- Pablo Picasso
Pablo Picasso in 1962
Birth name Pablo Diego José Francisco de Paula Juan Nepomuceno María de los Remedios Cipriano de la Santísima Trinidad Ruiz y Picasso Born 25 October 1881
Died 8 April 1973(aged 91)
Nationality Spanish Field Painting, Drawing, Sculpture, Printmaking, Ceramics Training José Ruiz y Blasco (father),
Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando
Movement Cubism Works Les Demoiselles d'Avignon (1907)
The Weeping Woman (1937)
Pablo Diego José Francisco de Paula Juan Nepomuceno María de los Remedios Cipriano de la Santísima Trinidad Ruiz y Picasso known as Pablo Ruiz Picasso (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈpaβlo ˈrwiθ piˈkaso]; 25 October 1881 – 8 April 1973) was a Spanish expatriate painter, sculptor, printmaker, ceramicist, and stage designer, one of the greatest and most influential artists of the 20th century. He is widely known for co-founding the Cubist movement and for the wide variety of styles that he helped develop and explore. Among his most famous works are the proto-Cubist Les Demoiselles d'Avignon (1907) and Guernica (1937), a portrayal of the German bombing of Guernica during the Spanish Civil War.
The enormous body of Picasso's work remains, and the legend lives on—a tribute to the vitality of the "disquieting" Spaniard with the "sombre…piercing" eyes who superstitiously believed that work would keep him alive. For nearly 80 of his 91 years Picasso devoted himself to an artistic production that contributed significantly to and paralleled the whole development of modern art in the 20th century.
Picasso's art from the time of the Demoiselles was radical in nature, virtually no 20th-century artist could escape his influence. Moreover, while other masters such as Matisse or Braque tended to stay within the bounds of a style they had developed in their youth, Picasso continued to be an innovator into the last decade of his life. This led to misunderstanding and criticism both in his lifetime and since, and it was only in the 1980s that his last paintings began to be appreciated both in themselves and for their profound influence on the rising generation of young painters. Since Picasso was able from the 1920s to sell works at very high prices, he could keep most of his oeuvre in his own collection. At the time of his death he owned some 50,000 works in various media from every period of his career, which passed into possession of the French state and his heirs. Their exhibition and publication has served to reinforce the highest estimates of Picasso's astonishing powers of invention and execution over a span of more than 80 years.
- 1 Early life
- 2 Career beginnings
- 3 Political views
- 4 Art
- 5 Commemoration and legacy
- 6 See also
- 7 Notes
- 8 References
- 9 External links
Picasso was baptized Pablo Diego José Francisco de Paula Juan Nepomuceno María de los Remedios Crispiniano de la Santísima Trinidad, a series of names honoring various saints and relatives. Added to these were Ruiz and Picasso, for his father and mother, respectively, as per Spanish law. Born in the city of Málaga in the Andalusian region of Spain, he was the first child of Don José Ruiz y Blasco (1838–1913) and María Picasso y López. Picasso’s family was middle-class. His father was a painter who specialized in naturalistic depictions of birds and other game. For most of his life Ruiz was a professor of art at the School of Crafts and a curator of a local museum. Ruiz’s ancestors were minor aristocrats.
Picasso showed a passion and a skill for drawing from an early age. According to his mother, his first words were “piz, piz”, a shortening of lápiz, the Spanish word for ‘pencil’. From the age of seven, Picasso received formal artistic training from his father in figure drawing and oil painting. Ruiz was a traditional, academic artist and instructor who believed that proper training required disciplined copying of the masters, and drawing the human body from plaster casts and live models. His son became preoccupied with art to the detriment of his classwork.
The family moved to A Coruña in 1891, where his father became a professor at the School of Fine Arts. They stayed almost four years. On one occasion the father found his son painting over his unfinished sketch of a pigeon. Observing the precision of his son’s technique, an Apocrypha story relates that Ruiz felt that the thirteen-year-old Picasso had surpassed him, and vowed to give up painting, though paintings by Ruiz exist from later years.
In 1895, Picasso was traumatized when his seven-year-old sister, Conchita, died of diphtheria. After her death, the family moved to Barcelona, where Ruiz took a position at its School of Fine Arts. Picasso thrived in the city, regarding it in times of sadness or nostalgia as his true home. Ruiz persuaded the officials at the academy to allow his son to take an entrance exam for the advanced class. This process often took students a month, but Picasso completed it in a week, and the impressed jury admitted Picasso, who was 13. The student lacked discipline but made friendships that would affect him in later life. His father rented him a small room close to home so Picasso could work alone, yet Ruiz checked up on him numerous times a day, judging his son’s drawings. The two argued frequently.
Picasso’s father and uncle decided to send the young artist to Madrid’s Royal Academy of San Fernando, the country's foremost art school. At age 16, Picasso set off for the first time on his own, but he disliked formal instruction and quit attending classes soon after enrollment. Madrid, however, held many other attractions. The Prado housed paintings by Diego Velázquez, Francisco Goya, and Francisco Zurbarán. Picasso especially admired the works of El Greco; elements like the elongated limbs, arresting colors, and mystical visages are echoed in Picasso’s later work.
