- Islam and slavery
The major juristic schools of Islam traditionally accepted the institution of
slavery.Lewis 1994, [http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/med/lewis1.html Ch.1] ] Muhammadand many of his companions bought, sold, freed, and captured slaves. Slaves benefited from Islamic dispensations which improved their situation relative to that in pre-Islamic society. At the end of 19th century a shift in Muslim thought and interpretation of the Qur'an occurred, and slavery became seen as opposed to Islamic principles of justice and equality. This interpretation has not been accepted by Wahhabis of Saudi Arabia.Brunschvig. 'Abd; Encyclopedia of Islam]
Islamic law, the topic of Islamand slavery is covered at great length. The Qur'an, the holy book, and the " hadith", the sayings of Muhammad, see slavery as an exceptional condition that can be entered into under certain limited circumstances. They also consider manumissionof a slave to be one of many meritorious deeds available for the expiation of sins.Gordon 1987, page 40.] For a variety of reasons, internal growth of the slave population was not enough to fulfill the demand in Muslim society. This resulted in massive importation, which involved enormous suffering and loss of life from the capture and transportation of slaves from non-Muslim lands. [Lewis 1990, page 10] In theory, slavery in Islamic law does not have a racial or color component, although this has not always been the case in practice. [Bernard Lewis, "Race and Color in Islam," Harper and Row, 1970, quote on page 38. The brackets are displayed by Lewis.]
Arab slave tradewas most active in West Asia, North Africaand East Africa. and by the end of the 19th century such activity had reached a low ebb. In the early 20th century (post World War I) slavery was gradually outlawed and suppressed in Muslim lands, largely due to pressure exerted by Western nations such as Britain and France. However, slavery claiming the sanction of Islam is documented presently in the African republics of Chad, Mauritania, Niger, Maliand Sudan. [Segal, page 206. See later in article.] [Segal, page 222. See later in article.] [cite web
title=AfricaSpeaks.com - Christianity, Islam and Slavery
lavery in pre-Islamic Arabia
Slavery was widely practiced in
pre-Islamic Arabia, as well as in the rest of ancient and early medieval world. The majority of slaves within Arabiawere of Ethiopian origin, through whose sale merchants grew rich. The minority were white slaves of foreign race, likely brought in by Arab caravaners (or the product of Bedouincaptures) stretching back to biblical times. Native Arabslaves had also existed, a prime example being Zayd ibn Harithah, later to become Muhammad's adopted son. Arab slaves, however, usually obtained as captives, were generally ransomed off amongst nomad tribes. The slave population was added to by the custom of child abandonment(see also infanticide), the kidnapping, or, occasionally, the sale of small children.Lewis (1992) p. 4] There is no conclusive evidence of the existence of enslavement for debt or the sale of children by their families; the late and rare accounts of such occurrences show them to be abnormal, Bruschvig states (According to Brockopp, the debt slavery was persistent.) Free persons were also able to sell their offspring, or even themselves, into slavery. Enslavement was also possible as a consequence of committing certain offenses against the law, as in the Roman Empire.
Two classes of slave were apparent: A purchased slave, and a slave born in the master's home. Over the latter, the master had complete rights of ownership, though these slaves were unlikely to be sold or disposed of by the master. Female slaves were at times forced into
prostitutionfor the benefit of their masters in accordance with Near Easterncustoms. [Mendelsohn (1949) pp. 54—58] John L Esposito (1998) p. 79 ]
The historical accounts of the early years of Islam report that "slaves of non-Muslim masters ... suffered brutal punishments. Sumayya bint Khubbat is famous as the first martyr of Islam, having been killed with a spear by Abū Jahl when she refused to give up her faith. Likewise, Bilal was freed by
Abu Bakrwhen his master, Umayya ibn Khalaf, placed a heavy rock on his chest to force his conversion."
lavery in the Qur'an
Qur'anincludes multiple references to slaves, slave women, slave concubinage, and the freeing of slaves. It accepts the institution of slavery. It may be noted that the word 'abd' (slave) is rarely used, being more commonly replaced by some periphrasis such as " ma malakat aymanukum" ("that which your right hands own"). The Qur'an recognizes the basic inequality between master and slave and the rights of the former over the latter. The historian Bruschvig states that from a spiritual perspective, "the slave has the same value as the free man, and the same eternity is in store for his soul; in this earthly life, failing emancipation, there remains the fact of his inferior status, to which he must piously resign himself." [(Quran-usc|16|71, Quran-usc|30|28)] The Qur'an also recognizes concubinage. [(Quran-usc|6|3, Quran-usc|23|6, Quran-usc-range|33|50|52, Quran-usc|70|30)] A master may make his female slave as his concubine and, if she is a Muslim, he can marry her. Abstinence however is said to be a better choice. The Qur'an urges, without commanding, kindness to the slave [(Quran-usc|4|36, Quran-usc|9|60, Quran-usc|24|58)] and recommends, their liberation by purchase or manumission. The freeing of slaves is recommended both for the expiation of sins [(Quran-usc|4|92, Quran-usc|5|92, Quran-usc|58|3)] and as an act of simple benevolence. [(Quran-usc|2|177, Quran-usc|24|33, Quran-usc|90|13)] It exhorts masters to allow slaves to earn or purchase their own freedom (manumission contracts)." Lewis 1990, page 6. All Qur'anic citations are his.]
Slaves are mentioned in at least twenty-nine verses of the Qur'an, most of these are Medinan and refer to the
legal statusof slaves. The legal material on slavery in the Qur'an is largely restricted to manumission and sexual relations. According to Sikainga, the Qur'anic references to slavery as mainly contain "broad and general propositions of an ethical nature rather than specific legal formulations." [Sikainga (2005), p.5-6]
The Quran accepts the distinction between slave and free as part of the natural order and uses this distinction as an example of God's grace, [Quran-usc|16|71] regarding this discrimination between human beings as in accordance with the divinely-established order of things. [EoI] "The Qur'an, however, does not consider slaves to be mere chattel; their humanity is directly addressed in references to their beliefs, [(Quran-usc|2|221, Quran-usc|4|25)] their desire for manumission and their feelings about being forced into prostitution. [(Quran-usc|24|33)] In one case, the Qur'an refers to master and slave with the same word, "rajul". Later interpreters presume slaves to be spiritual equals of free Muslims. For example, [Quran-usc|4|25] urges believers to marry 'believing maids that your right hands own' and then states: "The one of you is as the other," which the Jalaalayn interpret as "You and they are equal in faith, so do not refrain from marrying them." The human aspect of slaves is further reinforced by reference to them as members of the private household, sometimes along with wives or children. Pious exhortations from jurists to free men to address their slaves by such euphemistic terms as "my boy" and "my girl" stemmed from the belief that God, not their masters, was responsible for the slave's status. [Marmon in Marmon (1999), page 2]
There are many common features between the institution of slavery in the Qur'an and that of neighboring cultures. However, the Qur'anic institution had some unique new features.
