Surat


Surat
Surat (સુરત)
Diamond City / Silk City / Suryapur
—  metropolitan city  —
Surat (સુરત)
Location of Surat (સુરત)
in Gujarat and India
Coordinates 21°10′N 72°50′E / 21.17°N 72.83°E / 21.17; 72.83Coordinates: 21°10′N 72°50′E / 21.17°N 72.83°E / 21.17; 72.83
Country India
State Gujarat
District(s) Surat
Population

Density
Metro

4,462,002[1] (8) (2011)

13,666 /km2 (35,395 /sq mi)
4,585,367 (9) (2011)

Official languages Gujarati, Hindi, English
Time zone IST (UTC+05:30)
Area

Metro
Elevation
• Coastline

326.515 km2 (126 sq mi)

4,207 square kilometres (1,624 sq mi)
13 metres (43 ft)
35 kilometres (22 mi)

Website www.Suratmunicipal.gov.in

Surat (Gujarati: સુરત), also known as Suryapur, is the commercial capital city of the Indian state of Gujarat. Surat is India's Eighth most populous city and Ninth-most populous urban agglomeration. It is also administrative capital of Surat district and one of the fastest growing cities in India. The city proper is the third cleanest city in India.[2][3] Surat is Gujarat's second largest city with a population of 4.6 million. Surat ranks 4th[fourth] in a global study of fastest developing cities conducted by The City Mayors Foundation,[4] an international think tank on urban affairs. It is the fastest growing Indian city[5] in terms of economic prosperity. The city has registered an annualised GDP growth rate of 11.5 per cent over the past seven[2001–2008] fiscal years, according to the data compiled by economic research firm Indicus Analytics.

The city is located 306 km south of state capital Gandhinagar, and is situated on the left bank of the Tapti River (Tapi), the centre being around 22 km (14 mi) from its mouth. A moat divides the older parts of the city, with its narrow streets and handsome houses, and the newer suburbs. The city is largely recognised for its textile and diamond businesses. It is also known as the diamond capital of the world and the textile capital/Manchester textile city of India, a distinction it took over from Ahmedabad. It is also knows as the "Embroidery capital of India" with the highest number of embroidery machines than any other city.[6] 92% of the world's diamonds are cut and polished in Surat.[6] It has one of the highest GDP growth rates in India at 11.5% as of 2008.[6] Surat was the primary port of India during the Mughal period, a distinction it lost to Bombay during the British Raj.[6]

Contents

History

Akbars triumphal entry into Surat in 1572

Surat is mentioned in the Sanskrit epic, the Mahābhārata, when Lord Krishna stopped there en route from Mathura to Dwarka. According to other later Sanskrit records, the area was ruled by the Western Chālukyas in 610 CE, and continued to be ruled by Hindu kings until it was captured by one of the generals of Quṭbuddīn Aibak. The Parsis started to settle there in the 12th century, and added greatly to its prosperity. In the early centuries during the reign of Maratha King, the port of Surat was used as the gateway to Mecca for pilgrims of the Hajj from India's interior regions. Both the Makkai Pul and the Mughal Sarai guest house for hajjis (pilgrims) are indicators of this historical significance.

Local traditions state that the city as we know it today was founded in the last years of the fifteenth century by a Brahman named Gopi, who called it Suryapūr (City of the Sun). In 1512 and 1530 Surat was burned and ravaged by the Portuguese Empire who were trying to maintain influence in the area. In 1513, the Portuguese traveller, Duarte Barbosa, described Surat as an important seaport, frequented by many ships from Malabar and various parts of the world. By 1520, the name of the city was Surat.[7]

Surat eclipsed Khambhat as the major port of western India, when Khambhat's harbour began to silt up by the end of fifteenth century. During the reigns of the Mughal emperors Akbar, Jahāngīr and Shāh Jahān, Surat rose to become a chief commercial city of India, and an imperial mint was established there. As the major port on the west coast of India, Surat also served as the port for the Hajj to Mecca. At the end of the 16th century, the Portuguese were undisputed masters of the Surat sea trade. There still is a picturesque fortress on the banks of the river built in 1540.

In 1608, ships from the British East India Company started docking in Surat, using it as a trade and transit point. In 1615, the British Captain Best, followed by Captain Downton, overcame Portuguese naval supremacy and obtained an imperial firman establishing a British factory at Surat following the Battle of Swally. The city was made the seat of a presidency under the British East India Company after the success of the embassy God of Wealth. In 1664 the Maratha King Shree Chhatrapati Shivaji attacked Surat,[8] a key Mughal power centre and a wealthy port town, which generated a million rupees in taxes. When Shivaji arrived in Surat, he demanded tribute from the Mughal commander of the army stationed for port security. The tribute was refused and, instead of battling the Marathas, the Mughal commander(Stationed at the Surat fort) sent an emissary to assassinate Shivaji, but in vain. Shivaji conquered the city, and forces under his command exacted their revenge. Shivaji's army sacked Surat for nearly 3 weeks, looting both the Mughal and Portuguese trading centres.