Picasso made his first trip to Paris in 1900, then the art capital of Europe. There, he met his first Parisian friend, the journalist and poet Max Jacob, who helped Picasso learn the language and its literature. Soon they shared an apartment; Max slept at night while Picasso slept during the day and worked at night. These were times of severe poverty, cold, and desperation. Much of his work was burned to keep the small room warm. During the first five months of 1901, Picasso lived in Madrid, where he and his anarchist friend Francisco de Asís Soler founded the magazine Arte Joven (Young Art), which published five issues. Soler solicited articles and Picasso illustrated the journal, mostly contributing grim cartoons depicting and sympathizing with the state of the poor. The first issue was published on 31 March 1901, by which time the artist had started to sign his work simply Picasso, while before he had signed Pablo Ruiz y Picasso.
By 1905 Picasso became a favorite of the American art collectors Leo and Gertrude Stein. Their older brother Michael Stein and his wife Sarah also became collectors of his work. Picasso painted portraits of both Gertrude Stein and her nephew Allan Stein. Gertrude Stein became Picasso's principal patron, acquiring his drawings and paintings and exhibiting them in her informal Salon at her home in Paris. At one of her gatherings in 1905, he met Henri Matisse, who was to become a lifelong friend and rival. The Steins introduced him to Claribel Cone and her sister Etta who were American art collectors; they also began to acquire Picasso and Matisse's paintings. Eventually Leo Stein moved to Italy, and Michael and Sarah Stein became patrons of Matisse; while Gertrude Stein continued to collect Picasso.
In 1907 Picasso joined an art gallery that had recently been opened in Paris by Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler. Kahnweiler was a German art historian, art collector who became one of the premier French art dealers of the 20th century. He was among the first champions of Pablo Picasso, Georges Braque and the Cubism that they jointly developed. Kahnweiler promoted burgeoning artists such as André Derain, Kees Van Dongen, Fernand Léger, Juan Gris, Maurice de Vlaminck and several others who had come from all over the globe to live and work in Montparnasse at the time.
In Paris, Picasso entertained a distinguished coterie of friends in the Montmartre and Montparnasse quarters, including André Breton, poet Guillaume Apollinaire, writer Alfred Jarry, and Gertrude Stein. Apollinaire was arrested on suspicion of stealing the Mona Lisa from the Louvre in 1911. Apollinaire pointed to his friend Picasso, who was also brought in for questioning, but both were later exonerated.
In the early 20th century, Picasso divided his time between Barcelona and Paris. In 1904, in the middle of a storm, he met Fernande Olivier, a Bohemian artist who became his mistress. Olivier appears in many of his Rose period paintings. After acquiring some fame and fortune, Picasso left Olivier for Marcelle Humbert, whom he called Eva Gouel. Picasso included declarations of his love for Eva in many Cubist works. Picasso was devastated by her premature death from illness at the age of 30 in 1915.
After World War I, Picasso made a number of important relationships with figures associated with Serge Diaghilev's Ballets Russes. Among his friends during this period were Jean Cocteau, Jean Hugo, Juan Gris and others. In the summer of 1918, Picasso married Olga Khokhlova, a ballerina with Sergei Diaghilev’s troupe, for whom Picasso was designing a ballet, Parade, in Rome; and they spent their honeymoon in the villa near Biarritz of the glamorous Chilean art patron Eugenia Errázuriz. Khokhlova introduced Picasso to high society, formal dinner parties, and all the social niceties attendant on the life of the rich in 1920s Paris. The two had a son, Paulo,  who would grow up to be a dissolute motorcycle racer and chauffeur to his father. Khokhlova’s insistence on social propriety clashed with Picasso’s bohemian tendencies and the two lived in a state of constant conflict. During the same period that Picasso collaborated with Diaghilev’s troup, he and Igor Stravinsky collaborated on Pulcinella in 1920. Picasso took the opportunity to make several drawings of the composer.
In 1927 Picasso met 17-year-old Marie-Thérèse Walter and began a secret affair with her. Picasso’s marriage to Khokhlova soon ended in separation rather than divorce, as French law required an even division of property in the case of divorce, and Picasso did not want Khokhlova to have half his wealth. The two remained legally married until Khokhlova’s death in 1955. Picasso carried on a long-standing affair with Marie-Thérèse Walter and fathered a daughter with her, named Maya. Marie-Thérèse lived in the vain hope that Picasso would one day marry her, and hanged herself four years after Picasso’s death. Throughout his life Picasso maintained a number of mistresses in addition to his wife or primary partner. Picasso was married twice and had four children by three women.
The photographer and painter Dora Maar was also a constant companion and lover of Picasso. The two were closest in the late 1930s and early 1940s, and it was Maar who documented the painting of Guernica.
War years and beyond
During the Second World War, Picasso remained in Paris while the Germans occupied the city. Picasso’s artistic style did not fit the Nazi ideal of art, so he did not exhibit during this time. Retreating to his studio, he continued to paint, producing works such as the Still Life with Guitar (1942) and The Charnel House (1944–48). Although the Germans outlawed bronze casting in Paris, Picasso continued regardless, using bronze smuggled to him by the French Resistance.
Around this time, Picasso took up writing as an alternative outlet. Between 1935 and 1959 he wrote over 300 poems. Largely untitled except for a date and sometimes the location of where it was written (for example “Paris 16 May 1936”), these works were gustatory, erotic and at times scatological, as were his two full-length plays Desire Caught by the Tail (1941) and The Four Little Girls (1949).
In 1944, after the liberation of Paris, Picasso began a romantic relationship with a young art student named Françoise Gilot. She was 40 years younger than he was. Picasso grew tired of his mistress Dora Maar; Picasso and Gilot began to live together. Eventually they had two children: Claude, born in 1947 and Paloma, born in 1949. In her 1964 book Life with Picasso, she describes his abusive treatment and myriad infidelities which led her to leave him, taking the children with her. This was a severe blow to Picasso.
