New York Public Library


New York Public Library

Coordinates: 40°45′10″N 73°58′54″W / 40.75270°N 73.98180°W / 40.75270; -73.98180

New York Public Library
New York Public Library May 2011.JPG
Established 1895
Location New York, New York
Branches 87
Collection
Size 53 million [1]
Access and use
Population served 19,378,102
Other information
Budget $50,171,798
Director Ann Thornton[2]
President and CEO, Anthony Marx[3]
Staff 3,147
Website http://www.nypl.org/

The New York Public Library (NYPL) is the largest public library in North America and is one of the United States' most significant research libraries. It is a privately managed, nonprofit corporation with a public mission, operating with both private and public financing. The historian David McCullough has described the New York Public Library as one of the five most important libraries in the United States, the others being the Library of Congress, the Boston Public Library, and the university libraries of Harvard and Yale.[4][verification needed]

The New York Public Library has branches in the boroughs of Manhattan, The Bronx and Staten Island. According to the American Library Association, the branch libraries comprise the third largest library in the United States.[5] New York City's other two boroughs, Brooklyn and Queens, are served by the Brooklyn Public Library and the Queens Borough Public Library respectively. These libraries predate the consolidation of New York City. Taken as a whole the three library systems in the city of New York have 209 branches with 63 million items in their collections.[6]

Currently, the New York Public Library consists of 87 libraries: four non-lending research libraries, four main lending libraries, a library for the blind and physically challenged, and 77 neighborhood branch libraries in the three boroughs served. All libraries in the NYPL system may be used free of charge by all visitors. As of 2010, the research collections contain 44,507,623 items (books, videotapes, maps, etc.). The Branch Libraries contain 8,438,775 items.[7]Together the collections total nearly 53 million items, a number surpassed only by the Library of Congress and the British Library.

Contents

History

The New York Public Library main building during late stage construction in 1908, the lion statues not yet installed at the entrance

Founding

Although New York City already had plenty of libraries in the 19th century, almost all of them were privately funded and many charged admission or usage fees. Meanwhile, other American cities, notably Boston, had led the way in providing public libraries that were open to the general masses, and The New York Times editorialized that besides educating the citizens, having a public library should be a matter of civic pride.[8] On the other hand, there was opposition to the idea that the unlearned should be allowed unfettered access to knowledge; the goal of education was to keep the public docile and obedient.[9] Progressives then countered that educating people in the basics but not letting them partake of further intellectual development was tantamount to a crime.[10]

Eventually, the progressive idea took greater hold, and several free circulating libraries were established, but they were all of small scale. Former Governor of New York and presidential candidate Samuel J. Tilden felt that a library with city-wide reach was required, and upon his death in 1886, he bequeathed the bulk of his fortune—about $2.4 million—to "establish and maintain a free library and reading room in the city of New York".[11] This money would sit untouched in a trust for several years, until John Bigelow, a New York attorney, and trustee of the Tilden fortune, came up with an idea to merge two of the city's largest libraries.

Astor Library

The Astor Library was a reference library founded at the suggestion of bibliographer Joseph Cogswell[12] by German immigrant John Jacob Astor, the United States' first multi-millionaire. It was located in the East Village and was constructed in 1854 (the building now houses The Public Theater) by Astor's son William Backhouse Astor, Sr. It charged no admission for the use of its vast collection, but the books were not permitted to leave the premises, and the hours were limited.[11] Cogswell was its first librarian and purchased much of its initial collection.[12] It was a major reference and research resource,[11] but, as an editorial in The New York Times put it, “Popular it certainly is not, and, so greatly is it lacking in the essentials of a public library, that its stores might almost as well be under lock and key, for any access the masses of the people can get thereto.”[13]

A German-born architect, Alexander Saeltzer, designed the building in Rundbogenstil style, then the prevailing style for public building in Germany. Astor funded expansions of the building designed by Griffith Thomas [1859] and Thomas Stent [1881]. Both large expansions followed Saeltzer's original design so seamlessly that an observer cannot detect that the edifice was built in three stages. In 1920, the Hebrew Immigrant Aid Society purchased the building. By 1965 it was in disuse and faced demolition. The Public Theater (then the New York Shakespeare Festival) persuaded the city to purchase it for use as a theater. It was converted for theater use by Giorgio Cavaglieri.[14]