The prosperity of Surat received a fatal blow when Surat was ceded to the British as part of the dowry for Catherine of Braganza's wedding to Charles II in 1662. Shortly afterwards, in 1668, the British East India company established a factory in Bombay (Mumbai) and Surat began its relative decline concurrent with the rise of British interests in Bombay.

Surat was sacked again by Shivaji in 1670. By 1687, the British East India Company had moved the presidency to Bombay. At its height, Surat's population reached an estimated 800,000, but by the middle of the 19th century the number had fallen to 80,000. The British took control of Surat again in 1759, and assumed all government powers of the city in 1800.

The city and the surrounding district remained comparatively tranquil during British rule. Even during the Revolt of 1857 (also known as the first struggle for India's independence), peace was not disturbed, owing to the largely mercantile interests of the local population.In the 19th century the Bawamia family was the wealthiest and most powerful family in the city of Surat, they were also heavily involved in the development of the city by focusing on maximising exports to increase revenue and hence increase savings which led to investment in the diamond industry.

A fire and a flood in 1837 destroyed many of buildings of Surat. Among the interesting monuments that survive that destruction are the tombs of English and Dutch merchants and their families, dating to the 17th century, including those of the Oxenden brothers.

By the early 20th century, the population had slowly climbed to 119,306 and Surat was a center of trade and manufacturing, although some of its former industries, such as shipbuilding, were extinct. There were cotton mills, factories for ginning and pressing cotton, rice-cleaning mills and paper mills. Fine cotton goods were woven on hand-looms, and there were special manufactures of silk brocade and gold embroidery (known as Jari). The chief trades were organised in guilds. Manufacturing and trading brought an eclectic mix of ethnicity to the city, making Surat's culture unique.

In 1992, violent riots took place between Hindus and Muslims, the first and worst of their kind in the modern history of Surat. In 1994, a combination of heavy rains and blocked drains led to flooding of the city. A number of dead street animals and public waste were not removed in time and a plague epidemic spread through the city, which caused a number of countries to impose travel and trade sanctions. The municipal commissioner during that time, S. R. Rao and the people of Surat worked hard in the late 1990s to clean the city.

Surat is also home to the royal descendants of the amejee family which settled in Gujarat. The family were known to have to also have lineage to the mogul emperors. The family governed the manikpur district and were later known as the Bhana family.

Old English & Dutch Cemetery

The structure of the Old English and Old Dutch cemeteries in Surat is dominated by the largest monuments of Europeans in all over India. These graves are also some of the oldest tombs which have survived from the earliest times of British and Dutch activities at Surat.

The English traders settled in Surat in 1608 followed by the Dutch in 1617. French and also Swedes – even for just a short period – commenced trading-enterprises here. However, it seems that there are no remnants of their burial culture left today. Along with the Dutch, Armenian traders also left quite a big cemetery in Surat. Both nations share the same burial ground only separated by a wall.

Geography

Surat the second capital of Gujarat is growing much as its neighbouring metro Bombay and by 2020 it is estimated that Surat will be the largest city in Gujarat state and its urbanisation will stretch from Kosamba in north to Billimora in south. Surat is a port city situated on the banks of the Tapti river (damming of the Tapti caused the original port facilities to close, the nearest port is now in the Hazira area of Surat Metropolitan Region). The city is located at 21°10′N 72°50′E / 21.17°N 72.83°E / 21.17; 72.83.[9] It has an average elevation of 13 meters. The Surat district is surrounded by Bharuch, Narmada (North), Navsari and Dang (South) districts. To the west is the Gulf of Cambay. The climate is tropical and monsoon rainfall is abundant (about 2,500 mm a year).

Surat has grown in area since the early 1700s. The oldest part of the city developed in the area between the train station and the area known as Athwalines. Since the 1970s most of the new development including the most desirable location for the city's burgeoning middle and upper class is the area between Athwalines and the coast at Dumas.

Climate

Surat has a tropical savanna climate, moderated strongly by the Arabian Sea. The summer begins in early March and lasts till June. April and May are the hottest months, the average maximum temperature being 40 °C (104 °F). Monsoon begins in late June and the city receives about 1,000 millimetres (39 in) of rain by the end of September, with the average maximum being 32 °C (90 °F) during those months. October and November see the retreat of the monsoon and a return of high temperatures till late November. Winter starts in December and ends in late February, with average temperatures of around 23 °C (73 °F), and little rain.