Bernard Lewisstates that the Qur'anic legislation brought two major changes to ancient slavery which were to have far-reaching effects: presumption of freedom, and the ban on the enslavement of free persons except in strictly defined circumstances. According to Brockopp, the idea of using alms for the manumission of slaves appears to be unique to the Qur'an, assuming the traditional interpretation of verses Quran-usc|2|177 and Quran-usc|9|60. Similarly, the practice of freeing slaves in atonment for certain sins appears to be introduced by the Qur'an (but compare Exod 21:26-7). The forced prostitution of female slaves, a Near Eastern custom of great antiquity, is condemned in the Qur'an. [Quran-usc|24|33] Murray Gordon notes that this ban is "of no small significance." [Gordon 1989, page 37.] Brockopp writes: "Other cultures limit a master's right to harm a slave but few exhort masters to treat their slaves kindly, and the placement of slaves in the same category as other weak members of society who deserve protection is unknown outside the Qur'an. The unique contribution of the Qur'an, then, is to be found in its emphasis on the place of slaves in society and society's responsibility toward the slave, perhaps the most progressive legislation on slavery in its time." Encyclopedia of the Qur'an, "Slaves and Slavery" ]
The Islamic prophet Muhammad encouraged
manumissionof slaves, even if one had to purchase them first. On many occasions, Muhammad's companions, at his direction, freed slaves in abundance. Muhammad personally freed 63 slaves, and his wife Aisha freed 67. ['Human Rights in Islam'. Published by The Islamic Foundation (1976) - Leicester, U.K.] In total his household and friends freed 39,237 slaves. [Nadvi (2000), pg. 453] The most notable of Muhammad's slaves were: Safiyya bint Huyayy, whom he freed and married; Maria al-Qibtiyya, given to Muhammad by a Byzantine official, whom he freed and who may have become his wife; [from "Kitab al-Tabaqat al-Kabir" (Book of the Major Classes) by Ibn Sa'd's] Sirin, Maria's sister, whom he freed and married to the poet Hassan ibn Thabit[ [http://www.lastprophet.info/en/content/view/111/14/1/17/ Aydin, p.17 (citing Ibn Abdilberr, İstîâb, IV, p. 1868; Nawavî, Tahzib al Asma, I, p. 162; Ibn al Asîr, Usd al Ghâbe, VI, p. 160)] ] and Zayd ibn Harithah, whom Muhammad freed and adopted as a son. [ Hughes (1996), p. 370 ]
Traditional Islamic jurisprudence
In Islamic jurisprudence, slavery was an exceptional condition, with the general rule being a presumption of freedom ("al-'asl huwa 'l-hurriya" — "The basic principle is liberty") for a person if his or her origins were unknown, though enslavement was sanctioned by God as punishment for unbelief. [Shaun E. Marmon, ed. "Slavery in the Islamic Middle East," Markus Wiener Publishers, Princeton (1999), page vii.] Lawful enslavement was restricted to two instances: capture in war (on the condition that the prisoner is not a Muslim), or birth in slavery. Islamic law did not recognize the classes of slave from
pre-Islamic Arabiaincluding those sold or given into slavery by themselves and others, and those indebted into slavery. Though a free Muslim could not be enslaved, conversion to Islam by a non-Muslim slave did not require that he or she then should be liberated. Slave status was not affected by conversion to Islam. [Lewis 1990, page 9.]
In the instance of illness it would be required for the slave to be looked after.
Manumissionis considered a meritorious act. Based on the Quranic verse (Quran-usc|24|33), the Islamic law permits a slave to ransom himself upon consent of his master through a contract known as " mukataba". Azizah Y. al-Hibri, a professor of Law specializing in Islamic jurisprudence, states that both the Qur’an and Hadith are repeatedly exhorting Muslims to treat the slaves well and that Muhammad showed this both in action and in words.Azizah Y. al-Hibri, 2003] Levy concurs, adding that "cruelty to them was forbidden."Levy (1957) p. 77] Al-Hibri quotes the famous last speech of Muhammad and other hadiths emphasizing that all believers, whether free or enslaved, are siblings. Lewis explains, "the humanitarian tendency of the Qur'an and the early caliphs in the Islamic empire, was to some extent counteracted by other influences," notably the practice of various conquered people and countries Muslims encountered, especially in provinces previously under Roman law(even the Christianized form of slavery was still harsh in its treatment of slaves). In spite of this, Lewis also states, "Islamic practice still represented a vast improvement on that inherited from antiquity, from Rome, and from Byzantium." Murray Gordon writes: "It was not surprising that Muhammad, who accepted the existing socio-political order, looked upon slavery as part of the natural order of things. His approach to what was already an age-old institution was reformist and not revolutionary. The Prophet had not in mind to bring about the abolition of slavery. Rather, his purpose was to improve the conditions of slaves by correcting abuses and appealing to the conscience of his followers to treat them humanely." [Gordon 1987, page 19.] The adoption of slaves as members of the family was common, according to Levy. If a slave was born and brought and brought up in the master's household he was never sold, except in exceptional circumstances.
Islamic jurisprudence, slaves were excluded from religious office and from any office involving jurisdiction over others. [Lewis 1990, page 7] Freed slaves are able to occupy any office within the Islamic government, and instances of this in history include the Mamlukwho ruled Egypt for almost 260 years and the eunuchs who have held military and administrative positions of note.Schimmel (1992) p. 67] With the permission of their owners they are able to marry. [Esposito (2002) p.148] Annemarie Schimmel, a contemporary scholar on Islamic civilization, asserts that because the status of slaves under Islam could only be obtained through either being a prisoner of war(this was soon restricted only to infidels captured in a holy war) or born from slave parents, slavery would be theoretically abolished with the expansion of Islam. Fazlur Rahmanagrees, stating that the Qur'anic acceptance of the institution of slavery on the legal plane was the only practical option available at the time of Muhammad since "slavery was ingrained in the structure of society, and its overnight wholesale liquidation would have created problems which it would have been absolutely impossible to solve, and only a dreamer could have issued such a visionary statement." [ Fazlur Rahman, Islam, University of Chicago Press, p.38 ] Islam's reforms stipulating the conditions of enslavement seriously limited the supply of new slaves. Murray Gordon does not: "Muhammad took pains in urging the faithful to free their slaves as a way of expiating their sins. Some Muslim scholars have taken this mean that his true motive was to bring about a gradual elimination of slavery. Far more persuasive is the argument that by lending the moral authority of Islam to slavery, Muhammad assured its legitimacy. Thus, in lightening the fetter, he riveted it ever more firmly in place." [Murray Gordon, “Slavery in the Arab World.” New Amsterdam Press, New York, 1989. Originally published in French by Editions Robert Laffont, S.A. Paris, 1987. Page 19.] In the early days of Islam, a plentiful supply of new slaves were brought due to rapid conquest and expansion. But as the frontiers were gradually stabilized, this supply dwindled to a mere trickle. The prisoners of later wars between Muslims and Christians were commonly ransomed or exchanged.