Picasso had affairs with women an even greater age disparity than his and Gilot's. While still involved with Gilot, in 1951 Picasso had a six-week affair with Geneviève Laporte, who was four years younger than Gilot. Eventually, as evident in his work, Picasso began to come to terms with his advancing age and his waning attraction to young women. By his 70s, many paintings, ink drawings and prints have as their theme an old, grotesque dwarf as the doting lover of a beautiful young model. Jacqueline Roque (1927–1986) worked at the Madoura Pottery in Vallauris on the French Riviera, where Picasso made and painted ceramics. She became his lover, and then his second wife in 1961. The two were together for the remainder of Picasso’s life.
His marriage to Roque was also a means of revenge against Gilot; with Picasso’s encouragement, Gilot had divorced her then husband, Luc Simon, with the plan to finally actually marry Picasso to secure the rights of her children as Picasso's legitimate heirs. However, Picasso had already secretly married Roque, after Gilot had filed for divorce. This strained his relationship with Claude and Paloma.
By this time, Picasso had constructed a huge Gothic home, and could afford large villas in the south of France, at Notre-dame-de-vie on the outskirts of Mougins, and in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur. He was an international celebrity, and there was often as much interest in his personal life as his art.
In addition to his artistic accomplishments, Picasso made a few film appearances, always as himself, including a cameo in Jean Cocteau’s Testament of Orpheus. In 1955 he helped make the film Le Mystère Picasso (The Mystery of Picasso) directed by Henri-Georges Clouzot.
Pablo Picasso died on 8 April 1973 in Mougins, France, while he and his wife Jacqueline entertained friends for dinner. His final words were “Drink to me, drink to my health, you know I can’t drink any more.” He was interred at the Chateau of Vauvenargues near Aix-en-Provence, a property he had acquired in 1958 and occupied with Jacqueline between 1959 and 1962. Jacqueline Roque prevented his children Claude and Paloma from attending the funeral. Devastated and lonely after the death of Picasso, Jacqueline Roque took her own life by gunshot in 1986 when she was 59 years old.
- Paulo (4 February 1921 – 5 June 1975) (Born Paul Joseph Picasso) — with Olga Khokhlova
- Maya (5 September 1935 – ) (Born Maria de la Concepcion Picasso) — with Marie-Thérèse Walter
- Claude (15 May 1947 –) (Born Claude Pierre Pablo Picasso) & Paloma (19 April 1949 – ) (Born Anne Paloma Picasso) — with Françoise Gilot
Aside from the several anti-war paintings that he created, Picasso remained physically neutral during World War I, the Spanish Civil War, and World War II, refusing to join the armed forces for any side or country. At the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War in 1937, Picasso was already in his late fifties. He was even older at the onset of World War II, and could not be expected to take up arms in those conflicts. As a Spanish citizen living in France, Picasso was under no compulsion to fight against the invading Germans in either World War. In the Spanish Civil War, service for Spaniards living abroad was optional and would have involved a voluntary return to the country to join either side. While Picasso expressed anger and condemnation of Francisco Franco and fascists through his art, he did not take up arms against them. He also remained aloof from the Catalan independence movement during his youth despite expressing general support and being friendly with activists within it.
In 1944 Picasso joined the French Communist Party, attended an international peace conference in Poland, and in 1950 received the Stalin Peace Prize from the Soviet government, But party criticism of a portrait of Stalin as insufficiently realistic cooled Picasso’s interest in Soviet politics, though he remained a loyal member of the Communist Party until his death. In a 1945 interview with Jerome Seckler, Picasso stated: “I am a Communist and my painting is Communist painting. ... But if I were a shoemaker, Royalist or Communist or anything else, I would not necessarily hammer my shoes in a special way to show my politics.” His Communist militancy, common among continental intellectuals and artists at the time although it was officially banned in Francoist Spain, has long been the subject of some controversy; a notable source or demonstration thereof was a quote commonly attributed to Salvador Dalí (with whom Picasso had a rather strained relationship):
- Picasso es pintor, yo también; [...] Picasso es español, yo también; Picasso es comunista, yo tampoco.
- (Picasso is a painter, so am I; [...] Picasso is a Spaniard, so am I; Picasso is a communist, neither am I.)
In the late 1940s his old friend the surrealist poet and Trotskyist and anti-Stalinist André Breton was more blunt; refusing to shake hands with Picasso, he told him: “I don’t approve of your joining the Communist Party nor with the stand you have taken concerning the purges of the intellectuals after the Liberation”.
“ Art is a lie that makes us realize the truth. ”— Pablo Picasso
Picasso’s work is often categorized into periods. While the names of many of his later periods are debated, the most commonly accepted periods in his work are the Blue Period (1901–1904), the Rose Period (1905–1907), the African-influenced Period (1908–1909), Analytic Cubism (1909–1912), and Synthetic Cubism (1912–1919).
In 1939–40 the Museum of Modern Art in New York City, under its director Alfred Barr, a Picasso enthusiast, held a major and highly successful retrospective of his principal works up until that time. This exhibition lionized the artist, brought into full public view in America the scope of his artistry, and resulted in a reinterpretation of his work by contemporary art historians and scholars.