Very often heavy monsoon rain brings floods in the Tapi basin area. In last two decades, the city has witnessed major floods every four years, the worst being the flood of August 2006, perhaps the costliest in the city's history. In the second week of August 2006, a massive flood caused severe damage to the city of Surat. According to a report released by Indian Institute of Management – Ahmedabad (IIM-A), massive flood after release of water from Ukai Dam had caused major human tragedy and property damage estimated at Rs 220 billion on that day. In less than three days, at least 150 people died directly due to flood and many other due to water-borne diseases that followed. More than 1500 animal carcasses were later hauled out of the mud.[10]

Climate data for Surat, Gujarat (1932–1980)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 37.8
(100.0)
39.4
(102.9)
43.3
(109.9)
45.0
(113.0)
45.0
(113.0)
45.6
(114.1)
38.9
(102.0)
37.2
(99.0)
38.9
(102.0)
41.1
(106.0)
38.9
(102.0)
36.7
(98.1)
45.6
(114.1)
Average high °C (°F) 30.6
(87.1)
33.3
(91.9)
36.7
(98.1)
39.4
(102.9)
40.6
(105.1)
35.0
(95.0)
31.7
(89.1)
31.7
(89.1)
31.7
(89.1)
32.8
(91.0)
30.6
(87.1)
29.4
(84.9)
33.6
Average low °C (°F) 15.6
(60.1)
17.8
(64.0)
21.1
(70.0)
24.4
(75.9)
25.0
(77.0)
23.3
(73.9)
22.2
(72.0)
21.7
(71.1)
21.7
(71.1)
20.6
(69.1)
17.2
(63.0)
15.0
(59.0)
20.5
Record low °C (°F) 4.4
(39.9)
5.6
(42.1)
10.6
(51.1)
15.0
(59.0)
19.4
(66.9)
21.7
(71.1)
20.6
(69.1)
21.1
(70.0)
20.6
(69.1)
14.4
(57.9)
10.6
(51.1)
6.7
(44.1)
4.4
(39.9)
Rainfall mm (inches) 3.0
(0.118)
3.0
(0.118)
2.0
(0.079)
2.0
(0.079)
5.0
(0.197)
218.0
(8.583)
442.0
(17.402)
191.0
(7.52)
150.0
(5.906)
38.0
(1.496)
8.0
(0.315)
3.0
(0.118)
1,065.0
(41.929)
Sunshine hours 279.0 282.4 279.0 300.0 310.0 210.0 124.0 93.0 210.0 279.0 270.0 279.0 2,915.4
Source no. 1: Sistema de Clasificación Bioclimática Mundial[11]
Source no. 2: World Climate Guide (sunshine only)[12]

Economy

Surat Growth Map

The gross domestic product of Surat metro was estimated at $10 billion in 2010. Surat is known for diamonds, textiles and recently for diamond-studded gold jewellery manufacturing. Real Estate is a new emerging business in Surat.

The City accounts for:

   + 70 % of the world’s total rough diamond cutting and polishing,
   + 90 % of the nation’s total rough diamond cutting and polishing,
   + 40 % of the nation’s total diamond exports,
   + 40 % of the nation’s total man made fabric production,
   + 28 % of the nation’s total man made fibre production
   + 18 % of the nation’s total man made fibre export, and
   + 12 % of the nation’s total fabric production.

Diamond polishing

Surat is famous for its diamond industry and textile industry, along with silk and chemicals. It is at the heart of the world's diamond-polishing industry, which in 2005 cut 92% of the world's diamond pieces and earned India $15 billion in exports. Gujarati diamond cutters emigrating from East Africa established the industry in 1901 and by the 1970s Surat-based diamond cutters began exporting stones to the US for the first time. Though much of the polishing work takes place on small weight stones, Surat's workshops have set their eyes on the lucrative market for finishing larger, pricier stones in the future.

The 18 November 2008 issue of the Wall Street Journal had an article about the diamond industry in Surat. It claims that 80% of the world's finished diamonds are cut and polished in this city. However the wages of the industry's workers remained flat for years and 250,000 workers, or one-third of the city's diamond industry workforce, has left between 2005–2008, leaving about 500,000. Only after a July 2008 strike did the workers obtain a 20% salary raise, their first in a decade. Most of diamonds are polished in Varachha area.