According to Lewis, this reduction resulted in Arabs who wanted slaves having to look elsewhere to avoid the restrictions in the Qur'an, meaning an increase of importing of slaves from non-Muslim lands,Lewis (1990) p. 10] primarily from Africa. These slaves suffered a high death toll. Patrick Manning states that Islamic legislations against the abuse of the slaves convincingly limited the extent of enslavement in Arabian peninsula and to a lesser degree for the whole area of the whole Umayyad Caliphate where slavery had existed since the most ancient times. He however notes that with the passage of time and the extension of Islam, Islam by recognizing and codifying the slavery seems to have done more to protect and expand slavery than the reverse. Manning (1990) p.28 ]
In theory free-born Muslims could not be enslaved, and the only way that a non-Muslim could be enslaved was being captured in the course of holy war. Sikainga (1996) p.5 ] (In early Islam, neither a Muslim nor a Christian or Jew could be enslaved. [ John Esposito (1998) p.40] ) Slavery was also perceived as a means of converting non-Muslims to Islam: A task of the masters was religious instruction. Conversion and assimilation into the society of the master didn't automatically lead to emancipation, though there was normally some guarantee of better treatment and was deemed a prerequisite for emancipation. Paul Lovejoy (2000) p.2 ] The majority of
Sunniauthorities approved the manumissionof all the " People of the Book". According to some jurists -especially among the Shi’a- only Muslim slaves should be liberated. [Lewis(1990) 106] In practice, traditional propagators of Islam in Africaoften revealed a cautious attitude towards proselytizing because of its effect in reducing the potential reservoir of slaves. [Murray Gordon, “Slavery in the Arab World.” New AmsterdamPress, New York, 1989. Originally published in French by Editions Robert Laffont, S.A. Paris, 1987, page 28.]
Rights and restrictions
"Morally as well as physically the slave is regarded in law as an inferior being," Levy writes. [Levy, p.78] Under Islamic law, a slave possesses a composite quality of being both a person and a possession. The slave is entitled to receive sustenance from the master, which includes shelter, food, clothing, and medical attention. It is a requirement for this sustenance to be of the same standard generally found in the locality and it is also recommended for the slave to have the same standard of food and clothing as the master. If the master refuses to provide the required sustenance, the slave may complain to a judge, who may then penalize the master through sale of her or his goods as necessary for the slave's keep. If the master does not have sufficient wealth to facilitate this, she or he must either sell, hire out, or manumit the slave as ordered. Slaves also have the right to a period of rest during the hottest parts of the day during the summer. [Khalil b. Ishaq, quoted in Levy (1957) p. 77]
Evidence from slaves is rarely viable in a court of law. As slaves are regarded as inferior in Islamic law, death at the hands of a free man does not require that the latter be killed in retaliation. [Except according to Hanafis, who make a free man liable to retaliation in cases of murder] The killer must pay the slave's master compensation equivalent to the slave's value, as opposed to blood-money. At the same time, slaves themselves possess a lessened responsibility for their actions, and receive half the penalty required upon a free man. For example: where a free man would be subject to a hundred lashes due to pre-marital relations, a slave would be subject to only fifty. Slaves are allowed to marry only with the owner's consent. Jurists differ over how many wives a slave may possess, with the Hanafi and Shafi'i schools allowing them two, and the Maliki school allowing four. Slaves are not permitted to possess or inherit property, or conduct independent business, and may conduct financial dealings only as a representative of the master. Offices of authority are generally not permitted for slaves, though a slave may act as a the leader ("
Imam") in the congregational prayers, and he may also act as a subordinate officer in the governmental department of revenue. [Levy (1957) pp. 78-79] Masters may sell, bequeath, give away, pledge, hire out or compel them to earn money.
By the view of some
madh'hab(but not others), a master may compel his/her slave(s) to marriage and determine the identity of their marriage partner(s) [Khalil bin Ishaq, II, 4] [Sachau, p.173]
mahrthat is given for marriage to a female slave is taken by her owner, whereas all other women possess it absolutely for themselves [Levy, p.114]
Marriage and concubinage
Slave women were required mainly as concubines and menials. A Muslim slaveholder was entitled by law to the sexual enjoyment of his slave women. While free women might own male slaves, they had no such right. [Lewis 1990, page 14.] The purchase of female slaves for sex was lawful from the perspective of Islamic law, and this was the most common motive for the purchase of slaves throughout Islamic history.Brunschvig. 'Abd; Encyclopedia of Islam, page 13.] The property of a slave was owned by his or her master unless a contract of freedom of the slave had been entered into, which allowed the slave to earn money to purchase his or her freedom and similarly to pay bride wealth. The marriage of slaves required the consent of the owner. Under the Hanafi and Shafi'i schools of jurisprudence male slaves could marry two wives, but the Maliki permitted them to marry four wives like the free men. According to the Islamic law, a male slave could marry a free woman but this was discouraged in practice. Islam permits sexual relations between a male master and his female slave outside of marriage. This is referred to in the Qur'an as "
ma malakat aymanukum" or "what your right hands possess". [ See Tahfeem ul Qur'anby Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi, Vol. 2 pp. 112-113 footnote 44; Also see commentary on verses Quran-usc-range|23|1|6: Vol. 3, notes 7-1, p. 241; 2000, Islamic Publications] [ Tafsir ibn Kathir4:24] There are some restrictions on the master; he may not co-habit with a female slave belonging to his wife,Brunschvig. 'Abd; Encyclopedia of Islam] neither can he have relations with a female slave if she is co-owned, or already married, but Islam allowed the master to dissolve marriages among his slaves with or without the slaves' consent.
In ancient Arabian custom, the child of a freeman by his slave was also a slave unless he was recognized and liberated by his father. [Lewis 1990, page 24.] In theory, the recognition by a master of his offspring by a slave woman was optional in Islamic society, and in the early period was often withheld. By the high
Middle Agesit became normal and was unremarkable in a society where the sovereigns themselves were almost invariably the children of slave concubines. [Lewis 1990, page 91.] The mother receives the title of "umm walad" ("lit". mother of a child), which is an improvement in her status as she can no longer be sold. Among Sunnis, she is automatically freed upon her master's death, however for Shi'a, she is only freed if her child is still alive; her value is then deducted from this child's share of the inheritance. Lovejoy writes that as an "umm walad", they attained "an intermediate position between slave and free" pending their freedom, although they would sometimes be nominally freed as soon as they gave birth.