Picasso’s training under his father began before 1890. His progress can be traced in the collection of early works now held by the Museu Picasso in Barcelona, which provides one of the most comprehensive records extant of any major artist’s beginnings. During 1893 the juvenile quality of his earliest work falls away, and by 1894 his career as a painter can be said to have begun. The academic realism apparent in the works of the mid-1890s is well displayed in The First Communion (1896), a large composition that depicts his sister, Lola. In the same year, at the age of 14, he painted Portrait of Aunt Pepa, a vigorous and dramatic portrait that Juan-Eduardo Cirlot has called “without a doubt one of the greatest in the whole history of Spanish painting.”
In 1897 his realism became tinged with Symbolist influence, in a series of landscape paintings rendered in non naturalistic violet and green tones. What some call his Modernist period (1899–1900) followed. His exposure to the work of Rossetti, Steinlen, Toulouse-Lautrec and Edvard Munch, combined with his admiration for favorite old masters such as El Greco, led Picasso to a personal version of modernism in his works of this period.
Picasso’s Blue Period (1901–1904) consists of somber paintings rendered in shades of blue and blue-green, only occasionally warmed by other colors. This period’s starting point is uncertain; it may have begun in Spain in the spring of 1901, or in Paris in the second half of the year. Many paintings of gaunt mothers with children date from this period. In his austere use of color and sometimes doleful subject matter—prostitutes and beggars are frequent subjects—Picasso was influenced by a trip through Spain and by the suicide of his friend Carlos Casagemas. Starting in autumn of 1901 he painted several posthumous portraits of Casagemas, culminating in the gloomy allegorical painting La Vie (1903), now in the Cleveland Museum of Art.
The same mood pervades the well-known etching The Frugal Repast (1904), which depicts a blind man and a sighted woman, both emaciated, seated at a nearly bare table. Blindness is a recurrent theme in Picasso’s works of this period, also represented in The Blindman’s Meal (1903, the Metropolitan Museum of Art) and in the portrait of Celestina (1903). Other works include Portrait of Soler and Portrait of Suzanne Bloch.
The Rose Period (1904–1906) is characterized by a more cheery style with orange and pink colors, and featuring many circus people, acrobats and harlequins known in France as saltimbanques. The harlequin, a comedic character usually depicted in checkered patterned clothing, became a personal symbol for Picasso. Picasso met Fernande Olivier, a model for sculptors and artists, in Paris in 1904, and many of these paintings are influenced by his warm relationship with her, in addition to his increased exposure to French painting. The generally upbeat and optimistic mood of paintings in this period is reminiscent of the 1899–1901 period (i.e. just prior to the Blue Period) and 1904 can be considered a transition year between the two periods.
Picasso’s African-influenced Period (1907–1909) begins with the two figures on the right in his painting, Les Demoiselles d'Avignon, which were inspired by African artifacts. Formal ideas developed during this period lead directly into the Cubist period that follows.
Analytic cubism (1909–1912) is a style of painting Picasso developed along with Georges Braque using monochrome brownish and neutral colors. Both artists took apart objects and “analyzed” them in terms of their shapes. Picasso and Braque’s paintings at this time have many similarities. Synthetic cubism (1912–1919) was a further development of the genre, in which cut paper fragments—often wallpaper or portions of newspaper pages—were pasted into compositions, marking the first use of collage in fine art.
Classicism and surrealism
In the period following the upheaval of World War I, Picasso produced work in a neoclassical style. This “return to order” is evident in the work of many European artists in the 1920s, including André Derain, Giorgio de Chirico, Gino Severini, the artists of the New Objectivity movement and of the Novecento Italiano movement. Picasso’s paintings and drawings from this period frequently recall the work of Raphael and Ingres.
During the 1930s, the minotaur replaced the harlequin as a common motif in his work. His use of the minotaur came partly from his contact with the surrealists, who often used it as their symbol, and it appears in Picasso’s Guernica.
Arguably Picasso’s most famous work is his depiction of the German bombing of Guernica during the Spanish Civil War—Guernica. This large canvas embodies for many the inhumanity, brutality and hopelessness of war. Asked to explain its symbolism, Picasso said, “It isn’t up to the painter to define the symbols. Otherwise it would be better if he wrote them out in so many words! The public who look at the picture must interpret the symbols as they understand them.”
Guernica hung in New York’s Museum of Modern Art for many years. In 1981 Guernica was returned to Spain and exhibited at the Casón del Buen Retiro. In 1992 the painting hung in Madrid’s Reina Sofía Museum when it opened.
Picasso was one of 250 sculptors who exhibited in the 3rd Sculpture International held at the Philadelphia Museum of Art in mid-1949. In the 1950s, Picasso’s style changed once again, as he took to producing reinterpretations of the art of the great masters. He made a series of works based on Velazquez’s painting of Las Meninas. He also based paintings on works by Goya, Poussin, Manet, Courbet and Delacroix.
He was commissioned to make a maquette for a huge 50-foot (15 m)-high public sculpture to be built in Chicago, known usually as the Chicago Picasso. He approached the project with a great deal of enthusiasm, designing a sculpture which was ambiguous and somewhat controversial. What the figure represents is not known; it could be a bird, a horse, a woman or a totally abstract shape. The sculpture, one of the most recognizable landmarks in downtown Chicago, was unveiled in 1967. Picasso refused to be paid $100,000 for it, donating it to the people of the city.
Picasso’s final works were a mixture of styles, his means of expression in constant flux until the end of his life. Devoting his full energies to his work, Picasso became more daring, his works more colorful and expressive, and from 1968 through 1971 he produced a torrent of paintings and hundreds of copperplate etchings. At the time these works were dismissed by most as pornographic fantasies of an impotent old man or the slapdash works of an artist who was past his prime. Only later, after Picasso’s death, when the rest of the art world had moved on from abstract expressionism, did the critical community come to see that Picasso had already discovered neo-expressionism and was, as so often before, ahead of his time.