Textiles

Surat is known for producing world-class synthetic textiles.".[13]

Surti households have been declared the most prosperous in the country by the National Council of Applied Economic Research (NCAER) and Future Capital Research's Roopa Purushothaman in their latest study. The average annual household income (AHI) in the diamond city is Rs 457,000 – the highest in the country.[14] The study says that Surat's AHI is almost equal to China's per capita income of 2007 and double the national per capita income. Even its GDP growth of 11.5 per cent for the many consecutive years is the fastest in the country.[15] Recently Surat's diamond and textile industry faced the recession due to slowdown in US economy but is recovering. Jari, the oldest business in Surat, and 80000 embroidery units make the city a major center of the embroidery industry.

Mega Industries:Hazira Zone

Surat also has many industrial Giants such as KRIBHCO mammoth fertiliser plant, Reliance petrochemical plant, Essar's 10 million tonne steel plant, L&T's heavy engineering unit, GSEG, gas processing plant of ONGC,GAIL(Gas Authority India Ltd.), Niko Resources Ltd(MNC A Canadian based company Olpad, Surat, Gujarat Type of Project: Exploration and Production Oil & Gas), NTPC -KGPP gas based power plant, Shell LNG terminal All these at Hazira and ABG Shipyard (Shipbuilding Yard) and Ambuja Cement (grinding Unit) at Magdalla port where as Torrent Power has mega power plant and GIPCL has got a huge lignite power plant in kamrej area. L&T colony & Bachelor hostel and ONGC colony are situated near to the airport.

Real Estate

Housing sector is the most preferred segment in Surat too like in other parts of the country. Leading property developers are coming up with all kinds of affordable and luxury homes to woo buyers from all classes i.e. to cater to the needs of both nationals and NRIs. Though the industrial sector of the city is quite well established, expansion work is going on in full swing. Even the retail property sector is developing manifold to meet the recreation needs of its growing population with number of malls, multiplexes and retail outlets opening up across the city. Surat real estate is at its best with builders taking keen interest in developing property in the peripheries of the ‘Silk City'.

Government and politics

The Surat Municipal Corporation is responsible for the maintaining city's civic infrastructure as well as carrying out associated administrative duties. At present, BJP is the ruling party with majority. Surat Municipal Corporation is one of the wealthiest municipal corporation in India. Surat has the maximum number of flyovers in India .

Transportation

Air

Till September 2007 Surat was the only city in the world with a population of over 4.6 million people without a functioning airport. This city is 4th fastest growing city in the world, having largest GDP in India, this city is 2nd biggest city in Gujarat and 9th biggest city in India. The Surat Airport was closed down due to technical reasons in 2001. The new airport finally became functional with Surat-Delhi IA flight on 6 May 2007. Currently daily flight is operated to Delhi (Except Saturday). By June 2012, Surat will get a full fledged (Not Official clearance & commitment given) International Airport which is under construction at Magdalla-Dumas near Surat. A movement for airport has begun on the social networking site "Facebook".

Rail

Surat railway station is under the administrative control of the Western Railway zone of the Indian Railways. Erection of Surat Railway Station was began in 1860 AD. It connects Surat with Bombay, Delhi, Ahmedabad, Vadodara, Indore, Jaipur, Jabalpur, Satna, Patna, Bhopal and other cities of North India. There is also a connection to the Central Railway zone through Udhana Railway Junction and the Tapti line which connects Surat with cities of central India namely Jalgaon, Amravati and Nagpur. Passenger trains range from local trains that stop at all stations on the way to express trains like the August Kranti Rajdhani Express and the Mumbai Rajdhani Express. In addition, there are freight trains that move the goods produced by the city to the rest of the country and beyond, and bring supplies into the city. Surat Railway Station which was built by the British is one of its kind in India, as the railway platform is on the first floor of the railway station and the train reaches the platform through an inclined ramp.Surat railway station is situated at first floor which is highest level of railway station in India. The proposal for double laning of Surat-Hazira line has been approved and so has been the Udhana-Jalgaon line. The central railway station "Udhana" will be more in demand once the double laning of Udhana-Jalgaon line is completed.

Sea

Surat has its own port which is used for shipping freight. A plan to connect Surat with Bombay, Goa, Dubai, Bhavnagar through ferry services is moving forward. The Surat-Bhavnagar ferry service is much awaited by the citizens. This would help Surat connect with the Saurashtra region of Gujarat state, reducing commuting time by at least 6 hours.