There is no limit on the number of concubines a master may possess. However, the general marital laws are to be observed, such as not having sexual relations with the sister of a female slave. In Islam, "men are enjoined to marry free women in the first instance, but if they cannot afford the bridewealth for free women, they are told to marry slave women rather than engage in wrongful acts." [ Nashat (1999) p. 42] One rationale given for recognition of concubinage in Islam is that "it satisfied the sexual desire of the female slaves and thereby prevented the spread of immorality in the Muslim community." [Sikainga(1996), p.22] Most schools restrict concubinage to a monogamous relationship between the slave woman and her master, Bloom and Blair (2002) p.48 ] According to Sikainga, "in reality, however, female slaves in many Muslim societies were prey for members of their owners' household, their neighbors, and their guests." [ Sikainga (1996) p.22 ] In Shia jurisprudence - for which a good source is
Al-Hilli- a master of a female slave may grant a third party the use of her for sexual relations.
legal doctrineof "kafa'a"(lit."efficiency"), the purpose of which was to ensure that a man should be at least the social equal of the woman he marries, a freedman is not as good as the son of a freedman, and he in turn not as good as the grandson of a freedman. This principle is pursued up to three generations, after which all Muslims are deemed equally free. [Lewis 85–86] Lewis asserts that since kafa'a "does not forbid unequal marriages", it is in no sense a "Muslim equivalent of Nuremberg Laws of Nazi Germanyor the apartheid laws of South Africa. His purpose, he states, is not to try to set up a moral competition - to compare castration and apartheid as offenses against humanity." [ John Joseph, Review of "Race and Color in Islam" by Bernard Lewis, International Journal of Middle East Studies, Vol. 5, No. 3. (Jun., 1974), pp. 368-371. ]
The Qur'an and Hadith, the primary Islamic texts, make it a praiseworthy act for masters to set their slaves free. There are numerous ways in which a slave may become free. One way is through expiation for certain sins committed by the master, such as involuntary
manslaughteror perjury. Other ways include emancipation through becoming an "umm walad", who is freed upon her master's death along with her children, or an independent act of piety by the master, as recommended by the Qur'an. It is also commendable to manumit a slave who demands his freedom and is considered worthy of it. Another method is the " mukataba" contract: Levy states that "the slave may redeem himself if his master agrees and contracts to let him go on payment of a stipulated sum of money, which may be paid in two or more instalments, or on the giving of stipulated services or other consideration. If the consideration is a sum of money, the master must grant the slave the right to earn and to own property."Levy pp. 80-81]
If the master makes a declaration of the slave's freedom, whether in jest or earnest, in the presence of the slave or another, then such a declaration becomes legally binding. Similarly, the master may promise manumission (verbally or in writing) that the slave is to be freed upon the former's death. Lastly, a slave is also freed automatically if she or he comes into the possession of a master who is directly related to her or him.
Gordon opines that the Quran in particular and Islamic jurisprudence in general have not placed a premium on manumission but held it out as one way for atonement of sin. He states that "Manumission was only one of several virtuous observances that the pious could avail themselves of and was by no means the most important," noting that other options include reaffirming faith in God and giving food to the poor. He concludes that "there was no contradiction between being a devout Muslim and a slave-owing one as well." [Gordon 1987, pages 42-43.]
The abolition movement starting in 19th century in England and later in other Western countries influenced the slavery in Muslim lands both in doctrine and in practice. One of the first religious decrees comes from the two highest dignitaries of the Hanafi and Maliki rites in the Ottoman Empire. These religious authorities declared that slavery is lawful in principle but it is regrettable in its consequences. They expressed two religious considerations in their support for abolition of slavery: "the initial enslaving of the people concerned comes under suspicion of illegality by reason of the present-day expansion of Islam in their countries; masters no longer comply with the rules of good treatment which regulate their rights and shelter them from wrong-doing."
According to Brunschvig, although the total abolition of slavery might seem a reprehensible innovation and contrary to the Qur'an and the practice of early Muslims, the realities of the modern world caused a "discernible evolution in the thought of many educated Muslims before the end of the 19th century." These Muslims argued that Islam on the whole has "bestowed an exceptionally favourable lot on the victims of slavery" and that the institution of slavery is linked to the particular economic and social stage in which Islam originated. According to the influential thesis of Ameer Ali, Islam only tolerated slavery through temporary necessity and that its complete abolition was not possible at the time of Muhammad.
According to Brockopp, some modern interpreters have accused the medieval interpreters of having subverted the Qur'an's demand for manumission contracts (see
Mukataba). They have used the dramatic change in the institution of slavery in the seventh and eighth centuries to argue that the Qur'an would not have condoned the slaving practices common in Islamic history. Others have argued that the original intent of the Qur'an, when understood properly, was to abolish slavery altogether (cf. Arafat, "Attitude").
The idea that Islam only tolerated slavery due to necessity has to some extent found its way into the circle of the
Ulema. It has been unable to gain support among the Wahhabis of Arabia who are the uncompromising restorers of the example of Muhammad.
History of slavery under Muslim rule
Reasons for low natural increase in the internal slave population
was insufficient to maintain numbers right through to modern times, which contrasts markedly with rapidly rising slave populations in the New World. He writes that a contributing factor was the liberation of slaves as an act of piety, but the primary drain was the liberation by freemen of their own offspring born by slave mothers. Other factors Lewis describes for the low natural increase of slave populations in the Islamic world include:
#Castration: A fair proportion of male slaves were imported as eunuchs. Levy states that according to the Qur'an and Islamic traditions, such emasculation was objectionable. Jurists such as al-Baydawi considered castration to be mutilation, stipulating law enforcement to prevent it. However, in practice, emasculation was frequent. In nineteenth century Mecca, the majority of eunuchs were in the service of the mosques. [Brunschvig. 'Abd; Encyclopedia of Islam, page 16.]
#Liberation of military slaves: Military slaves that rose through the ranks were usually liberated at some stage in their careers.
#Restrictions on procreation: Among the menial, domestic, and manual worker slaves, casual mating was not permitted and marriage was not encouraged.
#High death toll: There was a high death toll among all classes of slaves. Slaves usually came from remote places and, lacking immunities, died in large numbers. As late as the nineteenth century, Western travellers in
North Africaand Egypt noted the high death rate among imported black slaves. [cite web |last = Hansen |first = Suzy |year = 2001 |url = http://archive.salon.com/books/int/2001/04/05/segal/index.html |title = Islam's black slaves |work = Salon.com book review |publisher = Salon.com |accessdate = 2007-04-05 - See under 'What about eunuchs?']