Commemoration and legacy
Picasso was exceptionally prolific throughout his long lifetime. The total number of artworks he produced has been estimated at 50,000, comprising 1,885 paintings; 1,228 sculptures; 2,880 ceramics, roughly 12,000 drawings, many thousands of prints, and numerous tapestries and rugs. At the time of his death many of his paintings were in his possession, as he had kept off the art market what he did not need to sell. In addition, Picasso had a considerable collection of the work of other famous artists, some his contemporaries, such as Henri Matisse, with whom he had exchanged works. Since Picasso left no will, his death duties (estate tax) to the French state were paid in the form of his works and others from his collection. These works form the core of the immense and representative collection of the Musée Picasso in Paris. In 2003, relatives of Picasso inaugurated a museum dedicated to him in his birthplace, Málaga, Spain, the Museo Picasso Málaga.
The Museu Picasso in Barcelona features many of Picasso’s early works, created while he was living in Spain, including many rarely seen works which reveal Picasso’s firm grounding in classical techniques. The museum also holds many precise and detailed figure studies done in his youth under his father’s tutelage, as well as the extensive collection of Jaime Sabartés, Picasso’s close friend and personal secretary.
Several paintings by Picasso rank among the most expensive paintings in the world. Garçon à la pipe sold for US$104 million at Sotheby's on 4 May 2004, establishing a new price record. Dora Maar au Chat sold for US$95.2 million at Sotheby’s on 3 May 2006. On 4 May 2010, Nude, Green Leaves and Bust was sold at Christie's for $106.5 million. The 1932 work, which depicts Picasso's mistress Marie-Thérèse Walter reclining and as a bust, was in the personal collection of Los Angeles philanthropist Frances Lasker Brody, who died in November 2009. Christie's won the rights to auction the collection against London-based Sotheby's. The collection as a whole was valued at over $150 million, while the work was originally expected to earn $80 million at auction. There were more than half a dozen bidders, while the winning bid was taken via telephone. The previous auction record ($104.3 million) was set in February 2010, by Alberto Giacometti's Walking Man I.
As of 2004, Picasso remains the top ranked artist (based on sales of his works at auctions) according to the Art Market Trends report. More of his paintings have been stolen than those by any other artist; the Art Loss Register has 550 of his works listed as missing.
Recent Major Exhibitions
Picasso: Masterpieces from the Musée National Picasso, Paris, an exhibition of 150 paintings, sculptures, drawings, prints and photographs from the Musée National Picasso in Paris. The exhibit touring schedule includes:
- 8 October 2010 – 17 January 2011, Seattle Art Museum, Seattle, Washington, USA.
- 19 February 2011 – 15 May 2011, Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, Richmond, Virginia, USA.
- 11 June 2011 – 9 October 2011, M. H. de Young Memorial Museum, San Francisco, California, USA.
- 12 November 2011 – 19 February 2012, Art Gallery of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.
- 28 April 2012 – 26 August 2012, Art Gallery of Ontario, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
- Pierre Le Guennec
- ^ "On-line Picasso Project". Picasso.shsu.edu. http://picasso.shsu.edu/index.php?view=BioIndex&year=1881&quarter=4. Retrieved 26 August 2010.
- ^ The name on his baptismal certificate differs slightly from the name on his birth record. On-line Picasso Project
- ^ Hamilton, George H. (1976). "Picasso, Pablo Ruiz Y". In William D. Halsey. Collier's Encyclopedia. 19. New York: Macmillan Educational Corporation. pp. 25–26.
- ^ Wertenbaker, 9.
- ^ Wertenbaker, 11.
- ^ a b "Picasso: Creator and Destroyer – 88.06". Theatlantic.com. http://www.theatlantic.com/unbound/flashbks/picasso/destroy.htm. Retrieved 21 December 2009.
- ^ a b Wertenbaker, 13.
- ^ "Portrait of Gertrude Stein". Metropolitan Museum. http://www.metmuseum.org/works_of_art/collection_database/modern_art/gertrude_stein/objectView.aspx?&OID=210008443&collID=21&vw=0. Retrieved 26 August 2010.
- ^ Cirlot, 1972, p. 125.
- ^ "Pablo Picasso, ',Portrait of Allan Stein,', 1906". Duvarpaper.com. http://www.duvarpaper.com/main.php?g2_itemId=4883. Retrieved 26 August 2010.
- ^ "',Special Exhibit Examines Dynamic Relationship Between the Art of Pablo Picasso and Writing" (PDF). Yale University Art Gallery. http://artgallery.yale.edu/pdf/0109_picasso.pdf. Retrieved 26 August 2010.
- ^ James R. Mellow title=Charmed Circle. Gertrude Stein and Company. http://books.google.com/books?id=2CDJkDE8aZ0C&pg=PA152&lpg=PA152&dq=Nina+Auzias&source=bl&ots=43tiqXAiOo&sig=y6NeU1xazi20cHEIS_oilaKXQWA&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=4&ct=result#PPA157,M1. Retrieved 26 August 2010.
- ^ "Cubism and its Legacy". Tate Liverpool. http://www.tate.org.uk/servlet/CollectionDisplays?showid=1081. Retrieved 26 August 2010.
