- Basket weaving
Basket weaving (also basketry, basket making, or basketmaking) is the process of
weavingunspun vegetable fibers into a basketor other similar form.
Basketry is made from a variety of fibrous or pliable materials — anything that will bend and form a shape. Examples include pine straw, animal hair, hide, grasses, thread, and wood.
People who weave baskets are called basketmakers. They may do this as a
professionor a hobby, and their work may be considered a craftor an art.
The aborigonal tribes are famous for their coloured basket weaving techniques. To achieve a multi-coloured effect they first dye the twine and then weave the twines together in the most ellaborate fashion possible. These baskets may then be traded for goods but may also be used for religious ceremonies.
ErdlyWho|date=July 2008 classifies basketry into four types:
* "Coiled" basketry, using
grasses and rushes
* "Plaiting" basketry, using materials that are wide and ribbon-like, such as palms, yucca or
New Zealand flax
* "Twining" basketry, using materials from
roots and tree bark. Twining actually refers to a weaving technique where two or more flexible weaving elements ("weavers") cross each other as they weave through the stiffer radial spokes.
* "Wicker" and "Splint" basketry, using reed,
cane, willow, oak, and ash
The type of baskets that reed is used for are most often referred to as “wicker” baskets, though another popular type of weaving known as “twining” is also a technique used in most wicker baskets.
Popular styles of wicker baskets are vast, but some of the more notable styles are
NantucketBaskets and WilliamsburgBaskets. Nantucket Baskets are oversized and bulkyFact|date=July 2008 while Williamsburg Baskets can be any size, so long as the two sides of the basket bow out slightly and get larger as it is weaved up.
Materials used in basketry
rattancore (also known as reed) is one of the more popular techniques being practiced because it is easily available. It is pliable and when woven correctly, it is very sturdy. Also, while traditional materials like oak, hickory, and willow might be hard to come by, reed is plentiful and can be cut into any size or shape that might be needed for a pattern. This includes flat reed, which is used for most square baskets; oval reed which is used for many round baskets; and round reed which is used to twine. And reed can also be dyed easily to look like oak or hickory.
The basket weaving process
The parts of a basket are the base, the side walls, and the rim. A basket may also have a lid, handle, or embellishments.
The 'static' pieces of the work are laid down first. In a round basket they are referred to as 'spokes'; in other shapes they are called 'stakes' or 'staves'. Then the 'weavers' are used to fill in the sides of a basket.
A wide variety of patterns can be made by changing the size, color, or by placement of a certain style of weave.
While basket weaving is one of the widest spread crafts in the history of any human civilization, it is hard to say just how old the craft is because natural materials like wood, grass, and animal remains decay naturally and constantly. So without proper preservation (which was not available two hundred years ago, much less two thousand years ago) much of the history of basket making has been lost and is simply speculated upon.
The oldest known baskets have been carbon dated to between 10,000 and 12,000 years old, earlier than any established dates for archeological finds of
pottery, and were discovered in Faiyumin upper Egypt.cite web|url=http://nwmail.washtenaw.cc.mi.us/~cerdly/gdt200/FinalProject/history.html|title=History |last=Erdly|first=Catherine|work=Basket Weaving|accessdate=2008-05-08] Other baskets have been discovered in the Middle Eastthat are up to 7,000 years old. However, baskets seldom survive, as they are made from perishable materials. The most common evidence of a knowledge of basketry is an imprint of the weave on fragments of clay pots, formed by packing clay on the walls of the basket and firing.
Industrial Revolution, baskets were used in factories, and for packing and deliveries. Wickerfurniture became fashionable in Victorian society. During the world wars thousands of baskets were used for transporting messenger pigeons. There were also observational balloon baskets, baskets for shell cases and airborne pannier baskets used for dropping supplies of ammunition and food to the troops. [cite web |url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/legacies/work/england/somerset/article_4.shtml| title=From cradle to grave: willows and basketmaking in Somerset |last=Lynch |first=Kate |publisher=BBC |accessdate=2008-05-09]
The technique of weaving has been passed along, re-discovered, and expanded upon throughout the years, and is still being expanded upon today. Baskets were at one time used simply for storage and transportation of goods. Decoration was an afterthought at best. Today, functional baskets are still in use, but many are made for more decorative purposes. Patterns and “how to” books are now available for anyone to learn the craft.
