Harari language


Harari language

language
name=Harari
region=Ethiopia: Harari Region
speakers=21,283 (1998 census)
familycolor=Afro-Asiatic
fam2=Semitic
fam3=South
fam4=Ethiopian
fam5=South
fam6=Transversal
fam7=Harari-East Gurage
iso2=sem|iso3=har

Harari (sometimes "(H)aderi" or "(H)adere") is the language of the Harari people of Ethiopia. According to the 1998 Ethiopian census, it is spoken by 21,283 people. Most of its speakers are multilingual in Amharic and/or Oromo. Harari is closely related to the East Gurage languages, Zay and Silt'e. Locals or natives of this city also refer to it as "Gey sinan" (Language of the City). It also borrows several words from the Arabic and Italian languages.

Originally written in the Arabic script, it has recently converted to the Ge'ez alphabet.

Vowels

# a, is pronounced as in the English "hat."
# á, as in "father."
# ay, as in "hay."
# áy, as in the Spanish "ay."
# i, as in the English "if."
# í, as ee in the English "sheer.

Language mechanics

Masculine nouns may be converted into feminines by three processes. The first changes the terminal vowel into -it, or adds -it to the terminal consonant:

e.g. rágá, an old man; rágít, an old woman. e.g. bushshí, a dog; bushshít, a bitch. e.g. wasíf, a slave boy; wasífít, a slave girl.

Animals of different sexes have different names. and this forms the second process:

e.g. bárá, an ox; lám, a cow.

The third and the most common way of expressing sex is by means of abosh, "male or man," and inistí: woman, " female ":

They correspond with our " he-" and " she-."

e.g. faras, a stallion; inisti faras, a mare. e.g. abosh baghl, a he mule; inisti baghl, a she mule.

"The noun has two numbers, Singular and Plural. The affix -ásh changes singulars into plurals:"

e.g. abosh, a man; aboshásh, men. e.g. wandag, a servant; wandagásh, servants. e.g. gár, a house; gárásh, houses.

Nouns ending in the long á become plural without reduplicating this letter:e.g. gáfá, a slave; gáfásh (for gáfáásh), slaves. e.g. gubná, a harlot; gubnásh, harlots.

e.g. lijjay, a son; lijjásh (for lijjiásh), sons.

The same is the case with nouns terminating in í:

e.g. kabri, a grave; kabrásh (for kabriásh), graves.

When the singular ends in the soft sibilant, it is usually changed into z:

e.g. fares, a horse; farazásh, horses. e.g. irás, a cloth; irázách, cloths.

e.g. 1st Pers. Án. Innásh or Inyásh. e.g. 2nd Pers. Akhákh. Akhákhásh e.g. 3rd Pers. Huwa. (383) Hiyyásh.

"The affixed pronouns or possessives attached to nouns are:--"

Singular.

e.g. 1st Pers. - e, my or mine. e.g. Gár-e, my house. e.g. 2nd Pers. - khá, thy or thine. Gár-khá, thy house. e.g. 3rd Pers. - zo, or - so, his. Gár-zo, his house.

Plural.e.g. 1st Pers. - zinya or sinya, our. e.g. Gár-zinya, our house. e.g. 2nd Pers. - kho, your. Gár-kho, your house. e.g. 3rd Pers. - zinyo or sinyo, their. Gár-zinyo, their house. (384)

In the same way attached pronouns are affixed to verbs:--

e.g. Sit-ayn: give (thou to) me. e.g. Sit-ana: give (thou to) us.

The demonstrative pronouns are :

e.g. Sing. Yí, this. e.g. Yá, that. e.g. Plur. Yíásh, or yí'ach, these. e.g. Yá'ásh, or yá'ách, those.

The interrogative pronouns are the following:--

e.g. Mántá: who?e.g. Mintá: what?

e.g. Án atte hárkho: I myself went.e.g. Akhákh attekh hárkhí: thou thyself wentest.e.g. Huwa attezo háre: he himself went.

The following are the two auxiliary verbs:"'Past Tense."'(Affirmative Form.)

e.g. Singular. 1. I was, Án narkhú. e.g. 2. Thou wast, Akhákh nárkhí. e.g. 3. He was, Huwa nárá. Plural. 1. We were, Inyásh nárná. e.g. 2. Ye were, Akhákhásh narkhú. e.g. 3. They were, Hiyyásh nárú.

(Negative Form.)e.g. Sing. 1. I was not, Án alnárkhúm. e.g. 2. Thou wast not, Akhákh alnárkhím. e.g. 3. He was not, Huwa alnárum. e.g. Plur. 1. We were not, Inyásh alnárum. e.g. 2. Ye were not, Akhákhásh alnárkhúm. e.g. 3. They were not, Hiyyásh alnárúm.

Present Tense.

