- Pope Celestine III
English name=Celestine III
March 30, 1191
January 8, 1198
Pope Celestine III (
Rome, c. 1106 – January 8, 1198), born Giacinto Bobone, was elected Popeon March 30, 1191, and reigned until his death. He was born into the noble Bobone family (ancestors of the Orsinifamily), though he was only a deaconbefore becoming Pope. He was ordained a prieston April 13, 1191, ruled the church six years, nine months, and nine days (though believed to have been about eighty five when elected), died January 8, 1198, and was buried at the Lateran. He crowned the Emperor Henry VI (1190–97) on the day after his election with a ceremony symbolizing his absolute supremacy, as described by Roger of Hoveden, who is believed (more reasonably as it would seem) by Baronius, but discredited by Natalis Alexander. He subsequently excommunicated the same Henry VI for wrongfully keeping Richard I of England(1189–99) in prison. In 1192, he confirmed the statutes of the Teutonic Order of Knights. He would have resigned the Papacy, and recommended a successor (Cardinal Giovanni di San Paolo, OSB) shortly before his death, but was not allowed to do so by the cardinals.
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