Harari language

Harari language

region=Ethiopia: Harari Region
speakers=21,283 (1998 census)
fam7=Harari-East Gurage

Harari (sometimes "(H)aderi" or "(H)adere") is the language of the Harari people of Ethiopia. According to the 1998 Ethiopian census, it is spoken by 21,283 people. Most of its speakers are multilingual in Amharic and/or Oromo. Harari is closely related to the East Gurage languages, Zay and Silt'e. Locals or natives of this city also refer to it as "Gey sinan" (Language of the City). It also borrows several words from the Arabic and Italian languages.

Originally written in the Arabic script, it has recently converted to the Ge'ez alphabet.


# a, is pronounced as in the English "hat."
# á, as in "father."
# ay, as in "hay."
# áy, as in the Spanish "ay."
# i, as in the English "if."
# í, as ee in the English "sheer.

Language mechanics

Masculine nouns may be converted into feminines by three processes. The first changes the terminal vowel into -it, or adds -it to the terminal consonant:

e.g. rágá, an old man; rágít, an old woman. e.g. bushshí, a dog; bushshít, a bitch. e.g. wasíf, a slave boy; wasífít, a slave girl.

Animals of different sexes have different names. and this forms the second process:

e.g. bárá, an ox; lám, a cow.

The third and the most common way of expressing sex is by means of abosh, "male or man," and inistí: woman, " female ":

They correspond with our " he-" and " she-."

e.g. faras, a stallion; inisti faras, a mare. e.g. abosh baghl, a he mule; inisti baghl, a she mule.

"The noun has two numbers, Singular and Plural. The affix -ásh changes singulars into plurals:"

e.g. abosh, a man; aboshásh, men. e.g. wandag, a servant; wandagásh, servants. e.g. gár, a house; gárásh, houses.

Nouns ending in the long á become plural without reduplicating this letter:e.g. gáfá, a slave; gáfásh (for gáfáásh), slaves. e.g. gubná, a harlot; gubnásh, harlots.

e.g. lijjay, a son; lijjásh (for lijjiásh), sons.

The same is the case with nouns terminating in í:

e.g. kabri, a grave; kabrásh (for kabriásh), graves.

When the singular ends in the soft sibilant, it is usually changed into z:

e.g. fares, a horse; farazásh, horses. e.g. irás, a cloth; irázách, cloths.

e.g. 1st Pers. Án. Innásh or Inyásh. e.g. 2nd Pers. Akhákh. Akhákhásh e.g. 3rd Pers. Huwa. (383) Hiyyásh.

"The affixed pronouns or possessives attached to nouns are:--"


e.g. 1st Pers. - e, my or mine. e.g. Gár-e, my house. e.g. 2nd Pers. - khá, thy or thine. Gár-khá, thy house. e.g. 3rd Pers. - zo, or - so, his. Gár-zo, his house.

Plural.e.g. 1st Pers. - zinya or sinya, our. e.g. Gár-zinya, our house. e.g. 2nd Pers. - kho, your. Gár-kho, your house. e.g. 3rd Pers. - zinyo or sinyo, their. Gár-zinyo, their house. (384)

In the same way attached pronouns are affixed to verbs:--

e.g. Sit-ayn: give (thou to) me. e.g. Sit-ana: give (thou to) us.

The demonstrative pronouns are :

e.g. Sing. Yí, this. e.g. Yá, that. e.g. Plur. Yíásh, or yí'ach, these. e.g. Yá'ásh, or yá'ách, those.

The interrogative pronouns are the following:--

e.g. Mántá: who?e.g. Mintá: what?

e.g. Án atte hárkho: I myself went.e.g. Akhákh attekh hárkhí: thou thyself wentest.e.g. Huwa attezo háre: he himself went.

The following are the two auxiliary verbs:"'Past Tense."'(Affirmative Form.)

e.g. Singular. 1. I was, Án narkhú. e.g. 2. Thou wast, Akhákh nárkhí. e.g. 3. He was, Huwa nárá. Plural. 1. We were, Inyásh nárná. e.g. 2. Ye were, Akhákhásh narkhú. e.g. 3. They were, Hiyyásh nárú.

