- Bit Error Rate Test
BERT or Bit Error Rate Test is a testing method for digital communication circuits that uses predetermined stress patterns comprising of a sequence of logical ones and zeros generated by a
pseudorandom binary sequence.
A BERT Tester typically consists of a test pattern generator and a receiver that can be set to the same pattern. They can be used in pairs, with one at either end of a transmission link, or singularly at one end with a
loopbackat the remote end. BERT Testers are typically stand-alone specialised instruments, but can be Personal Computerbased. In use, the number of errors if any are counted and presented as a ratio such as 1 in 1,000,000, or 1 in 10e06.
Common types of BERT stress patterns
*QRSS (Quasi Random Signal Source) – A
pseudorandom binary sequencewhich generates every combination of a 20-bit word, repeats every 1,048,575 bits, and suppresses consecutive zeros to no more than 14. It contains high-density sequences, low-density sequences, and sequences that change from low to high and vice versa. This pattern is also the standard pattern used to measure jitter.
*3 in 24 – Pattern contains the longest string of consecutive zeros (15) with the lowest ones density (12.5%). This pattern simultaneously stresses minimum ones density and the maximum number of consecutive zeros. The D4 frame format of 3 in 24 may cause a D4 Yellow Alarm for frame circuits depending on the alignment of one bits to a frame.
*1:7 – Also referred to as “1 in 8”. It has only a single one in an 8-bit repeating sequence. This pattern stresses the minimum ones density of 12.5% and should be used when testing facilities set for
B8ZScoding as the 3 in 24 pattern increases to 29.5% when converted to B8ZS.
*Min/Max – Pattern rapid sequence changes from low density to high density. Most useful when stressing the repeater’s ALBO feature.
*All Ones (or Mark) – A pattern composed of ones only. This pattern causes the repeater to consume the maximum amount of power. If DC to the repeater is regulated properly, the repeater will have no trouble transmitting the long ones sequence. This pattern should be used when measuring span power regulation. An unframed all ones pattern is used to indicate an AIS (also known as a Blue Alarm).
*All Zeros – A pattern composed of zeros only. It is effective in finding equipment misoptioned for AMI, such as fiber/radio multiplex low-speed inputs.
*2 in 8 – Pattern contains a maximum of four consecutive zeros. It will not invoke a
B8ZSsequence because eight consecutive zeros are required to cause a B8ZSsubstitution. The pattern is effective in finding equipment misoptioned for B8ZS.
*Bridgetap - Bridge taps within a span can be detected by employing a number of test patterns with a variety of ones and zeros densities. This test generates 21 test patterns and runs for 15 minutes. If a signal error occurs, the span may have one or more bridge taps. This pattern is only effective for T1 spans that transmit the signal raw. Modulation used in
HDSLspans negates the Bridgetap patterns' ability to uncover bridge taps.
*Multipat - This test generates 5 commonly used test patterns to allow DS1 span testing without having to select each test pattern individually. Patterns are: All Ones, 1:7, 2 in 8, 3 in 24, and QRSS.
*T1-DALY and 55 OCTET - Each of these patterns contain fifty-five (55), eight bit octets of data in a sequence that changes rapidly between low and high density. These patterns are used primarily to stress the ALBO and equalizer circuitry but they will also stress timing recovery. 55 OCTET has fifteen (15) consecutive zeroes and can only be used unframed without violating ones density requirements. For framed signals, the T1-DALY pattern should be used. Both patterns will force a
B8ZScode in circuits optioned for B8ZS.
:When a B8ZS code is injected into a test pattern that contains a long string of zeros, the pattern is no longer testing to the full consecutive zero requirement. Circuit elements, such as line repeaters, that are intended to operate with or without B8ZS should be tested without B8ZS. [ [http://networking.ringofsaturn.com/Telecommunications/DSL.php networking.ringofsaturn.com "Telephone company testing"] ]
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