Road

Due to heavy traffic congestion on major highways passing through Surat city New expressways are planned and will be completed by 2013. Surat has excellent roads according to Business Today Magazine.[13] Surat Municipal Corporation tries to improve road infrastructure of the city. The major highways passing through Surat are the Udhana-Mumbai Highway also known as Udhana-Navsari Highway, Surat-Ahmedabad Highway also kown as Varachha Main Road, Surat-Kolkata Highway also known as Dhulia Highway. Due to rapid urbanisation and to get rid of fatal accidents Surat Municipal Corporation and Surat Urban Development Authority has planned to develop an Outer Ring Road and Middle Ring Road which are under construction to decongest the traffic from the major Highways passing through city. The city has recently seen the completion of a large number of road projects, particularly elevated roads, flyovers, in the diamond and textile zones of the city. Surat is also known as city of flyovers having the highest number of flyover in India. This has significantly cut down the commuting time for many people travelling to the diamond and textile districts. One of the very few "Multi-Layer Flyovers" in India is now in Surat over Majura Gate. The Eastern expressway also known as Varachha Flyway is one of India's longest flyover under city municipal limits in the four lane category.[16][17]

The Golden Quadrilateral highway system passes through Surat. The city is connected to the National Highway 8 through a 16 km connector highway. National highway 6, also known as Surat – Kolkata Highway, starts from Hazira and passes through surat city and connects the city to Dhule, Amravati, Nagpur, Raipur, Sambalpur, Kharagpur and Calcutta. The National Highway 228, also known as Dandi Heritage highway, starts from Sabarmati in Ahmedabad and passes through Anand, Kheda, Ankleshwar and passes through Surat city to Navsari and ends up in Dandi.

Local transport

On 22 August 2008, the SMSS bus service was opened by the city Mayor Dr. Kanubhai Mavani. It is considered the best city bus services in India. These buses are CNG-fuelled and have an LCD screen in the front giving details about the journey. The conductor uses an electronic machine to print out the tickets. The bus stops are modern and comfortable. The bus service in general is relatively hi-tech and modern. Bus rapid transit system is planned for the city and the project is expected to be completed by end of 2011.

Infrastructure

Surat has a computerised water distribution system and while computerised drainage system is under implementation. It has one of the best water treatment plants in India. Every part of Surat has drainage and street lights.[13] Several government and private run hospitals are there in Surat to provide medical assistance to the citizens and the visitors. The authority has stressed on E-Governance to bring speed in the overall administration works. Numerous top grade schools and colleges enrich the education scenario of the Surat City.

Demographics

The population of Surat according to new city limits is 4,706,429.[3] Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Surat has an average literacy rate of 83%, higher than the national average of 79.5%: male literacy is 81%, and female literacy is 70%. Gujarati, Sindhi, Hindi, Marvadi, Marathi, Telugu, and Oriya are the main languages spoken in Surat. In Surat, 13% of the population is under 6 years of age. Over 0.6 million people or about 11% hail from Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. Surat also has sizeable Parsi and Jewish populations.

Dawoodi Bohra also made Surat (1787AD onward) it's Dawat office in the era of 42nd Dai Syedna Yusuf Najmuddin. It continued up to the period of 51st Dai Taher Saifuddin (1915-1965AD), when it was shifted to Mumbai.

Because of unauthorised residential buildings and slums, which cause difficulties in counting the residents of these areas, combined with the explosive growth in population (mostly through migration), it is generally believed that as of 2009 about 5.0 million people live within the Surat Municipal Corporation.

Culture and festivals

Surat is known for its Surti cuisine, which includes perennial favourites such as "Ghari" (a type of sweet), Locho, Undhiyu, Rasaawala Khaman, and Surti Chinese. Unlike cuisines in other parts of Gujarat, Surti cuisine is quite spicy. Roadside kiosks, called "laaris" or "rekdis", are quite popular in Surat. In the cooler winter months, Surtis converge at river Tapi's banks to eat Ponk, a roasted cereal that is available only in this part of the world. Surat is the only major city in Gujarat which has a vibrant non-vegetarian food culture. Novel dishes made from eggs (ghotala, kheema, half fry) are specialties which are savoured with much gusto. Apart from this the traditional mutton preparation of tapela, fish(patra macchi), and lemon chicken can be relished in the old city area.

All major Indian festivals are celebrated in Surat. Navratri, Diwali and Ganesh Chaturthi are celebrated with great enthusiasm. The kite-flying festival of Uttarayan which falls on Makar Sankranti – 14 January – is very popular in the city. It is also well known for the celebration of Chandi Padvo which usually occurs around October and is a holiday unique to Surat. This day comes after one of the two biggest full moon days of the Hindu calendar year, "Sharad Purnima". On this day, Surtis buy almost 100 tons of Ghari and other Surti delicacies.

