German settlement in Australia


German settlement in Australia

German settlement in Australia began in large numbers in 1838, with the arrival of immigrants from Prussia to Adelaide, South Australia. German immigrants became prominent in settling South Australia and Queensland. From 1850 until World War I, German settlers and their descendants comprised the largest non-British group of Europeans in Australia.

The Prince George and Bengalee group - November 1838

The first group arrived with Pastor August Kavel on the ships "Prince George", and "Bengalee". These first immigrants to settle from what is today known as Germany were escaping from what they considered to be religious persecution at the hands of Prussian King Frederick William III. The group was composed of Lutheran immigrants who had left their homeland mainly because of their rejection of Prussian state enforcement of a new prayer book for church services. They developed a settlement at Klemzig, six kilometers from Adelaide.

The Zebra Group - December 1838

The next group arrived in December 1838, on the "Zebra" with Captain Dirk Meinhertz Hahn. Captain Hahn, assisted this group in acquiring land in the Adelaide Hills, where they settled Hahndorf.

The Catharina Group - January 1839

The last of the initial wave of immigrants arrived in January 1839, on the "Catharina". This group settled predominantly at Glen Osmond.

The Skjold Group - October 1841

In 1840 a letter was sent to the Old Lutherans in Prussia to encourage others to also emigrate. Included in this letter was a request for a second pastor to be sent also. The group set sail for Australia, on 11 July 1841 on the "Skjold". On a trip beset with sickness, 55 people, mainly young children and the elderly died. On October 28, 1841, 213 emigrants from Prussia arrived at Port Misery in South Australia. With them was Pastor Gotthard Fritzsche, who had been encouraged to emigrate because of the Prussian government’s requirement for a Pastor to accompany the emigrants. The migrants settled at Lobethal, and Bethenien.

In 1842, Langmeil was settled.

Hermann von Beckerath Group - 1847

Early German immigrants were instrumental in the creation of the South Australian Wine Industry. One of the earliest wine makers, whose descendants still produce wine, was Carl August Sobels. Born in Dresden in 1802, he arrived in South Australia on the "Hermann von Beckerath" in 1847. At first he farmed at Macclesfield before moving to Tanunda where he produced table wines. After his death in 1863 the business was conducted by his son Ferdinand.

By the mid 1840s, the German community in South Australia had become large enough to warrant its own German-language newspaper. In 1847, the first German newspaper in Australia, "Die Deutsche Post", was founded in Adelaide.

an Francisco Group - October 1850

The barque "San Francisco" (a three masted barque of 450 tons (nm) built in Bjornberg, Sweden in 1846 and owned by J C Godeffroy & Sons) landed a number of emigrants in South Australia on 14 October 1850 [http://www.slsa.sa.gov.au/fh/passengerlists/1850Northumberland-San%20Francisco%20RegisterOctober14.jpg] after leaving Hamburg on 15 June (or 23 June ?) [http://www.slsa.sa.gov.au/fh/passengerlists/1850Northumberland-San%20Francisco%20RegisterOctober14.jpg] 1850. The ship almost never arrived, as it sailed straight into a major storm at Port Misery (Port Adelaide), which also wrecked the barque "Grecian" (three-masted, built at Sunderland, England in 1841) earlier that day. It was reported in a local newspaper of the time that the newly arrived emigrants on the ship were from the linen-producing Prussian province of Silesia. Like previous German emigrants to South Australia, the passengers then dispersed throughout the colony.

Passenger List of the San Francisco:

Schiff: San Francisco

Kapitän:Kramer

von: Hamburg

nach: Adelaide

und: Melbourne

am: 15.06.1850

Name

Vorname

Beruf

Herkunft

Ehefrau

Kinder

Ahrenstein

Adolph

Kaufmann

Hamburg

Sara

Levy, Fanny, Doris

Ahrenstein

Friedrich

Kaufmann

Lippstadt

Auguste

Arnsberg

J.M.

Kaufmann

Hamburg

Becker

Friedrich

Stellmacher

Leipzig

Bandholz

Friedrich

Zimmermann

Kiel

Binder

August

Maurer

Grenitz

Braunack

Friedrich

Tuchmacher

Tirschtiegel

Frau

2 Söhne

Erichsen

Johanna

Hamburg-Altona

Findeisen

C.C.

Lehrer

Markkleeberg

Fischer

Christian

Schäfer

Osteritz

Frau

3 Kinder

Fromm

Gottlieb

Schneider

Millostow

Gomalla

Mattes

Landmann

Ganrow

Gaßan

J.

Landmann

Tornow

Maria

Elisabeth

Gormann

Johann

Landmann

Tornow

Frau

3 Kinder

Grabasch

Louise

Muschten

Huppatz

Johann

Schuhmacher

Tauer

Frau

4 Kinder

Hemmerling

J.F.

