselska lantdragonskvadronen" (Öselian County Dragoon Squadron)

Temporary cavalry regiments:

* "Livländska ståndsdragonbataljonen" (Livonian Rank Dragoon Battalion)
* "Öselska ståndsdragonbataljonen" (Ösel Rank Dragoon Battalion)

See also

* Rise of Sweden as a Great Power
* Swedish Empire
* Realm of Sweden
* Swedish Estonia

References


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