- ^ Time Magazine, Stealing the Mona Lisa, 1911. Consulted on 15 August 2007.
- ^ Charles Harrison, Francis Frascina, Gillian Perry, ',Primitivism, Cubism, Abstraction. Google Books. http://books.google.com/books?id=8fMCLqhEKYoC&pg=PA147&lpg=PA147&dq=Marcelle+Humbert&source=web&ots=WPlYMDX1mj&sig=Vs4PjN0KI9xiOdVEKp4m6k7eIWc&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=3&ct=result. Retrieved 26 August 2010.
- ^ Paul (Paolo) Picasso is born
- ^ Kendall, L. R., Pablo Picasso (1881–1973): The Charnel House in Pieces... Occasional and Various April 2010 <http://piecesoav.blogspot.com/2010/04/pablo-picasso-1881-1973-charnel-house.html>
- ^ Artnet, Fred Stern, Picasso and the War Year Retrieved 30 March 2011
- ^ Rothenberg, Jerome. Pablo Picasso, The Burial of the Count of Orgaz & other poems. Exact Exchange Books, Cambridge, MA, 2004, vii–xviii
- ^ Françoise Gilot and Carlton Lake, Life with Picasso, Random House, Trade Paperback, 352 pages. May 1989. ISBN 0-385-26186-1; first published in November 1964.
- ^ "accessed online 15 August 2007". Digital-karma.org. http://www.digital-karma.org/culture/quotes/famous-peoples-last-words. Retrieved 26 August 2010.
- ^ The Rich Die Richer and You Can too, by William D. Zabel, Published 1996 John Wiley and Sons, p.11. ISBN 0-471-15532-2 Accessed online 15 August 2007
- ^ Kimmelman, Michael (28 April 1996). "Picasso's Family Album,". New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9B07E5DF1739F93BA15757C0A960958260&n=Top/Reference/Times%20Topics/People/P/Picasso,%20Pablo. Retrieved 26 August 2010.
- ^ Picasso’s Party Line, ARTnews Retrieved 31 May 2007.
- ^ Ashton, Dore and Pablo Picasso (1988). Picasso on Art: A Selection of Views. Da Capo Press. p. 140. ISBN 0306803305.
- ^ "Failed attempts at correspondence between Dalí and Picasso". Larepublica.com.pe. http://www.larepublica.com.pe/component/option,com_contentant/task,view/id,107672/Itemid,0/. Retrieved 26 August 2010.
- ^ Begoña Souvirón López. "Picasso by Dalí". Gibralfaro.uma.es. http://www.gibralfaro.uma.es/opinion/pag_1236.htm. Retrieved 26 August 2010.
- ^ "Study on Salvador Dalí". Monografias.com. 7 May 2007. http://www.monografias.com/trabajos14/salvadordali/salvadordali.shtml. Retrieved 26 August 2010.
- ^ "Salvador Dalí quotes". Proverbsandsayings.com. http://www.proverbsandsayings.com/authors/SalvadorDali.html. Retrieved 26 August 2010.
- ^ Dalí "sympathetic"?[dead link]
- ^ "',De El Greco a Salvador Dalí, Pasando por Picasso',". Guije.com. http://www.guije.com/public/carteles/3319/dali/index.html. Retrieved 26 August 2010.
- ^ "Article on Dalí in ',El Mundo',". Elmundo.es. http://www.elmundo.es/suplementos/campus/2008/512/pag08.html. Retrieved 26 August 2010.
- ^ Rivera, Breton and Trotsky Retrieved 9 August 2010
- ^ Huffington, Arianna S. (1988). Picasso: Creator and Destroyer. Simon and Schuster. p. 390. ISBN 9780786106424.
- ^  Retrieved 3 March 2011
- ^ Berger, John (1965). The Success and Failure of Picasso. Penguin Books, Ltd.. p. 175. ISBN 978-0679737254.
- ^ Charlotte Higgins (28 May 2010). "Picasso nearly risked his reputation for Franco exhibition". The Guardian (UK: Guardian News and Media). http://www.guardian.co.uk/artanddesign/2010/may/28/picasso-franco-exhibition.
- ^ Picasso A Retrospective, Museum of Modern Art, edited by William Rubin, copyright MoMA 1980, p.383
- ^ Art Explained, by Robert Cumming, DK Publishing, 2007, ISBN 978-0-7566-2869-7, pg 98
- ^ The MoMA retrospective of 1939–40 — see Michael C. FitzGerald, Making Modernism: Picasso and the Creation of the Market for Twentieth-Century Art (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1995; Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996), pp. 243–262.
- ^ Cirlot,1972, p.6.
- ^ Cirlot, 1972, p. 14.
- ^ Cirlot, 1972, p.37.
- ^ Cirlot, 1972, p. 87–108.
- ^ Cirlot, 1972, p.127.
- ^ La Vie, Cleveland Museum of Art[dead link]. Retrieved 11 March 2010.
- ^ Wattenmaker, Distel, et al.,1993, p. 304.
- ^ The Frugal Repast, Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved 11 March 2010.
- ^ Wattenmaker, Distel, et al.,1993, p. 194.
- ^ "Guernica Introduction". Pbs.org. http://www.pbs.org/treasuresoftheworld/guernica/gmain.html. Retrieved 21 December 2009.
- ^ The Spanish Wars of Goya and Picasso, Costa Tropical News. Retrieved 4 June 2010.
- ^ On-line Picasso Project, citing Selfridge, John, 1994.