Lenox copy of the Gutenberg Bible in the New York Public Library

The Lenox Library housed the private collection of philanthropist James Lenox, which consisted mainly of his extensive collection of rare books (which included the first Gutenberg Bible to come to the New World), manuscripts, and Americana. While usage of the materials was free of charge, admission tickets (such as those that are still required to gain access to the British Library) were still needed by potential users. Its primary audience was intended to be bibliophiles and scholars.[11] The original Lenox Library building stood on Fifth Avenue, and was designed by the New York architect Richard Morris Hunt. It was torn down in 1912 for what is now the Frick Museum and Library.

Both the Astor and Lenox Libraries were struggling financially. In both cases, the initial endowments were running low and not enough revenue was being generated. On May 23, 1895, Bigelow and representatives of the two libraries agreed to create "The New York Public Library, Astor, Lenox and Tilden Foundations". The plan was hailed as an example of private philanthropy for the public good.[11]

The newly established library consolidated with The New York Free Circulating Library, one the more successful smaller private libraries, in February 1901, and the philanthropist Andrew Carnegie also donated $5.2 million to construct branch libraries, with the requirement that they be maintained by the City of New York. Later in 1901 the New York Public Library signed a contract with the City of New York to operate 39 branch libraries in the Bronx, Manhattan, and Staten Island.[11]

Cross-view of classical details in the entrance portico

Main branch building

The organizers of the New York Public Library, wanting an imposing main branch, found a prominent, central site available at the two-block section of Fifth Avenue between 40th and 42nd streets, then occupied by the no-longer-needed Croton Reservoir. Dr. John Shaw Billings, the first director of the library, created an initial design which became the basis of the new building (now known as the Schwarzman Building) on Fifth Avenue. Billings's plan called for a huge reading room on top of seven floors of bookstacks combined with a system that was designed to get books into the hands of library users as fast as possible. Following a competition among the city's most prominent architects, the relatively unknown firm of Carrère and Hastings was selected to design and construct the building. The result, a Beaux-Arts design, was the largest marble structure up to that time in the United States.[11]

The cornerstone was laid in May 1902, but work progressed slowly on the project, which eventually cost $9 million. In 1910, 75 miles (121 km) of shelves were installed, and it took a year to move and install the books that were in the Astor and Lenox libraries.[11]

On May 23, 1911, the main branch of the New York Public Library was officially opened in a ceremony presided over by President William Howard Taft. The following day, the public was invited. Tens of thousands thronged to the Library's "jewel in the crown". The opening day collection consisted of more than 1,000,000 volumes. The level of excellence in research and preservation continued with Dr. Henry Miller Lydenberg, who served as director between 1934–1941, seeing the New York Public Library through times of war and economic uncertainty.[15] The New York Public Library instantly became one of the nation's largest libraries and a vital part of the intellectual life of America. Library records for that day show that one of the very first items called for was N. I. Grot's Nravstvennye idealy nashego vremeni ("Ethical Ideas of Our Time") a study of Friedrich Nietzsche and Leo Tolstoy. The reader filed his slip at 9:08 a.m. and received his book just six minutes later.[11]

"Patience" and "Fortitude", the "Library Lion" statues, with a mantle of snow in the record snowfall of Dec. 1948

Two famous stone lions guarding the entrance were sculpted by Edward Clark Potter. They were originally named Leo Astor and Leo Lenox, in honor of the library's founders. These names were transformed into Lady Astor and Lord Lenox (although both lions are male). In the 1930s they were nicknamed "Patience" and "Fortitude" by Mayor Fiorello La Guardia. He chose these names because he felt that the citizens of New York would need to possess these qualities to see themselves through the Great Depression. Patience is on the south side (the left as one faces the main entrance) and Fortitude on the north.[11]