Segal notes that recent slaves, weakened by their initial captivity and debilitating journey, would have been easy victim to climate changes and infection. [Segal, page 62.] Children were especially at risk, and the Islamic market demand for children was much greater than the American one. Many blacks, both slave and free, lived in conditions conducive to malnutrition and disease, with effects on their own
life expectancy, the fertility of women, and the infant mortalityrate.ibid]
Consequences of Muhammad's prescriptions on slavery
; Early Islamic historyW. Montgomery Watt points out that Muhammad's expansion of Pax Islamica to the Arabian peninsula reduced warfare and raiding, and therefore cut off the sources of enslaving freemen. [Watt, "Muhammad at Medina", 1956, p. 296] According to
Patrick Manning, the Islamic legislations against the abuse of the slaves convincingly limited the extent of enslavement in Arabian peninsula and to a lesser degree for the whole area of the whole Umayyad Caliphate where slavery existed since the most ancient times. ; Later periodsBernard Lewis writes: "In one of the sad paradoxes of human history, it was the humanitarian reforms brought by Islam that resulted in a vast development of the slave trade inside, and still more outside, the Islamic empire." He notes that the Islamic injunctions against the enslavement of Muslims led to massive importation of slaves from the outside. [Lewis 1990, page 10.] According to Patrick Manning, Islam by recognizing and codifying the slavery seems to have done more to protect and expand slavery than the reverse.
Oriental slave trade
The 'Oriental' or 'Arab' slave trade is sometimes called the 'Islamic' slave trade. Bernard Lewis writes that "polytheists and idolaters were seen primarily as sources of slaves, to be imported into the Islamic world and molded in Islamic ways, and, since they possessed no religion of their own worth the mention, as natural recruits for Islam." [Lewis (1990), page 42.]
Patrick Manningstates that religion was hardly the point of this slavery. Manning (1990) p.10 ] Also, this term suggests comparison between Islamic slave trade and Christian slave trade. Furthermore, usage of the terms "Islamic trade" or "Islamic world" implicitly and erroneously treats Africa as it were outside of Islam, or a negligible portion of the Islamic world. Propagators of Islam in Africa often revealed a cautious attitude towards proselytizing because of its effect in reducing the potential reservoir of slaves. [Murray Gordon, “Slavery in the Arab World.” New Amsterdam Press, New York, 1989. Originally published in French by Editions Robert Laffont, S.A. Paris, 1987, page 28.]
The author Ronald Segal [http://archive.salon.com/books/int/2001/04/05/segal/index.html Interview with Salon.com in 2001 on the subject of his book "Islam's Black Slaves: The Other Black Diaspora"] distinguishes the Islamic slave trade from that of the Atlantic or European slave trade by highlighting the aspects of its duration and nature: "It began in the middle of the seventh century and survives today in Mauritania and Sudan. With the Islamic slave trade, we're talking of 14 centuries rather than four." Further, "whereas the gender ratio of slaves in the Atlantic trade was two males to every female, in the Islamic trade, it was two females to every male."
In the 8th century
Africawas dominated by Arab- Berbersin the north: Islam moved southwards along the Nileand along the desert trails. The Solomonic dynastyof Ethiopiaoften exported Niloticslaves from their western borderland provinces, or from newly conquered or reconquered Muslim provinces. Native Muslim Ethiopian sultanates(rulership) exported slaves as well, such as the sometimes independent sultanate (rulership) of Adal (a sixteenth century province-cum-rulership located in East Africa north of Northwestern Somalia). [Pankhurst (1997) p. 59]
For a long time, until the early 18th century
Crimean Khanatemaintained massive slave trade with the Ottoman Empireand the Middle East. Between 1530 and 1780 there were almost certainly 1 million and quite possibly as many as 1.25 million white, European Christians enslaved by the Muslims of the Barbary Coast. [http://researchnews.osu.edu/archive/whtslav.htm Ohio State Research News with reference to "Christian Slaves, Muslim Masters: White Slavery in the Mediterranean, the Barbary Coast, and Italy, 1500-1800" (Palgrave Macmillan).]
On the coast of the
Indian Oceantoo, slave-trading posts were set up by Arabs.Holt "et. al" (1970) p.391] The archipelago of Zanzibar, along the coast of present-day Tanzania, is undoubtedly the most notorious example of these trading colonies. East Africa and the Indian Ocean continued as an important region for the Oriental slave trade up until the 19th century. Livingstone and Stanley were then the first Europeans to penetrate to the interior of the Congobasin and to discover the scale of slavery there. The Arab Tippu Tibextended his influence and made many people slaves. After Europeans had settled in the Gulf of Guinea, the trans-Saharan slave trade became less important. In Zanzibar, slavery was abolished late, in 1897, under Sultan Hamoud bin Mohammed. [Ingrams (1967) p.175] The rest of Africa had no direct contact with Muslim slave-traders.
Roles filled by slaves
A system of plantation labor, much like that which would emerge in the Americas, developed early on, but with such dire consequences that subsequent engagements were relatively rare and reduced. Moreover, the need for agricultural labor, in an Islam with large peasant populations, was nowhere near as acute as in the Americas. [Segal, page 4.] Slaves in Islam were mainly directed at the service sector - concubines and cooks, porters and soldiers - with slavery itself primarily a form of consumption rather than a factor of production. The most telling evidence this is found in the gender ratio; among black slaves traded in Islam across the centuries, there were roughly two females to every male.
In recruiting barbarians from the "martial races" beyond the frontiers into their imperial armies, the Arabs were doing what the Romans and the Chinese had done centuries before them. In the scale of this recruitment, however, and the preponderant role acquired by these recruits in the imperial and eventually metropolitan forces, Muslim rulers went far beyond any precedent. [Lewis 1990, page 63.] It was not until the medieval Islamic state that we find military slaves in significant numbers, forming a substantial and eventually predominant component in their armies. [Lewis 1990, page 62.]
In some cases slaves joined to rebels or even uprose against governors. The most renowned of this rebellions was
The Zanj Revolt took place near the city of
Basra, located in southern Iraqover a period of fifteen years (869-883 AD). It grew to involve over 500,000 slaves who were imported from across the Muslim empire and claimed over “tens of thousands of lives in lower Iraq” [http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1157/is_4_62/ai_76402507 “Revisiting the Zanj and Re-Visioning Revolt: Complexities of the Zanj Conflict - 868-883 Ad - slave revolt in Iraq”.] ] . The revolt was said to have been led by Ali ibn Muhammad, who claimed to be a descendent of Caliph Ali ibn Abu Talib. Several historians, such as Al-Tabari and Al-Masudi, consider this revolt one of the “most vicious and brutal uprising” out of the many disturbances that plagued the Abbasidcentral government.