- ^ "Picasso portrait sells for $95.2 million". http://msnbc.msn.com/id/12627809/. Retrieved 4 May 2006.
- ^ Christie’s Wins Bid to Auction $150 Million Brody Collection New York Times
- ^ "Picasso painting sells for record $106.5 million". MSNBC. http://www.today.msnbc.msn.com/id/36950780/ns/today-entertainment/. Retrieved 26 August 2010.
- ^ Yahoo news Picasso sells for 106.5 million[dead link] Retrieved 5 May 2010
- ^ Vogel, Carol (4 May 2010). "Picasso Sells at Auction for $106.5 Million, a Record for a Work of Art". New York Times. http://artsbeat.blogs.nytimes.com/2010/05/04/picasso-sold-at-auction-for-106-5-million-a-world-record/?src=mv. Retrieved 26 August 2010.
- ^ "tendances2004-ecr.indd" (PDF). http://press.artprice.com/pdf/Trends2004.pdf. Retrieved 26 August 2010.
- ^ S. Goodenough, 1500 Fascinating Facts, Treasure Press, London, 1987, p 241.
- ^ Revealed: The extraordinary security blunders behind Paris art gallery heist The Daily Mail
- ^ http://arsny.com/requested.html | Most frequently requested artists list of the Artists Rights Society
- ^ "Picasso: Masterpieces from the Musée National Picasso, Paris". deYoung Museum. http://deyoung.famsf.org/deyoung/exhibitions/picasso-masterpieces-mus-e-national-picasso-paris. Retrieved 24 July 2011.
- Becht-Jördens, Gereon; Wehmeier, Peter M. (2003). Picasso und die christliche Ikonographie: Mutterbeziehung und künstlerische Position. Berlin: Dietrich Reimer Verlag. ISBN 9783496012726. http://books.google.com/books?id=vRzFAAAACAAJ. Retrieved 8 October 2010.
- Berger, John (1989). The success and failure of Picasso. Pantheon Books. ISBN 9780679722724. http://books.google.com/books?id=5T1QAAAAMAAJ. Retrieved 8 October 2010.
- Cirlot, Juan Eduardo (1972). Picasso, birth of a genius. New York and Washington: Praeger. http://books.google.com/books?id=MvjVAAAAMAAJ. Retrieved 8 October 2010.
- Cowling, Elizabeth; Mundy, Jennifer (1990). On classic ground: Picasso, Léger, de Chirico and the New Classicism, 1910–1930. London: Tate Gallery. ISBN 9781854370433. http://books.google.com/books?id=M-_pAAAAMAAJ. Retrieved 8 October 2010.
- Daix, Pierre (1994). Picasso: life and art. Icon Editions. ISBN 9780064302012. http://books.google.com/books?id=hYymPwAACAAJ. Retrieved 8 October 2010.
- FitzGerald, Michael C. (1996). Making modernism: Picasso and the creation of the market for twentieth-century art. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 9780520206533. http://books.google.com/books?id=fj2wtVCWkMoC. Retrieved 8 October 2010.
- Granell, Eugenio Fernández (1981). Picasso's Guernica: the end of a Spanish era. Ann Arbor, Mich.: UMI Research Press. ISBN 9780835712064. http://books.google.com/books?id=IlRQAAAAMAAJ. Retrieved 8 October 2010.
- Krauss, Rosalind E. (1999). The Picasso papers. MIT Press. ISBN 9780262611428. http://books.google.com/books?id=pqXqbN4XUhcC. Retrieved 8 October 2010.
- Mallén, Enrique (2003). The visual grammar of Pablo Picasso. New York: Peter Lang. ISBN 9780820456928. http://books.google.com/books?id=EJAVAQAAIAAJ. Retrieved 8 October 2010.
- Mallén, Enrique (2005). La sintaxis de la carne: Pablo Picasso y Marie-Thérèse Walter. Santiago de Chile: Red Internacional del Libro. ISBN 9789562844550. http://books.google.com/books?id=EXoA4M1LnSkC. Retrieved 8 October 2010.
- Mallén, Enrique (2009). A Concordance of Pablo Picasso's Spanish Writings. New York: Edwin Mellen Press. ISBN 9780773447134. http://books.google.com/books?id=NvltPgAACAAJ. Retrieved 8 October 2010.
- Mallén, Enrique (2010). A Concordance of Pablo Picasso's French Writings. New York: Edwin Mellen Press. ISBN 9780773413252. http://www.mellenpress.com/mellenpress.cfm?bookid=8152&pc=9. Retrieved 8 October 2010.
- Nill, Raymond M. “A Visual Guide to Pablo Picasso’s Works”. New York: B&H Publishers, 1987.
- Picasso, Olivier Widmaier (2004). Picasso: the real family story. Prestel. ISBN 9783791331492. http://books.google.com/books?id=HNVPAAAAMAAJ. Retrieved 8 October 2010.
- Rubin, William (1981). Pablo Picasso: A Retrospective. Little Brown & Co. ISBN 9780316707039. http://books.google.com/books?id=8RRMPgAACAAJ. Retrieved 8 October 2010.
- Wattenmaker, Richard J. (1993). Great French paintings from the Barnes Foundation: Impressionist, Post-impressionist, and Early Modern. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 9780679409632. http://books.google.com/books?id=wq_WAAAAMAAJ. Retrieved 8 October 2010.
- Wertenbaker, Lael Tucker (1967). The world of Picasso (1881– ). Time-Life Books. http://books.google.com/books?id=vNbqAAAAMAAJ. Retrieved 8 October 2010.