The main reading room of the Research Library (Room 315) is a majestic 78 feet (23.8 m) wide by 297 feet (90.5 m) long, with 52 feet (15.8 m) high ceilings—lined with thousands of reference books on open shelves along the floor level and along the balcony; lit by massive windows and grand chandeliers; furnished with sturdy wood tables, comfortable chairs, and brass lamps. Today it is also equipped with computers with access to library collections and the Internet and docking facilities for laptops. There are special rooms for notable authors and scholars, many of whom have done important research and writing at the Library.[11]

Entrance to the Public Catalog Room
The Map Division

The building was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1965.[16]

Over the decades, the library system added branch libraries, and the research collection expanded until, by the 1970s, it was clear the collection eventually would outgrow the existing structure. In the 1980s the central research library added more than 125,000 square feet (12,000 m2) of space and literally miles of bookshelf space to its already vast storage capacity to make room for future acquisitions. This expansion required a major construction project in which Bryant Park, directly west of the library, was closed to the public and excavated. The new library facilities were built below ground level and the park was restored above it.

On July 17, 2007, the building was briefly evacuated and the surrounding area was cordoned off by New York police because of a suspicious package found across the street. It turned out to be a bag of old clothes.[17]

In the three decades before 2007, the building's interior was gradually renovated.[18]

On December 20, 2007, the library announced it would undertake a three-year, $50 million renovation of the building exterior, which has suffered damage from weathering and pollution.[19] The renovation was completed on time, and on February 2, 2011 the refurbished facade was unveiled.[20] The restoration design was overseen by Wiss, Janney, Elstner Associates, Inc., whose previous projects include the Metropolitan Museum of Art's limestone facades and the American Museum of Natural History, made of granite.[21] These renovations were underwritten by a $100-million gift from philanthropist Stephen A. Schwarzman, whose name will be inscribed at the bottom of the columns which frame the building's entrances.[22]

Other research branches

Even though the central research library on 42nd Street had greatly expanded its capacity, in the 1990s the decision was made to remove that portion of the research collection devoted to science, technology, and business to a new location. The new location was the abandoned B. Altman department store on 34th Street. In 1995, the 100th anniversary of the founding of the library, the $100 million Science, Industry and Business Library (SIBL), designed by Gwathmey Siegel & Associates of Manhattan, finally opened to the public. Upon the creation of the SIBL, the central research library on 42nd Street was renamed the Humanities and Social Sciences Library.

Science, Industry and Business library

Today there are four research libraries that comprise the NYPL's outstanding research library system which hold approximately 44,000,000 items. Total item holdings, including the collections of the Branch Libraries, are 50.6 million. The Humanities and Social Sciences Library on 42nd Street is still the heart of the NYPL's research library system but the SIBL, with approximately 2 million volumes and 60,000 periodicals, is quickly gaining greater prominence in the NYPL's research library system because of its up-to-date electronic resources available to the general public. The SIBL is the nation's largest public library devoted solely to science and business.[23] The NYPL's two other research libraries are the Schomburg Center for Research and Black Culture, located at 135th Street and Lenox Avenue in Harlem and the New York Public Library for the Performing Arts, located at Lincoln Center. In addition to their reference collections, the Library for the Performing Arts and the SIBL also have circulating components that are administered by the NYPL's Branch Libraries system.

Recent history

Unlike most other great libraries, such as the Library of Congress, the New York Public Library was not created by government statute. From the earliest days of the New York Public Library, a tradition of partnership of city government with private philanthropy began, which continues to this day.[11] As of 2010, the research libraries in the system are largely funded with private money, and the branch or circulating libraries are financed primarily with city government funds. Until 2009, the research and branch libraries operated almost entirely as separate systems, but that year various operations were merged. By early 2010, the NYPL staff had been reduced by about 16 percent, in part through the consolidations.[24]

In 2010, as part of the consolidation program, the NYPL moved various back-office operations to the new Library Services Center building in Long Island City using a former warehouse renovated for $50 million. In the basement, a new, $2.3 million book sorter uses bar codes on library items to sort them for delivery to 132 branch libraries. At two-thirds the length of a football field, the machine is the largest of its kind in the world, according to library officials. Books located in one branch and requested from another go through the sorter, which cut the previous waiting time by at least a day. Together with 14 library employees, the machine can sort 7,500 items an hour (or 125 a minute). On the first floor of the Library Services Center is an ordering and cataloging office; on the second, the digital imaging department (formerly at the Main Branch building) and the manuscripts and archives division, where the air is kept cooler; on the third, the Barbara Goldsmith Preservation Division, with a staff of 10 (as of 2010) but designed for as many as 30 employees.[24]