Capturing political power
Mamluk was a slave
soldierwho converted to Islamand served the Muslim caliphs and the Ayyubidsultans during the Middle Ages. Over time, they became a powerful military castenumerously defeating the Crusaders and, on more than one occasion, they seized power for themselves, for example ruling Egyptin the Mamluk Sultanatefrom 1250-1517.
19th century and post 19th century
Slavery in Muslim lands was influenced by the revolution against slavery in 19th century in
Englandand later in other Western countries which gave rise to a strong abolitionist movement in Europe. Contrasting with ancient and colonial systems, slaves in Muslim lands had a certain legal status and had obligations to as well as rights over the slave owner. Slavery was not only recognized but was elaborately regulated by Sharialaw. Although emancipation of slaves was recommended, it was not compulsory. Lewis elucidates that it was for this reason that "the position of the domestic slave in Muslim society was in most respects better than in either classical antiquityor the nineteenth-century Americas" and that the economic situation of such slaves were no worse than (and even in some cases better than) free poors.Bernard Lewis, (1992), pp. 78-79 ]
Ironically, the enlightened incentives and opportunities for slaves to be emancipated meant there was a strong market for new slaves and thus strong incentive to enslave and sell human beings. [Lewis, Bernard "Race and Slavery in the Middle East" (1990) p.9-11] The processes of acquisition and transportation of slaves to Muslim lands often imposed appalling loss of life and hardships. The hardships of acquisition and transportation of slaves to Muslim lands drew attention of European opponents of slavery. The continuing pressure from European countries eventually overcame the strong resistance of religious conservatives who were holding that forbidding what God permits is just as great an offence as to permit what God forbids. Slavery, in their eyes, was "authorized and regulated by the holy law". [Lewis, Bernard "Race and Slavery in the Middle East" (1990) p.111, 149-156] Even masters persuaded of their own piety and benevolence sexually exploited their concubines, without a thought of whether this constituted a violation of their humanity. [Segal, page 5.] There were also many pious Muslims who refused to have slaves and persuaded others to do so. [
Seyyed Hossein Nasr(2004), p.182 ] Eventually, the Ottoman Empire's orders against the traffic of slaves were issued and put into effect.
According to Brockopp, in 19th century, "Some authorities made blanket pronouncements against slavery, arguing that it violated the qurʾānic ideals of equality and freedom. The great slave markets of Cairo were closed down at the end of the nineteenth century and even conservative Qurʾān interpreters continue to regard slavery as opposed to Islamic principles of justice and equality."
Slavery in the forms of carpetweavers, sugarcane cutters, camel jockeys, sex slaves, and even chattel exists even today in some Muslim and non-Muslim countries (Some have questioned the use of the term slavery as an accurate description [ Jok Madut Jok (2001), p.3] ). James R. Lewis and Carl Skutsch, "The Human Rights Encyclopedia", v.3, p. 898-904 ]
Twentieth Century suppression and outlawry
Unlike Western societies which in their opposition to slavery spawned anti-slavery movements whose numbers and enthusiasm often grew out of church groups, no such grass-roots organizations ever developed in Muslim societies. In Muslim politics the state unquestioningly accepted the teachings of Islam and applied them as law. Islam, by sanctioning slavery - however mild a form it generally took - also extended legitimacy to the nefarious traffic in slaves. [Gordon 1989, page 21.]
Writing about 1862 the English traveler W.G. Palgrave says that in Arabia he constantly met with black slaves in large numbers. The effects of concubinage were apparent in the number of persons of mixed race and the emancipation of slaves he found to be common. [In his narrative of 'A Years Journey Through Central and Eastern Arabia' 5th Ed. London (1869), p.270] Doughty, writing about 25 years later, made similar reports. [Doughty(author), "Arabia Deserta" (Cambridge, 1988), I, 554]
Slavery was common in the
East Indiesuntil the end of the 19th century. In Singapore in 1891 there was a regular trade in Chinese slaves by Muslim slaveowners, with girls and women used for concubinage. [S.Hurgronje, Verspreide Geschriften (Bonn, 1923), II, II ff]
Istanbul, the sale of black and Circassianwomen was conducted openly until the granting of the Constitution in 1908. [Levy, p.88]
In 1925 slaves were still being bought and sold at
Meccain the ordinary way of trade. [E. Rutter, "The Holy Cities of Arabia" (London and New York, 1928), II, 93] The slave market there consisted of the offspring of local slaves as well as those imported from the Yemen, Africa, and Asia Minor.
Treaty of Jedda, May 1927 (art.7), concluded between the British Government and Ibn Sa'ud(King of Nejdand the Hijaz) it was finally agreed to suppress the slave trade in Saudi Arabia. Then by a decree issued in 1936 the importation of slaves into Saudi Arabia was prohibited unless it could be proved that they were slaves at that date. [Levy, p.85]
In 1953, sheikhs from
Qatarattending the coronation of Queen Elizabeth IIincluded slaves in their retinues, and they did so again on another visit five years later. [http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G1-85410331.html 'The Unknown Slavery: In the Muslim world, that is -- and it's not over.(From: National Review| Date: 5/20/2002 | Author: Miller, John J.) ]
It was not until 1962 that all slavery practice or trafficking in Saudi Arabia was prohibited.
By 1969 it could be observed that most Muslim states had abolished slavery although it existed in the deserts of Iraq bordering Arabia and it still flourished in Saudi Arabia, the
Yemenand Oman. [op cit. p.89] Slavery was not formally abolished in Yemen and Oman until the following year. [Murray Gordon. 'Slavery in the Arab World', New York: New Amsterdam, 1989, p. 234.] The last nation to formally enact the abolition of slavery practice and slave trafficking was the Islamic Republic of Mauritania in 1981. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/4091579.stm BBC NEWS | World | Africa | Slavery: Mauritania's best kept secret ] ]
Gordon describes the lack of homegrown Islamic abolition movements as owing much to the fact that it was deeply anchored in Islamic law. By legitimizing slavery and - by extension - traffic in slaves, Islam elevated those practices to an unassailable moral plain. As a result, in no part of the Muslim world was an ideological challenge ever mounted against slavery. The political and social system in Muslim society would have taken a dim view of such a challenge. [Gordon 1989, pages 44-45.]
lavery in the contemporary Muslim world
The issue of slavery in the Islamic world in modern times is controversial. Critics argue there is hard evidence of its existence and destructive effects. Others maintain slavery in central Islamic lands has been virtually extinct since mid-twentieth century, and that reports from Sudan and Somalia showing practice of slavery is in border areas as a result of continuing war [
The Oxford Dictionary of Islam,"slavery", p.298 ] and not Islamic belief.