Native American basket weaving
Native Americans made their baskets from the materials available locally. In
New Englandthey wove their baskets from Swamp Ash. The wood would be peeled off the felled log in strips, following the growth rings of the tree. They also wove baskets from sweetgrass. Northwestern tribes used spruce root, cedar bark, and swampgrass. Southeastern tribes like the Cherokeeused bundled pine needles. Southwestern tribes coiled baskets from sumac, yucca, and willow. In northwestern Mexico, the Seri peoplecontinue to "sew" baskets using splints of the limberbush plant, "Jatropha cuneata". Arctic and Sub-Arctic tribes use baleen, and incorporate ivoryand whale bone. Birchbarkwas used by Northern tribes like the Dene. Birchbark baskets are often embellished with dyed porcupinequills.
Underwater basket weaving
* [http://www.thenantucketbasket.com/history.html Nantucket Lightship Baskets: Important Island Legacy] TheNantucketBasket.com
* [http://books.google.com/books?id=lJ1IAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA17-IA1&dq=basket+maker&as_brr=1&client=firefox-a#PPA17-IA1,M1/ The Book of English Trades, and Library of the Useful Arts, page 17-22] Google Books
* [http://books.google.com/books?id=WmQgh7i-LdQC&printsec=frontcover&dq=basketry&as_brr=1&client=firefox-a&source=gbs_summary_r&cad=0#PPA132,M1 Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico V. 1/4, page 132-135] Google Books
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
basket-weaving — … Useful english dictionary
Underwater basket weaving — is a process of making wicker baskets which involves dipping reeds or stalks of plants into (or, as the name suggests, under ) water and allowing them to soak. This process will provide a very supple and flexible reed which can then be woven into … Wikipedia
underwater basket weaving — n. an imaginary, very easy high school or college course. □ If I can just find a course in underwater basket weaving, I’ll have an easy semester. □ Mary majored in underwater basket weaving … Dictionary of American slang and colloquial expressions
underwater basket weaving — noun An easy and useless college or high school class … Wiktionary
Basket — A basket is a container which is traditionally constructed from stiff fibres, often made of willow. [http://www.bluestem.ca/willows basketry.htm] . The top is either left open or the basket may be fitted with a lid.Historical usageWood, bamboo,… … Wikipedia
Weaving — Weaver (occupation) redirects here. This article is about textile weaving. For other uses, see Weaving (disambiguation). Warp and weft in plain weaving Weaving is a method of fabric production in which two distinct sets of yarns or threads are… … Wikipedia
Basket Maker — Bas′ket Mak er n. 1) ara any of a series of American Indian cultures that developed in the U.S. Southwest c100 b.c. to a.d. 700, noted esp. for their sophisticated basket weaving 2) ara peo a member of the people who produced these cultures •… … From formal English to slang
weaving — Production of fabric by interlacing two sets of yarns so that they cross each other, normally at right angles, usually accomplished with a hand or power operated loom. In weaving, lengthwise yarns are called warp and crosswise yarns are called… … Universalium
Nantucket Lightship Basket — Nantucket Lightship Baskets are a type of basket originating, in the 19th century, on Nantucket Island Lightships. Lightship baskets are all made from rattan and wood, have an odd number of staves, a solid wooden base, a nailed and lashed rim … Wikipedia
Creel (basket) — This article is about the basket type. For other uses, see Creel. Creel Creel is a type of small wicker basket mainly used by anglers to hold fish or other prey. A creel is designed to function as an evaporative cooler when lined with moss and… … Wikipedia