Controversies

The contraction of services and collections has been a continuing source of controversy since 2004 when David Ferriero was named the Andrew W. Mellon Director and Chief Executive of the Research Libraries.[25] NYPL had engaged consultants Booz Allen Hamilton to survey the institution, and Ferriero endorsed the survey's report as a big step "in the process of reinventing the library".[26] When this same consulting firm presented similar recommendations to the Library of Congress, they were rejected by head Librarian of Congress James H. Billington.[27] The consolidation program has resulted in the elimination of subjects such as the Asian and Middle East Division (formerly named Oriental Division) as well as the Slavic and Baltic Division.[citation needed]

A number of innovations in recent years have not been without detractors.

NYPL announced participation in the Google Books Library Project, which involves a series of agreements between Google and major international libraries through which a collection of its public domain books will be scanned in their entirety and made available for free to the public online.[28] The negotiations between the two partners called for each to project guesses about ways that libraries are likely to expand in the future.[29] According to the terms of the agreement, the data cannot be crawled or harvested by any other search engine; no downloading or redistribution is allowed. The partners and a wider community of research libraries can share the content.[30]


A panoramic view of the Rose Main Reading Room, facing south


The Epiphany branch, on East 23rd Street in Manhattan

Branch libraries

The New York Public Library system maintains its commitment to being a public lending library through its branch libraries in The Bronx, Manhattan and Staten Island, including the Mid-Manhattan Library, The Andrew Heiskell Braille and Talking Book Library, the circulating collections of the Science, Industry and Business Library, and the circulating collections of the Library for the Performing Arts. These circulating libraries offer a wide range of collections, programs, and services, including the renowned Picture Collection at Mid-Manhattan Library and the Media Center at Donnell.

Of its 82 branch libraries, 35 are in Manhattan, 34 are in the Bronx, and 12 are in Staten Island.

Controversies

The sale of the separately endowed former Donnell Library in mid-town has not been without its critics.[31] The elimination of Donnell also meant the dissolution of children's, young adult and foreign language collections. The Donnell Media Center was also dismantled, with parts of its collections redistributed.[32]

These changes are justified as the road to new collaborations and new synergy,[33] however, restructuring has meant that several veteran librarians with institutional memory have left and age-level specialists in the boroughs have been cut back.[34]

Services

ASK NYPL

Christmas tree in the main entrance to the NYPL at Astor Hall

Since 1968 Telephone Reference has been an integral part of The New York Public Library's reference services, although it existed long before in a limited way. Now known as ASK NYPL,[35] the service provides answers by phone and online via chat and e-mail 24 hours a day, 7 days per week. Library users can ask reference questions in Spanish and English and seek help at anytime through online chat via the Library's website. Through participation in an international cooperative, the Library receives support answering questions outside regular hours.

The service fulfilled nearly 70,000 requests for information in 2007. Inquiries range from the serious and life-changing (a New Orleans resident who lost his birth certificate in Katrina needing to know how to obtain a copy; turns out he was born in Brooklyn), to the fun or even off-the-wall (a short-story writer researching the history of Gorgonzola cheese). In 1992 a selection of unusual and entertaining questions and answers from ASK NYPL was the source for Book of Answers: The New York Public Library Telephone Reference Service's Most Unusual and Entertaining Questions, a popular volume published by Fireside Books. National and international questioners have included scores of newspaper reporters, authors, celebrities, professors, secretaries, CEOs, and everyone in between.

In 2008 The New York Public Library's ASK NYPL reference service introduced two enhancements that improve and expand the service.