alafi and traditionalist juridical support for slavery
In recent years, according to some scholars, [Khaled Abou El Fadl and William Clarence-Smith] there has been a "worrying trend" of "reopening" of the issue of slavery by some conservative
SalafiIslamic scholars after its "closing" earlier in the 20th century when Muslim countries banned slavery and "most Muslim scholars" found the practice "inconsistent with Qur'anic morality." [Abou el Fadl, "Great Theft", HarperSanFrancisco, c2005.] [ [http://www.lse.ac.uk/collections/economicHistory/GEHN/GEHNPDF/Islam&SlaveryWGCS.pdf "Islam and Slavery", William G. Clarence-Smith] ]
In 2003 a high-level Saudi jurist, Shaykh
Salih al-Fawzaan, issued a fatwa claiming “Slavery is a part of Islam. Slavery is part of jihad, and jihad will remain as long there is Islam.” [Shaikh Salih al-Fawzaan "affirmation of slavery" was found on page 24 of "Taming a Neo-Qutubite Fanatic Part 1" when accessed on February 17, 2007 http://www.salafipublications.com/sps/downloads/pdf/GRV070005.pdf] He attacked Muslim scholars who said otherwise maintaining, “They are ignorant, not scholars ... They are merely writers. Whoever says such things is an infidel.” At the time of the fatwa, al-Fawzaan was a member of the Senior Council of Clerics, Saudi Arabia’s highest religious body, a member of the Council of Religious Edicts and Research, the Imam of Prince Mitaeb Mosque in Riyadh, and a professor at Imam Mohamed Bin Saud Islamic University, the main Wahhabi center of learning in the country.
According to multiple sources, religious calls have also been made to capture and enslave Jewish women. As American journalist
John J. Millersaid, "It is hard to imagine a serious person calling for America to enslave its enemies. Yet a prominent Saudi cleric, Shaikh Saad Al-Buraik, recently urged Palestinians to do exactly that with Jews: 'Their women are yours to take, legitimately. God made them yours. Why don't you enslave their women?'" [ [http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1282/is_9_54/ai_85410331 findarticles.com] ]
Shaykh Fadhlalla Haeri of
Karbalaexpressed the view in 1993 that the enforcement of servitude can occur but is restricted to war captives and those born of slaves. [In 'The Elements of Islam' (1993) cited in Clarence-Smith, p.131]
Dr. Abdul-Latif Mushtahari, the general supervisor and director of homiletics and guidance at the
Azhar University, has said on the subject of justifications for Islamic permission of slavery: ["You Ask and Islam Answers", pp. 51-2]
"Islam does not prohibit slavery but retains it for two reasons. The first reason is war (whether it is a civil war or a foreign war in which the captive is either killed or enslaved) provided that the war is not between Muslims against each other - it is not acceptable to enslave the violators, or the offenders, if they are Muslims. Only non-Muslim captives may be enslaved or killed. The second reason is the sexual propagation of slaves which would generate more slaves for their owner."
Earlier in the 20th century, prior to the "reopening" of slavery by
Salafischolars like Shaykh al-Fawzaan, Islamist authors declared slavery outdated without actually clearly affirming and promoting its abolition. This has caused at least one scholar (William Clarence-Smith [http://www.soas.ac.uk/staff/staffinfo.cfm?contactid=36] ) to bemoan the 'dogged refusal of Mawlana Mawdudi to give up on slavery' and the notable 'evasions and silences of Muhammad Qutb.' [ [http://www.lse.ac.uk/collections/economicHistory/GEHN/GEHNPDF/Islam&SlaveryWGCS.pdf at p.6 - 'Islam and Slavery' by William Gervase Clarence-Smith] ]
, Surah Tawbah 3/1669) also in Tafsir of Surah Baqarah (/230), tafsir of Surah Mu'minoon (4/2455), tafsir of Surah Muhammad (6/3285)]
Muhammad Qutbcontrasted sexual relations between Muslim slaveowners and their female slaves with what is, in his view, the widespread and depraved practice of casual consensual sex in contemporary Europe:
Islam made it lawful for a master to have a number of slave-women captured in wars and enjoined that he alone may have sexual relations with them ... Europe abhors this law but at the same gladly allows that most odious form of animalism according to which a man may have illicit relations with any girl coming across him on his way to gratify his animal passions [Qutb, Muhammad, "Islam, the Misunderstood Religion," Markazi Maktabi Islami, Delhi-6, 1992 p.50]
Maulana Mawdudi of
Islam has clearly and categorically forbidden the primitive practice of capturing a free man, to make him a slave or to sell him into slavery. On this point the clear and unequivocal words of [Muhammad] are as follows:
"There are three categories of people against whom I shall myself be a plaintiff on the Day of Judgement. Of these three, one is he who enslaves a free man, then sells him and eats this money" (al-Bukhari and Ibn Majjah).The words of this Tradition of the Prophet are also general, they have not been qualified or made applicable to a particular nation, race, country or followers of a particular religion.....After this the only form of slavery which was left in
Islamic societywas the prisoners of war, who were captured on the battlefield. These prisoners of war were retained by the Muslim Government until their government agreed to receive them back in exchange for Muslim soldiers captured by them..... [From "Human Rights in Islam" by 'Allamah Abu Al-'A'la Mawdudi. Chapter 3, subsection 5 [http://www.central-mosque.com/fiqh/slav3.htm] ]
Taqiuddin al-Nabhani, a shariah judge accredited by Al-AzharUniversity and founder of Hizb ut-Tahrirmovement, gives the following explanation:
When Islam came, for the situations where people were taken into slavery (e.g. debt), Islam imposed Shari’ah solutions to those situations other than slavery. For example Islam clarified in relation to the bankrupt debtor that the creditor should wait until a time of ease for the debtor to pay. The Supreme (Allah) said in the Quran: "And if he is one in difficulty then waiting to a time of ease"'....It (Islam) made the existing slave and owner form a business contract, based upon the freedom, not upon slavery...It forbade the enslaving of free people with a comprehensive prohibition ... So Allah will deal with the seller of the free person. As for the situation of war, Islam prevented the enslaving of captives or prisoners of war absolutely. In the second year of the Hijrah, it clarified the rule of the captive in that either they are favoured by releasing without any exchange, or they are ransomed for money or exchanged for Muslims or non-Muslim citizens of the
Caliphate. [ al-Shakhsiyah al-Islamiyyah (The Islamic Personality) by Taqiuddin al-Nabhani, Volume 3, Slavery Section]
lavery in the contemporary Muslim world
While slavery is illegal in Saudi Arabia despite
Shaykh al-Fawzaan's fatwa, the proclamation carries weight among many SalafiMuslims. According to reformist jurist and author Khaled Abou El Fadl, it "is particularly disturbing and dangerous because it effectively legitimates the trafficking in and sexual exploitation of so-called domestic workers in the Gulf region and especially Saudi Arabia." ["The Great Theft: Wrestling Islam from the Extremists", by Khaled Abou El Fadl, Harper San Francisco, 2005, p.255] Organized criminal gangs smuggle children into Saudi Arabia where they are enslaved, sometimes mutilated, and forced to work as beggers. When caught, the children are deported as illegal aliens. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/programmes/this_world/6431957.stm BBC News the child slaves of Saudi Arabia] ]
According to the U.S. State Department:
Saudi Arabia is a destination for men and women from South and
East Asiaand East Africa trafficked for the purpose of labor exploitation, and for children from Yemen, Afghanistan, and Africa trafficking for forced begging. Hundreds of thousands of low-skilled workers from India, Indonesia, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia, and Kenya migrate voluntarily to Saudi Arabia; some fall into conditions of involuntary servitude, suffering from physical and sexual abuse, non-payment or delayed payment of wages, the withholding of travel documents, restrictions on their freedom of movementand non-consensual contract alterations.