Education

Schools in Surat are either municipal schools, run by the Surat Municipal Corporation or private schools, which in some cases receive financial aid from the government. The schools are affiliated to the Gujarat Secondary and Higher Secondary Education Board (GSEB), the Central Board for Secondary Education (CBSE) and few schools are affiliated under National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS). Gujarati or English are the usual languages of instruction. The government-run public schools lack many facilities, but are the only option for poorer residents who cannot afford the more expensive private schools. A majority of residents prefer private schools because of better infrastructure and the use of English as a medium of instruction. Some of the best schools in Surat are J.H. Ambani Saraswati Vidyamandir,Essar International School, Ryan International School, St.Xavier's, Metas of Seventhday Adventist and G.D. Goenka International School

Surat is the home of Shree V. T. Choksi Suryapur Sanskrit Mahavidyalaya, located in Amliran near the Kavi Narmad Chaklo.

Surat has the prestigious Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology (SVNIT), commonly known to local people as SVR from its earlier name SVREC (Sardar Vallabhbhai Regional Engineering College). It is one of the National Institutes of Technologies, which are considered premier institutes for engineering and technology education in India. With its festivals throughout the year, the college maintains a vibrant atmosphere inside as well as outside the campus. The college is favourite destination for morning joggers of the city.[18]

There are a few other engineering colleges in Surat, namely Government Engineering College, Surat (GEC)- Dr. S. & S. S. Ghandhy College of Engineering & Technology Campus,[19][20][21] Sarvajanik College of Engineering and Technology (SCET), C K Pithawala College of Engineering and Technology (CKPCET), Bhagwan Mahavir College of Engineering and Technology.

The city has two medical colleges – "Government Medical College and New Civil Hospital" and "SMIMER", both awarding the degrees of MBBS and MD,MS. The city also holds one Ayurvedic college namely "Shri O.H.Nazar Ayurvedic College and Hospital", awarding BAMS degree, affiliated to Gujarat Ayurved University,Jamnagar,Gujarat,India. C. D. Pachchigar Homoeopathic (Homeopathic) Medical College and The Sarvajanik College of Physiotherapy at Rampura offer courses in homoeopathy and physiotherapy respectively.

Al Jamea tus Saifiyah is an Islamic Arabic Academy situated in the heart of Surat city, with a sister campus in the northern foothills of Karachi, Pakistan. It is a leading theological University for Dawoodi Bohras. It was founded in 1814 by the 43rd Dai Syedna Abdeali Saifuddin [R.A].

In 1920, Dawoodi Bohra's 51st Dai the late Dr Syedna Taher Saifuddin transformed this institution into a university that also promoted education for Bohra girls. Present Dai Dr Syedna Mohammad Burhanuddin has expanded it with the state-of-the-art facilities including International Baccalaureate Office (IBO) which has acceptance worldwide.

Under the 10+2+3 format, students attend primary and secondary schooling during the first ten years and then may complete two years of higher secondary education, followed by three years at college for commerce, arts or science degrees.Generally, engineering degree courses take four years, while medicine takes about five and half years or more. Most colleges in the city are affiliated with the Veer Narmad South Gujarat University.

Surat is also the home to the institution, Educationam which is growing to cater not just to Chartered Accountants but also in the area of Primary & Secondary Education.

A Parsi Theatre Academy is being opened in the Muglisara area of Surat, by Yezdi Karanjia, who has a long experience in staging Parsi plays. It is hoped that it will generate some interest among schoolgoers, and breath new cultural life into the dwindling community.[22]

Media

Gujarat Mitra, one of the oldest and most respected dailies of the country, is the most popular daily newspaper of Surat and South Gujarat. Besides Gujarat Mitra, other dailies include Gujarat Samachar, Sandesh, Divya Bhaskar and Commodity World. Local editions of these newspapers are published in Gujarati. Loktej was the first Hindi daily published in Surat. Rajasthan Patrika and Savera are now the top Hindi daily newspapers in Surat. The national English dailies such as The Times of India, Indian Express and Mid Day are the most popular English-language newspapers. DNA-Daily News and Analysis is a new addition to the list of English dailies available in Surat. Many Marathi newspapers like Loksatta, Lokmat, Sakal are also available in Surat.

Since the city has the largest synthetic textile manufacturing center in India, there is an exclusive textile newspaper called Textile Graph.(Web site: www.textilegraphonline.com) It is published in Surat, since 1994, in Gujarati and Hindi versions. The 'Textile Directory of Surat' (5th. edition) comprising business information of textile traders and industry in and around Surat is also published by Textile Graph.

Most cable service providers have local television channels. Satellite TV DTH services are provided by DISH TV, TATA SKY,Airtel,SUN DIRECT, BIG TV. Broadband internet connections are also available in the city. Broadband service providers include BSNL, TATA Indicom, Reliance Communication, YOU Broadband and Hathway Communications. Wi-Fi connectivity is available at many cafes. Currently, Surat has four FM Radio stations – Radio City 91.1, Radio Mirchi 98.3, My FM 94.3, Big FM 92.7, 93.5 Red FM along with the national radio 101.00 Vividh Bharati.