The Library recently launched 917-ASK-NYPL, a new easier to remember telephone number for Library information and for asking reference questions. Every day, except Sundays and holidays, between 9:00 a.m. and 6:00 p.m. EST/EDT, anyone, of any age, from anywhere in the world can telephone 917-275-6975 and ask a question. The library staff will not answer crossword or contest questions, do children's homework, or answer philosophical speculations.[36]

Website

The New York Public Library website[37] provides access to the library's catalogs, online collections and subscription databases, and has information about the library's free events, exhibitions, computer classes and English as a Second Language classes. The two online catalogs, LEO[38] (which searches the circulating collections) and CATNYP[39] (which searches the research collections) allow users to search the library's holdings of books, journals and other materials. The LEO system allows cardholders to request books from any branch and have them delivered to any branch.

The NYPL gives cardholders free access from home[40] to thousands of current and historical magazines, newspapers, journals and reference books in subscription databases, including EBSCOhost,[41] which contains full text of major magazines; full text of the New York Times[42] (1995–present), Gale's Ready Reference Shelf[43] which includes the Encyclopedia of Associations and periodical indexes, Books in Print;[44] and Ulrich's Periodicals Directory.[45]

The NYPL Digital Gallery[46] is a database of over 700,000 images digitized from the library's collections. The Digital Gallery was named one of Time Magazine's 50 Coolest Websites of 2005[47] and Best Research Site of 2006[48] by an international panel of museum professionals.

Other databases available only from within the library[49] include Nature, IEEE and Wiley science journals, Wall Street Journal archives, and Factiva.

Controversies

A new NYPL strategy adopted in 2006 anticipated merging branch and research libraries into "One NYPL". The organizational change anticipated a unified online catalog for all the collections, as well as one card for both branch and research libraries.[32]

Despite public relations' assurances, the 2009 website and online-catalog transition did not proceed smoothly, with patrons and staff equally at a loss for how to work effectively with the new system. Reassuring press releases followed the initial implementation, and notices were posted in branch and research libraries.[50]

NYPL police

The NYPL maintains a force of NYC special patrolmen who provide security and protection to various libraries and NYPL special investigators who oversee security operations at the library facilities. These officials have on-duty arrest authority granted by NYS penal law; however, some library branches use contracted security guards for security.

New York Public Library Elevation

In popular culture

Film

Television

Novels

  • Lynne Sharon Schwartz's The Writing on the Wall (2005) features a language researcher at NYPL who grapples with her past following the September 11, 2001, attacks.
  • Cynthia Ozick's 2004 novel Heir to the Glimmering World, set just prior to World War II, involves a refugee-scholar from Hitler's Germany researching the Karaite Jews at NYPL.
  • In the 1996 novel Contest by Matthew Reilly, the NYPL is the setting for an intergalactic gladiatorial fight that results in the building's total destruction.
  • In the 1984 murder mystery by Jane Smiley, Duplicate Keys, an NYPL librarian stumbles on two dead bodies, c. 1930.
  • In Middlesex by Jeffrey Eugenides, the main character visits the NYPL to look up her condition in the dictionary.
  • Allen Kurzweil's The Grand Complication is the story of an NYPL librarian whose research skills are put to work finding a missing museum object.
  • Lawrence Blochman's 1942 mystery Death Walks in Marble Halls features a murder committed using a brass spindle from a catalog drawer.
  • A lightly fictionalized portrait of the Jewish Division's first chief, Abraham Solomon Freidus, is found in a chapter of Abraham Cahan's The Rise of David Levinsky (1917).
  • Linda Fairstein's Lethal Legacy (2009) is mainly centered around the library.

Poetry

Both branches and the central building have been immortalized in numerous poems, including:

  • Richard Eberhart's "Reading Room, The New York Public Library" (in his Collected Poems, 1930–1986 [1988])
  • Arthur Guiterman's "The Book Line; Rivington Street Branch, New York Public Library" (in his Ballads of Old New York [1920])
  • Lawrence Ferlinghetti's "Library Scene, Manhattan" (in his How to Paint Sunlight [2001])
  • Muriel Rukeyser's "Nuns in the Wind" (in The Collected Poems of Muriel Rukeyser [2005])
  • Paul Blackburn's "Graffiti" (in The Collected Poems of Paul Blackburn [1985])
  • E.B. White's "Reading Room" (Poems and Sketches of E.B. White [1981])
  • Susan Thomas' "New York Public Library" (the anthology American Diaspora [2001])
  • Aaron Zeitlin's poem about going to the library, included in his 2-volume Ale lider un poemes [Complete Lyrics and Poems] (1967 and 1970)

Other

Excerpts from several of the many memoirs and essays mentioning the New York Public Library are included in the anthology Reading Rooms (1991), including reminiscences by Alfred Kazin, Henry Miller, and Kate Simon.