The Government of Saudi Arabia does not comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking and is not making significant efforts to do so. [ [http://www.state.gov/g/tip/rls/tiprpt/2005/46616.htm V. Country Narratives - Countries Q through Z ] ]
Slavery continues today in modern Africa, with hereditary-, child- and prisoner of war-slavery taking place in various Islamic countries.
*cite journal | last = Al-Hibri| first = Azizah Y.| year = 2003| title = An Islamic Perspective on Domestic Violence| journal = 27 Fordham International Law Journal 195
*cite encyclopedia | editor = P.J. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs | encyclopedia =
Encyclopaedia of IslamOnline| title = Abd| publisher = Brill Academic Publishers | id = ISSN 1573-3912
*cite book | author=Bloom, Jonathan; Blair, Sheila| title=Islam: A Thousand Years of Faith and Power | publisher=Yale University Press | year=2002| id=ISBN 0-300-09422-1
*cite book | author=Clarence-Smith, Willian Gervase | year = 2006 | title = Islam and the Abolition of Slavery | publisher = Oxford University Press
*cite book | author=Davis, Robert C. | title=Christian Slaves, Muslim Masters| publisher = Palgrave, macmillian | year = 2004 | id=ISBN 1-4039-4551-9 [http://researchnews.osu.edu/archive/whtslav.htm]
*cite book | author=Esposito, John| year = 1998| title = Islam: The Straight Path| publisher = Oxford University Press | id = ISBN 0-19-511233-4 - First Edition 1991; Expanded Edition : 1992.
*cite book | author=
Javed Ahmed Ghamidi| title= Mizan| location=Lahore | publisher= Al-Mawrid| year = 2001 | id=OCLC 52901690
*cite book | author=Gordon, Murray | title=Slavery in the Arab World | publisher=New York: New Amsterdam Press | year=1987
*cite book | author=Hasan, Yusuf Fadl; Gray, Richard| title=Religion and Conflict in Sudan | publisher=Nairobi: Paulines Publications Africa | year=2002| id=ISBN 9966-21-831-9
*cite book | author=Hughes, Thomas Patrick | coauthors= Patrick | title=A Dictionary of Islam | publisher=Asian Educational Services | year=1996 | id=ISBN 9788120606722
*cite book | author="Ed.": Holt, P. M ; Lambton, Ann; Lewis, Bernard| title=The Cambridge History of Islam | publisher=Cambridge University Press | year=1977| id=ISBN 0-521-29137-2
*cite book | author=Ingrams, W. H.| title=Zanzibar | location=UK |publisher=Routledge | year=1967| id=ISBN 0-7146-1102-6
*cite book | author=Jok, Madut Jok| title=War and Slavery in Sudan| publisher=University of Pennsylvania Press | year=2001| id=ISBN 0-8122-1762-4
*cite book | author=Juynboll | title=Handbuch des Islamischen Gesetzes | location = Leyden | year = 1910
*cite book | author=Khalil bin Ishaq | title=Mukhtasar tr. Guidi and Santillana (Milan, 1919)
*cite book | author=Levy, Reuben | title=The Social Structure of Islam | location = UK | publisher=Cambridge Univerisity Press | year = 1957
*cite book | author=Lewis, Bernard | title=Race and Slavery in the Middle East | location=New York | publisher=Oxford University Press | year=1990 | id=ISBN 0-19-505326-5
*cite book | author=Lovejoy, Paul E.| title=Transformations in Slavery | publisher=Cambridge University Press | year=2000| id=ISBN 0-521-78430-1
*cite book | author=Manning, Patrick | title=Slavery and African Life: Occidental, Oriental, and African Slave Trades| publisher=Cambridge University Press | year=1990 | id=ISBN 0-521-34867-6
*cite book | author=Mendelsohn, Isaac | title=Slavery in the Ancient Near East | location=New York | publisher=Oxford University Press | year=1949 | id=OCLC 67564625
*cite book | author=Nasr, Seyyed | title=The Heart of Islam: Enduring Values for Humanity | location=US | publisher=HarperSanFrancisco | year=2002 | id=ISBN 0-06-009924-0
*cite book | author=Pankhurst, Richard | title=The Ethiopian Borderlands: Essays in Regional History from Ancient Times to the End of the 18th Century | publisher=The Red Sea Press | year=1997| id=ISBN 0-932415-19-9
*cite book | author=Sachau | title=Muhammedanisches Recht [cited extensively in Levy,R 'Social Structure of Islam'] | location=Berlin, Germany | Berlin | year=1897
*cite book | author=Schimmel, Annemarie | title=Islam: An Introduction | location=US | publisher=SUNY Press | year=1992 | id=ISBN 0-7914-1327-6
*cite book | author=Segal, Ronald | title=Islam's Black Slaves: The Other Black Diaspora | location=New York | publisher=Farrar, Straus and Giroux | year=2001
*cite book | author=Sikainga, Ahmad A. | title=Slaves Into Workers: Emancipation and Labor in Colonial Sudan | publisher=University of Texas Press | year=1996 | id=ISBN 0-292-77694-2
*cite book | author=Tucker, Judith E.; Nashat, Guity | title=Women in the Middle East and North Africa | publisher=Indiana University Press | year=1999 | id=ISBN 0-253-21264-2
*Ahmad A. Sikainga, "Shari'a Courts and the Manumission of Female Slaves in the Sudan 1898-1939", "The International Journal of African Historical Studies" > Vol. 28, No. 1 (1995), pp. 1-24
Christianity and slavery
Ma malakat aymanukum
*Slaves freed by Abu Bakr
Slavery in modern Africa
* [http://www.arabslavetrade.com/ Arab/Islamic Slave Trade]
* [http://www.rootswomen.com/ayanna/articles/10022004.html Islam, Colourism and the Myth of Black African Slave Traders]
* [http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/med/lewis1.html Race and Slavery in the Middle East] by
* [http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/islam/history/slavery_1.shtml BBC Domentary, Religion and Ethics - Islam and Slavery]
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