(Affirmative Form.)

e.g. 1. I am, Án halko. 1. We are, Inyásh halna. e.g. 2. Thou art. Akhákh halkhí. 2. Ye are, Akhákhásh halkhú. e.g. 3. He is, Huwa hal (). 3. They are, Hiyyásh halú

(Negative Form.)

e.g. 1. I am not, Án elkhúm. 1. Inyásh elnám. e.g. 2. Thou art not, Akhákh elkhím. 2. Akhákhásh elkhúm. e.g. 3. He is not, Huwa elúm. 3. Hiyyásh elúm. "'Imperative."'

e.g. 2. Be thou: "Hal". 2. Be ye: "Halkhú".

Past Tense.

e.g. Sing. 1. I became: Án ikaní náarkho. e.g. 2. Thou becamest: Akhákh tikání nárkhí. e.g. 3. He became: Huwa ikáni nárá. e.g. Plur. 1. We became: Innásh nikání nárná. e.g. 2. Ye became: Akhákhásh tikání nárkhú. e.g. 3. They became: Hiyyásh ikání nárú.

"'Present Tense."'

e.g. Sing. 1. I become: Án ikánákh. e.g. 2. Thou becomest: Akhákh tikánákh. e.g. 3. He becomes: Huwa ikánál. e.g. Plur. 1. We become: Inyásh nikánáná. e.g. 2. Ye become: Akhákhásh tikánákhu. e.g. 3. They become: Hiyyásh ikánálú.

Imperative.

e.g. Become thou, "Kanni". Become ye, "Kánnú".

Prohibitive.

e.g. Sing. 2. Become not, ikánnimekh. e.g. Plur. 2. Become not ye, ikánnumekh.

"'Past Tense."'

(Affirmative Form.)

e.g. Sing. 1. I went, Án letkho. e.g. 2. Thous wentest, Akhákh letkhí. e.g. 3. He went, Huwa leta. e.g. Plur. 1. We went, Inyásh letna. e.g. 2. Ye went, Akhákhásh letkhú. e.g. 3. They went, Hiyyásh letú.

(Negative Form.)

e.g. Sing. 1. I went not, Án alletkhúm. e.g. 2. Thou wentest not, Akbákh alletkhím. e.g. 3. He went not, Huwa alletám. e.g. Plur. 1. We went not, Inyásh aletnám. e.g. 2. Ye went not, Akhákásh alletkhúm. e.g. 3. They went not, Hiyyásh alletúm. "'Present Tense."'

(Affirmative Form.)

e.g. 1. I go, Án iletákh 1. Inyásh niletáná. e.g. 2. Thou goest, Akhákh tiletínakh 2. Akhákhásh tiletákhú. e.g. 3. He goes, Huwa yiletál 3. Hiyyásh yiletálú.

(Negative Form.)

e.g. Sing. 1. I go not, Án iletumekh. e.g. 2. Thou goest not, Akhákh tiletumekh. e.g. 3. He goes not, Huwa iletumel. e.g. Plur. 1. We go not, Inyásh niletumens. e.g. 2. Ye go not, Akhákhash tiletumekhú. e.g. 3. They go not, Hiyyásh iletuelú.

e.g. Sing. 1. I will go, Án iletle halkho. e.g. 2. Thou wilt go, Akháhk tiletle halkhí. e.g. 3. He will go, Huwa iletle hal. e.g. Plur. 1. We will go, Inyásh niletle halns. e.g. 2. Ye will go, Akhákhásh tiletle halkhú. e.g. 3. They will go, Hiyyásh niletle halns.

References

*Abdurahman Garad and Ewald Wagner. 1998. "Harari-Studien : Texte mit Übersetzung, grammatischen Skizzen und Glossar". Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz. ISBN 3-447-03937-X. [http://www.ilx.nl/blonline/blonlinesearch2.php?ficheid=200000084677]
*Cerulli, Enrico. 1936. "Studi etiopici". Roma: Inst. P. L'oriente.
*Gardner, Simon and Ralph Siebert. 2001. "Sociolinguistic survey report of the Zay language area." "SIL Electronic Survey Reports", 2002-024. [http://www.sil.org/silesr/2002/024/ PDF]
*
Cohen, Marcel. 1931. "Etudes d'éthiopien méridional". Paris. pp. 243-354.
*Leslau, Wolf. 1938. "Contributions a l’etude du Harari (Abyssinie meridionale)". Paris: P. Geuthner.
*Leslau, Wolf. 1958. "The verb in Harari : (South Ethiopic)". Berkeley: University of California Press.
*Leslau, Wolf. 1965. "Ethiopians speak. Studies in cultural background. Part I: Harari". Near Eastern Studies, no. 7. Berkeley: University of California Press.
*Mondon-Vidailhet, François Marie Casimir. 1902. "La langue Harari et les dialectes Ethiopies du Gouraghe". Paris: Imprimerie nationale.
*Wagner, Ewald. 1983. "Harari-Texte in arabischer Schrift : mit Übersetzung und Kommentar". Wiesbaden: F. Steiner.

External links

* [http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=har "Ethnologue" report on Harari]
* [http://globalrecordings.net/language/3129 Christian recordings in Harari] in [http://globalrecordings.net/ Global Recordings] website.
* [http://www.harraris.com Harraris.com]
* [http://wollamshram.ca/1001/East/east1_appn02.htm Grammatical Outline and Vocabulary of the Harari Language]

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