A replica of the library is also featured in Universal Studios Singapore and Universal Studios Florida

Other New York City library systems

The New York Public Library, serving Manhattan, the Bronx, and Staten Island, is one of three separate and independent public library systems in New York City. The other two library systems are the Brooklyn Public Library and the Queens Borough Public Library.

According to the latest Mayor's Management Report, New York City's three public library systems had a total library circulation of 35 million broken down as follows: the NYPL and BPL (with 143 branches combined) had a circulation of 15 million, and the QBPL system had a circulation of 20 million through its 62 branch libraries. Altogether the three library systems also hosted 37 million visitors in 2006.

Private libraries in New York City, some of which can be used by the public, are listed in Directory of Special Libraries and Information Centers (Gale).[53]

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ 2010 Annual Report [1]
  2. ^ "Contact List - The New York Public Library". http://www.nypl.org/help/about-nypl/administration/contact-list. Retrieved 23 May 2010. 
  3. ^ "New York Public Library Names Dr. Anthony Marx Next President". http://www.nypl.org/press/press-release/2010/10/06/new-york-public-library-names-dr-anthony-marx-next-president?hpfeature=2. 
  4. ^ "Simon & Schuster:David McCullough". Archived from the original on September 29, 2006. http://web.archive.org/web/20060929035702/http://www.simonsays.com/content/destination.cfm?tab=1&pid=328883&feature_id=3375. Retrieved 2007-10-12 
  5. ^ "American Library Association: The Nation's Largest Libraries". http://www.ala.org/ala/aboutala/offices/library/libraryfactsheet/alalibraryfactsheet22.cfm. Retrieved 2009-03-17 
  6. ^ See info box for each library system
  7. ^ 2010 Annual Report (PDF) [2]
  8. ^ "Free Reading for the People". The New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=9801E4DD1739EF34BC4951DFB7668389669FDE&scp=8&sq=free+library+project&st=p. Retrieved 19 May 2011. 
  9. ^ Documents of the Board of Education of the City of New York. New York (N.Y.). Board of Education. 1858. pp. 26–27. http://books.google.com/books?id=EegTAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA26. Retrieved 19 May 2011. 
  10. ^ "LIBRARIES FOR THE POOR; A MOVEMENT TO SUPPLY A MUCH NEEDED WANT.". The New York Times. January 21, 1882. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=9B07E3D6113CEE3ABC4951DFB7668389699FDE&scp=2&sq=free+library+project&st=p. Retrieved 19 May 2011. 
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "History of the New York Public Library". nypl.org. http://www.nypl.org/help/about-nypl/history. Retrieved 2011-06-12. 
  12. ^ a b Harry Miller Lydenberg (July and August 1916). "History of the New York Public Library". Bulletin of the New York Public Library 20: 555–584, 623–660. http://www.archive.org/stream/bulletin20newyuoft#page/555/mode/2up. 
  13. ^ "Editorial: Free Public Libraries". The New York Times. January 14, 1872. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=9C0CE7DE1F39E73ABC4C52DFB7668389669FDE. Retrieved 19 May 2011. 
  14. ^ Barbaralee Dimonstein, The Landmarks of New York, Harry Abrams, 1998, p. 107.
  15. ^ Dain, P.(1997). Harry M. Lydenberg and American library resources: A study in modern library leadership. Library Quarterly, 47(4), p.454
  16. ^ "New York Public Library". National Historic Landmark summary listing. National Park Service. 2007-09-16. http://tps.cr.nps.gov/nhl/detail.cfm?ResourceId=393&ResourceType=Building. 
  17. ^ "New York Public Library being evacuated". Twitter. 17 July 2007. Archived from the original on September 29, 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20070929091948/http://twitter.com/BreakingNewsOn/statuses/154583392. Retrieved 2007-07-17. 