Sports

Magdalla Boat Race

Surat has many sports facilities, the majority of them are dedicated to cricket. The Lalbhai Contractor Stadium and the Pithawala Cricket stadiums have facilities for hosting cricket matches. In addition, Surat has an indoor stadium, used to host events like badminton and table tennis, with modern facilities and seating capacity for 7000. There are a few sports clubs which provide many types of indoor and outdoor games, including the Surat Tennis Club, Surat City Gymkhana and Rander Gymkhana (RG). Recently one of the biggest swimming pools in the city has been opened near Palanpur Patiya area. The Rander area also hosts the Royal Cricket Ground.

An annual boat race takes place in Surat, in the Tapi river, starting from an island in Arabian sea, sailing upstream Tapi to Magdalla.

Satellite towns

Surat is a metropolitan city with a metropolitan region of around 4207 km2. It has many satellite towns within 30 to 100 km radius.

These are some of the important Satellite Towns of Surat Metropolitan Region:

  1. Hazira
  2. Kadodara
  3. Bardoli
  4. Palsana
  5. Bilimora
  6. Bamroli
  7. Sachin-Kanakpur-Kansad
  8. Navsari
  9. Olpad
  10. Sayan
  11. Kim
  12. Kosamba-Tarasadi
  13. Dindoli

Places of interest

The Chintamani Jain Temple – The exquisite wooden carvings and paintings are the major attractions of the temple. The temple actively maintained and visited by the city's Jains is situated in the Shahpor area and dates back to 15 century and houses some extremely rare paintings of the Jain monk Acharya Hemachandra, and of the Solanki King Kumarpal. Any visit to the city would be incomplete without a visit here especially for Jains.

Dutch Garden – The ancient Dutch gardens, the Dutch cemetery and Makaipul, the ancient original port from where the ships sailed to other parts of the world are other attractions.

"Suvali beach located near Hazira is a far away beach located in the remotest area of Surat."

"Hazira beach at Hazria village."

"Dandi beach at Dandi village."

The Surat Fort – The Old Fort was built by Britishers in the 1616 to fortify the defence against the Bhils. It is now used for municipal offices.

The Sardar Patel Museum – Established in 1898, and originally called the Winchester Museum;, this museum has a collection of over 10,000 specimens of arts and crafts.

Gaurav Path – A well planned and well-built 6 lane road to decongest the traffic in Piplod area of the city. Dotted with multiplexes, shopping malls, show-rooms and restaurants. This road connects the city to its airport and Port of Magdalla. Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology is also located on this road. Extending this road till Dumas is underway.

'SHREE SARWESHVAR MANDIR DHAM- A temple near parvat patia Surat, there are almost gods and goddess statue belong Hindu samaj also shani dev mandir Shree Ramesh Jhanwar, Shree Govind Bajaj, Shree Laxminarayan Prajapati, Shree Murli prajapati, Shree Dwarka Parsad Taparia, Dr. Mahesh Patel, Shree Satishji Sharma are founder team of this temple. All Kalash Yatra is start from SHREE SARVESHWAR MANDIR DHAM for any Function and Katha Bhagwat in Parvat Patia area.

Jawaharlal Nehru Garden – Colloquially known as Chowpaty, this is the largest and one of the oldest gardens in the city. It houses a musical fountain as well. The adjoining area is one of the most famous eating spots with sequences of stalls serving Indian snacks along with Chinese and South Indian cuisines.

Saputara is a hill station in the Sahyadri Hills only 170 km from Surat at an altitude of 1140 meters above sea level. Lying at a higher altitude Saputara has a cool climate.

Wilson Hills, Gujarat is a hill station in the Sahyadri ranges of Valsad district near dharampur at an altitude of 850 meters (2700 feet) above sea level. The nearest hill station of Surat. It enjoys a cool and a serene climate throughout the year. It is only 120 km from Surat.

Vansda National Park – It is situated in the Navsari district and is home to leopards, tigers, panthers,pythons and wild boars. The best time to visit is between July and January.

Beaches – There are a number of beaches near Surat. Only 16 km away, Dumas is a popular resort with locals. Suvali is 28 km from the city and Ubhrat is 42 km out, while Tithal is 108 km away and only five km from Valsad on the Mumbai to Vadodara railway line. Suvali has two wells with water rich in iron and sulphur. Suvali beach is fringed by feathery casurina trees.

Thirty-nine kilometres south of Surat, Navsari- The Twin city of Surat has been a headquarters for the Parsi community since the earliest days of their settlement in India. Udvada, only 10 km north of Vapi, the station for Daman, has the oldest Parsi sacred fire[disambiguation needed ] in India. It is said that the fire was brought from Persia to Diu, on the opposite coast of the Gulf of Cambay, in AD 700. Sanjan, in the extreme south of the state, is the small port where the Parsis first landed; a pillar marks the spot.