(Negative Form.)e.g. Sing. 1. I was not, Án alnárkhúm. e.g. 2. Thou wast not, Akhákh alnárkhím. e.g. 3. He was not, Huwa alnárum. e.g. Plur. 1. We were not, Inyásh alnárum. e.g. 2. Ye were not, Akhákhásh alnárkhúm. e.g. 3. They were not, Hiyyásh alnárúm.

Present Tense.

(Affirmative Form.)

e.g. 1. I am, Án halko. 1. We are, Inyásh halna. e.g. 2. Thou art. Akhákh halkhí. 2. Ye are, Akhákhásh halkhú. e.g. 3. He is, Huwa hal (). 3. They are, Hiyyásh halú

(Negative Form.)

e.g. 1. I am not, Án elkhúm. 1. Inyásh elnám. e.g. 2. Thou art not, Akhákh elkhím. 2. Akhákhásh elkhúm. e.g. 3. He is not, Huwa elúm. 3. Hiyyásh elúm. "'Imperative."'

e.g. 2. Be thou: "Hal". 2. Be ye: "Halkhú".

Past Tense.

e.g. Sing. 1. I became: Án ikaní náarkho. e.g. 2. Thou becamest: Akhákh tikání nárkhí. e.g. 3. He became: Huwa ikáni nárá. e.g. Plur. 1. We became: Innásh nikání nárná. e.g. 2. Ye became: Akhákhásh tikání nárkhú. e.g. 3. They became: Hiyyásh ikání nárú.

"'Present Tense."'

e.g. Sing. 1. I become: Án ikánákh. e.g. 2. Thou becomest: Akhákh tikánákh. e.g. 3. He becomes: Huwa ikánál. e.g. Plur. 1. We become: Inyásh nikánáná. e.g. 2. Ye become: Akhákhásh tikánákhu. e.g. 3. They become: Hiyyásh ikánálú.


e.g. Become thou, "Kanni". Become ye, "Kánnú".


e.g. Sing. 2. Become not, ikánnimekh. e.g. Plur. 2. Become not ye, ikánnumekh.

"'Past Tense."'

(Affirmative Form.)

e.g. Sing. 1. I went, Án letkho. e.g. 2. Thous wentest, Akhákh letkhí. e.g. 3. He went, Huwa leta. e.g. Plur. 1. We went, Inyásh letna. e.g. 2. Ye went, Akhákhásh letkhú. e.g. 3. They went, Hiyyásh letú.

(Negative Form.)

e.g. Sing. 1. I went not, Án alletkhúm. e.g. 2. Thou wentest not, Akbákh alletkhím. e.g. 3. He went not, Huwa alletám. e.g. Plur. 1. We went not, Inyásh aletnám. e.g. 2. Ye went not, Akhákásh alletkhúm. e.g. 3. They went not, Hiyyásh alletúm. "'Present Tense."'

(Affirmative Form.)

e.g. 1. I go, Án iletákh 1. Inyásh niletáná. e.g. 2. Thou goest, Akhákh tiletínakh 2. Akhákhásh tiletákhú. e.g. 3. He goes, Huwa yiletál 3. Hiyyásh yiletálú.

(Negative Form.)

e.g. Sing. 1. I go not, Án iletumekh. e.g. 2. Thou goest not, Akhákh tiletumekh. e.g. 3. He goes not, Huwa iletumel. e.g. Plur. 1. We go not, Inyásh niletumens. e.g. 2. Ye go not, Akhákhash tiletumekhú. e.g. 3. They go not, Hiyyásh iletuelú.

e.g. Sing. 1. I will go, Án iletle halkho. e.g. 2. Thou wilt go, Akháhk tiletle halkhí. e.g. 3. He will go, Huwa iletle hal. e.g. Plur. 1. We will go, Inyásh niletle halns. e.g. 2. Ye will go, Akhákhásh tiletle halkhú. e.g. 3. They will go, Hiyyásh niletle halns.