  18. ^ Robin Pogrebin, "A Centennial Face-Lift For a Beaux-Arts Gem: Restoration of Library Facade Begins With Visions of a Nightly Spectacle", The New York Times, 2007-12-07, at page B1.
  19. ^ "The New York Public Library Will Restore its Fifth Avenue Building's Historic Facade / Project to be Completed in Time for Building's 2011 Centennial," 2007-12-20, at the New York Public Library Web site, accessed 2007-12-20.
  20. ^ "New York Public Library gets a $50M facelift for 100th birthday," New York Daily News, 2011-02-02, accessed 2011-02-05.
  21. ^ Robin Pogrebin, "A Centennial Face-Lift for a Beaux-Arts Gem," New York Times accessed 2009-03-30.
  22. ^ Marc Santora, "After Big Gift, a New Name for the Library," New York Public Library website, 2008-04-23.
  23. ^ "Science, Industry and Business Library", June 19, 2003 Press Release, New York Public Library. Retrieved 2010-06-13.
  24. ^ a b Taylor, Kate, "That Mighty Sorting Machine Is Certainly One for the Books", article, New York Times, April 21, 2010, retrieved same day
  25. ^ Norman Oder, "One NYPL," Many Questions, Library Journal, November 1, 2007.
  26. ^ Oder, Norman. "NYPL Reorganization Coming", Library Journal (October 1, 2007). Vol. 132, Issue 16, p. 12.
  27. ^ Congressional Oversight Committee Reviews Library of Congress.
  28. ^ New York Public Library + Google
  29. ^ Rothstein, Edward. "If Books Are on Google, Who Gains and Who Loses?" New York Times. November 14, 2005.
  30. ^ Library and Information Technology Association, "Contracting for Content in a Digital World"
  31. ^ Chan, Sewell. "Sale of Former Donnell Library Is Back on Track", New York Times. July 9, 2009.
  32. ^ a b LeClerc, Paul. "Answers About the New York Public Library, Part 3", New York Times. December 12, 2008.
  33. ^ Oder, Norman. "NYPL: Synergy on the Way?" Library Journal (February 1, 2005), Vol. 130, Issue 2
  34. ^ "NYPL head = Natl. archivist; New Catalog, Restructuring", Library Journal (August 1, 2009, Vol. 134, Issue 13.
  35. ^ NYPL.org
  36. ^ "Library Phone Answerers Survive the Internet", The New York Times 19 June 2006.[3]
  37. ^ NYPL/org
  38. ^ Leopac.nypl.org
  39. ^ Catnyp.nypl.org
  40. ^ NYPL.org
  41. ^ NYPL.org
  42. ^ NYPL.org
  43. ^ NYPL.org
  44. ^ NYPL.org
  45. ^ NYPL.org
  46. ^ Digitalgallery.nypl.org
  47. ^ Time.com
  48. ^ Archimuse.com
  49. ^ NYPL.org
  50. ^ Slotnik, Daniel E. "Library System Resolves Catalog Problems", New York Times. July 20, 2009.
  51. ^ Improveverywhere.com
  52. ^ [4]
  53. ^ NYPL.org

Sources

External links


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

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  • New York Public Library — La mayor biblioteca pública urbana de EE.UU.), y una de las más grandes del mundo. Fue fundada en 1895, y su edificio central se inauguró en 1911. Contiene más de 10 millones de libros y más de 10 millones de manuscritos, así como grandes… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • New York Public Library Main Branch — New York Public Library U.S. National Register of Historic Places U.S. National Historic Landmark …   Wikipedia

  • New York Public Library, 115th Street Branch — U.S. National Register of Historic Places …   Wikipedia

  • New York Public Library, Hamilton Grange Branch — U.S. National Register of Historic Places …   Wikipedia

  • New York Public Library and Bryant Park — U.S. National Register of Historic Places …   Wikipedia

  • New York Public Library, Yorkville Branch — New York Public Library U.S. National Register of Historic Places NYC Landmark #237 …   Wikipedia


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