- Official website
- Biography and works of Pablo Picasso
- Picasso: Genius in Color — slideshow by Life magazine
- Gallery of Picasso's Women
- Picasso painting on glass scene from Visit to Picasso by Paul Haesaerts
- Pablo Picasso — Biography, Quotes & Paintings, retrieved 14 June 2007.
- Poems by Picasso in English translation from Samizdat
- Cubism, The Big Picture
- Artists Rights Society, Picasso's U.S. Copyright Representatives
- Union List of Artist Names, Getty Vocabularies. ULAN Full Record Display for Pablo Picasso. Getty Vocabulary Program, Getty Research Institute. Los Angeles, California
- Picasso: Drawing With Light – slideshow by Life magazine
- Works by or about Pablo Picasso in libraries (WorldCat catalog)
- Footage of Pablo Picasso at Second World Peace congress in 1950
- Art History Archive
- Guggenheim Museum Biography
- Hilo Art Museum, (Hilo Hawaii, USA)
- Honolulu Academy of Arts
- Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York, USA)
- Musée National Picasso (Paris, France)
- Musée Picasso (Antibes, France)
- Museo Picasso Málaga (Málaga, Spain)
- Museu Picasso (Barcelona, Spain)
- Museum Berggruen (Berlin, Germany)
- Pablo Picasso at the Museum of Modern Art
- National Gallery of Art list of paintings
- Graphikmuseum Pablo Picasso Münster (Münster, Germany)
- Los Angeles County Museum of Art (LACMA) (Los Angeles, California)
- Sammlung + Picasso Donation Rosengart (Lucerne, Switzerland)
Pablo Picasso Periods Lists of works ArtworksThe Actor · Boy Leading a Horse · The Charnel House · Chicago Picasso · Don Quixote · Dora Maar au Chat · The Dream and Lie of Franco · Family of Saltimbanques · Femme aux Bras Croisés · Garçon à la pipe · Guernica · Jacqueline · Jeune Fille Endormie · La Lecture · Le Rêve · Les Demoiselles d'Avignon · Les Noces de Pierrette · Maya with Doll · Nude, Green Leaves and Bust · Nude in a Black Armchair · The Old Guitarist · Portrait of Angel Fernández de Soto · Portrait of Suzanne Bloch · Reading the Letter · Sylvette · Tete de femme (Dora Maar) · The Three Dancers · Three Musicians · The Weeping Woman · Woman in Hat and Fur Collar PartnersFernande Olivier (1904 to 1911) · Eva Gouel (1912 to her death in 1915) · Olga Khokhlova (married 1918, to her death in 1955, mother of Paulo) · Marie-Thérèse Walter (1927 to 1935, mother of Maya) · Dora Maar (1936 to 1944) · Françoise Gilot (1944 to 1953, mother of Claude and Paloma) · Geneviève Laporte (during the 1950s) · Jacqueline Roque (married 1961 to Picasso's death 1973) Family Colleagues Patrons Museums See also Wikimedia
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Pablo Picasso — im Jahr 1962 Pablo Picasso, eigentlich Pablo Ruiz Picasso, (* 25. Oktober 1881 in Málaga, Spanien; † 8. April 1973 in Mougins, Frankreich … Deutsch Wikipedia
Pablo Picasso — «Picasso» redirige aquí. Para otras acepciones, véase Picasso (desambiguación). Pablo Picasso Foto de Pablo Picasso (enero de 1962) … Wikipedia Español
Pablo picasso — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Picasso (homonymie). Pab … Wikipédia en Français
Pablo Picasso — Pablo Ruiz Picasso (25 de octubre de 1881 8 de abril de 1973), más conocido como Pablo Picasso, fue un pintor, dibujante y escultor español, nacido en Málaga (España). Fue uno de los grandes maestros del siglo XX, quizá el artista que más fama ha … Enciclopedia Universal
Pablo Picasso — « Picasso » redirige ici. Pour les autres significations, voir Picasso (homonymie) … Wikipédia en Français
Pablo Picasso — Pablo Diego Jose Francisco de Paula Juan Nepomuceno Crispin Crispiano de la Santisima Trinidad Ruiz y Picasso … Eponyms, nicknames, and geographical games
Pablo Picasso — noun prolific and influential Spanish artist who lived in France (1881 1973) • Syn: ↑Picasso • Instance Hypernyms: ↑painter, ↑sculptor, ↑sculpturer, ↑carver, ↑statue maker … Useful english dictionary
Pablo Picasso (song) — Pablo Picasso is a song written by Jonathan Richman for Richman s proto punk group The Modern Lovers. The song was recorded in early 1972, at Whitney Studios in Los Angeles, with producer John Cale, but was not released until 1976, on the Modern… … Wikipedia
Kunstmuseum Pablo Picasso Münster — Der Druffel’sche Hof mit dem Kunstmuseum Pablo Picasso Münster am Picassoplatz 1 Das Kunstmuseum Pablo Picasso Münster (bis September 2010 Graphikmuseum Pablo Picasso Münster) wurde im Jahr 2000 im westfälischen Münster eröffnet und beherbergt… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Graphikmuseum Pablo Picasso Münster — Der Druffelsche Hof mit dem Graphikmuseum Pablo Picasso Münster (Giebelgebäude) an der Königsstraße Das Graphikmuseum Pablo Picasso Münster im ehemaligen Druffelschen Hof und im benachbarten Hensenbau an der Königsstraße im westfälischen Münster… … Deutsch Wikipedia