The Dutch Cemetery – Located near Kataragam Gate, this impressive mausoleum is that of Baron Hendrik Adriaan Van Rheede tot Drakenstein, who died in 1691. A massive Dome, beautiful pillars and the huge gallery make it a very outstanding monument.[23]

Science City – One of the best Science City in India. Developed by the Surat Municipal Corporation in City Light Town and is one of the most attractive places in the city.

Photo gallery

Tapi River  
Kargil Shahid Chowk  
Gaurav Path  
Eiffel Tower Replica (now shifted)  
Magdalla Bridge over Tapi River, part of NH6  

References

  1. ^ "Mid-Year Population Estimates". Surat Municipal Corporation. http://www.suratmunicipal.gov.in/content/city/stmt13.shtml. Retrieved 2010-09-15. 
  2. ^ "Chandigarh cleanest city, Mysore number two". CNN-IBN. 2010-05-11. http://ibnlive.in.com/news/190-cities-lack-liveable-condition-government/115038-3.html. Retrieved 2010-09-13. 
  3. ^ a b "Union Ministry gives Surat 'global megacity' status". oneindia. http://news.oneindia.in/2007/02/08/union-ministry-gives-surat-global-megacity-status-1171025079.html. 
  4. ^ http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2011-07-23/surat/29807187_1_smaller-cities-growth-rate-surat
  5. ^ http://specials.rediff.com/money/2008/feb/06sld1.htm
  6. ^ a b c d Adiga, Aravind (2004-04-12). "Uncommon Brilliance". Time Magazine. Archived from the original on 2010-01-16. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,501040419-610100,00.html. Retrieved 2007-10-17. 
  7. ^ "Name of City". Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/574951/Surat#ref=ref275386. Retrieved 2007-10-17. 
  8. ^ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Surat
  9. ^ "Location". Falling Rain. http://www.fallingrain.com/world/IN/9/Surat.htm. Retrieved 2009-11-06. [dead link]
  10. ^ "IIM-A Report on Flood". IIM-A. http://www.iimahd.ernet.in/publications/public/FullText.jsp?wp_no=2008-07-06. Retrieved 2008-07-06. [dead link]
  11. ^ "INDIA – SURAT". Centro de Investigaciones Fitosociológicas. http://www.ucm.es/info/cif/station/in-surat.htm. Retrieved 2011-09-24. 
  12. ^ "Surat Climate Guide". World Climate Guide. http://www.worldclimateguide.co.uk/climateguides/india/surat.php. Retrieved 2011-09-24. 
  13. ^ a b c "Next Best Cities Of India". Business Today. http://businesstoday.intoday.in/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=11651&Itemid=1&issueid=19&sectionid=22&secid=0&limit=1&limitstart=3. Retrieved 2009-11-06. 
  14. ^ Mehta, Yagnesh (2008-08-09). "Annual Income". NCAER. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/3344364.cms. Retrieved 2009-04-05. 
  15. ^ "GDP". Indicus Analytics. http://www.financialexpress.com/news/gdp-growth-surat-fastest-mumbai-largest/266636/. Retrieved 2009-04-05. 
  16. ^ "Varachha flyover may not be the longest". The Times of India (India). 2004-01-30. Archived from the original on 2004-10-24. http://web.archive.org/web/20041024202417/http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/453731.cms. Retrieved 2010-05-07. 
  17. ^ "CM to inaugurate Varachha flyover". The Times of India (India). 2004-01-29. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/ahmedabad/CM-to-inaugurate-Varachha-flyover/articleshow/450954.cms. Retrieved 2010-05-07. 
  18. ^ SVNIT webpage. Archived 2009-06-03 at WebCite.
  19. ^ http://ghandhycollegesurat.org
  20. ^ http://www.gecsurat.com
  21. ^ http://teb.gujarat.gov.in/inst_02.htm    "http://gtuinfo.in/Engineering-Diploma/GTUCollegeDetail/612/Dr.S.and+S.S.Gandhi+college+of+Engg.+And+Technology,Surat.aspx"
  22. ^ "Parsi Theater". Times of India. India. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/Cities/Ahmedabad/Parsi_theatre_academy_in_Surat/articleshow/1593424.cms. Retrieved 2007-02-11. 
  23. ^ "Dutch Governor's Tomb". British Library. http://www.bl.uk/onlinegallery/onlineex/apac/photocoll/d/019pho000000201u00029000.html. Retrieved 2009-04-05. 

External links


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