*Abdurahman Garad and Ewald Wagner. 1998. "Harari-Studien : Texte mit Übersetzung, grammatischen Skizzen und Glossar". Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz. ISBN 3-447-03937-X. [http://www.ilx.nl/blonline/blonlinesearch2.php?ficheid=200000084677]
*Cerulli, Enrico. 1936. "Studi etiopici". Roma: Inst. P. L'oriente.
*Gardner, Simon and Ralph Siebert. 2001. "Sociolinguistic survey report of the Zay language area." "SIL Electronic Survey Reports", 2002-024. [http://www.sil.org/silesr/2002/024/ PDF]
Cohen, Marcel. 1931. "Etudes d'éthiopien méridional". Paris. pp. 243-354.
*Leslau, Wolf. 1938. "Contributions a l’etude du Harari (Abyssinie meridionale)". Paris: P. Geuthner.
*Leslau, Wolf. 1958. "The verb in Harari : (South Ethiopic)". Berkeley: University of California Press.
*Leslau, Wolf. 1965. "Ethiopians speak. Studies in cultural background. Part I: Harari". Near Eastern Studies, no. 7. Berkeley: University of California Press.
*Mondon-Vidailhet, François Marie Casimir. 1902. "La langue Harari et les dialectes Ethiopies du Gouraghe". Paris: Imprimerie nationale.
*Wagner, Ewald. 1983. "Harari-Texte in arabischer Schrift : mit Übersetzung und Kommentar". Wiesbaden: F. Steiner.

External links

* [http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=har "Ethnologue" report on Harari]
* [http://globalrecordings.net/language/3129 Christian recordings in Harari] in [http://globalrecordings.net/ Global Recordings] website.
* [http://www.harraris.com Harraris.com]
* [http://wollamshram.ca/1001/East/east1_appn02.htm Grammatical Outline and Vocabulary of the Harari Language]

Template group
list =

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Harari — may refer to: * The city of Harar in Ethiopia; Harari is an adjectival form of the noun (along with Hadere, Adere). ** Harari people of Ethiopia ** Harari language * Harari Region in Ethiopia * Michael Harari (b. 1927), Israeli intelligence… …   Wikipedia

  • Harari Region — For the capital of Zimbabwe, see Harare Infobox Regions of Ethiopia native name = ትግራይ ክልል Harari Kilil conventional long name = the Harari Region common name = The Tigray Region demonym = Harari map caption = Map of Ethiopia highlighting the… …   Wikipedia

  • Harari — Gesprochen in Äthiopien, Kanada, USA Sprecher 21.283 (Zensus 1998)[1] Linguistische Klassifikation Afroasiatische Sprachen …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Harari (langue) — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Harari. Le harari (ou hararri, adare, adere, aderinya, adarinnya, gey sinan) est une langue sémitique parlée en Éthiopie par les Hararis. Selon le recensement de 1998, il serait parlé par 21 283 personnes.… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • harari — həˈrärē noun (plural harari or hararis) Usage: usually capitalized Etymology: from Harar, region of Ethiopia 1. a. : a people of eastern Ethiopia now mixed with the Somali but originally Himyaritic Semites …   Useful english dictionary

  • Harari — noun a) an ethnic people of Ethiopia b) their language …   Wiktionary

  • Harari — ISO 639 3 Code : har ISO 639 2/B Code : ISO 639 2/T Code : ISO 639 1 Code : Scope : Individual Language Type : Living …   Names of Languages ISO 639-3

  • Arabic language — Arabic redirects here. For other uses, see Arabic (disambiguation). For the literary standard, see Modern Standard Arabic. For vernaculars, see varieties of Arabic. For others, see Arabic languages. Arabic العربية/عربي/عربى al ʿarabiyyah/ʿarabī …   Wikipedia

  • Hebrew language — Hebrew redirects here. For other uses, see Hebrew (disambiguation). Not to be confused with Yiddish language. Hebrew עִבְרִית …   Wikipedia

  • Aramaic language — Not to be confused with the Amharic language. For the people, see Aramaeans. Aramaic Arāmît Pronunciation [arɑmiθ], [arɑmit], [ɑrɑmɑjɑ], [ɔrɔmɔjɔ] Spoken in Ir …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.