Landmann

Muschten

Frau

3 Kinder

Hübener

Gottlob

Landmann

Zirchau

Anna

Hanel

Carl

Sattler

Libau

Irmler

Georg

Landmann

Sawade

Anna

Irmler

Friedrich

Landmann

Sawade

Frau

3 Kinder

Koopmann

Gottlieb

Schneider

Wismar

Kilian

Christian

Landmann

Tauer

Frau

4 Kinder

Kloke

Gottlieb

Stellmacher

Kay

Frau

2 Kinder

Kurtze

Samuel

Zimmermann

Brausendorf

Frau

2 Kinder

Kurtze

Wilhelm

Landmann

Brausendorf

Frau

1 Kind

Kalckwitz

Wilhelm

Landmann

Schmölen

Frau

Tochter

Koch

Michael

Schuhmacher

Krakau

Lewels

Carl Johann

Destillateur

Hamburg

Lehmann

Gottlob

Landmann

Muschten

Frau

1 Kind

Meyer

Wilhelm

Tischler

Zagajewitzky

Meincke

Johann

Landmann

Boitzenburg

Müller

Johann

Schneider

Tirschtiegel

Julie

3 Kinder

Müller

Rosine

Tirschtiegel

Mattner

Gottfried

Landmann

Kay

Frau

4 Kinder

Meinje

August

Landmann

Müllerhausen

Maticke

Samuel

Landmann

Schmölen

Frau

3 Kinder

Mathias

Catharina M.

Hamburg

Noack

Anna

Ruben

Noack

Anna

Ruben

Noack

Johann

Landmann

Tauer

Anna

Maria

Noack

Elisabeth

Tauer

Maria

Noack

Martin

Landmann

Tauer

Noack

Gottfried

Landmann

Tauer

Anna

Nagel

Heinrich

Schneider

Bowitz

Louise

Pätzel

Gottlob

Schäfer

Jany

Anna

Rosina

Pätzel

Carl August

Landmann

Jany

Pätzel

Wilhelm Ernst

Landmann

Jany

Anna Helena, AnnaDorothea, Christine

Parde

August

Stellmacher

Muschten

Pöck

Gottlob

Landmann

Kay

Frau

2 Kinder

Romm

Daniel

Landmann

Gutabschied

Frau

4 Kinder

Reimann

Gottlob

Schäfer

Muschten

Frau

3 Kinder

Ruge

Christian

Schuhmacher

Muschten

Frau

Sohn

Richsteig

Georg

Landmann

Coschten

Frau

4 Kinder

Rößler

Wilhelm

Landmann

Neubauroh

Frau

6 Kinder

Roi

Ferdinand

Schuhmacher

Tischtiegel

Frau

1 Kind

Richter

E.G.

Schäfer

Cottbus

Roedinger

Friedrike

Berlin

5 Kinder

Rüthing

F.L.

Hutfrabikant

Paderborn

Frau

2 Kinder

Richter

Sophie

Hamburg

Schröder

J.G.

Tischler

Möckern

Frau

4 Kinder

Schmerl

Gottfried

Landmann

Deutsch Kessel

Frau

1 Kind

Schäpe

Christian

Landmann

Sawade

Frau

4 Kinder

Semler

Georg

Landmann

Herde

Frau

4 Kinder

Schütz

Mathias

Landmann

Bobitz

Schultz

Friedrich

Landmann

Muschten

Frau

1 Kind

Schultz

Gottlob

Schäfer

Muschten

Frau

1 Kind

Stenke

Gottfried

Müller

Kay

Anna

Stenke

Wilhelm

Müller

Kay

Rosina

4 Kinder

Stenke

Louise

Dienstmädchen

Kay

Saegenschnitter

Gottlob

Landmann

Scharky

Sturzel

Carl

Landmann

Schmöllen

Tilemann

C.H.

Kaufmann

Neustadt

Uplegger

J.E.G.

Landmann

Neu Treptow

Voigt

Robert O.

Zimmermann

Ehrenberg

Vorwerk

Gottfried

Schuhmacher

Langheinersdorf

Frau

5 Kinder

Wolff

Christian

Schäfer

Osteritz

Frau

3 Kinder

Wundersitz

Carl

Landmann

Ritschütz

Frau

3 Kinder

Wenske

Gottlob

Landmann

Muschten

Frau

1 Kind

Zahnleiter

Phillip

Maurer

Käferthal

Zirck

Dorothea

Hamburg

James

Further reading

* Harmstorf, Ian and Cigler, Michael (1985) "The Germans in Australia" Melbourne : AE Press. Australian ethnic heritage series. ISBN 0867872039
* Tampke, Jurgen and Doxford, Colin (1990) "Australia, Willkommen : a history of the Germans in Australia"Kensington, N.S.W : New South Wales University Press. ISBN 0868403075

External links

* [http://www.teachers.ash.org.au/dnutting/germanaustralia/e/chron/chron1.htm "German Australia" Chronology]
* [http://www.migrationheritage.nsw.gov.au/places/zivillager/history.shtml Zivil Lager (Internment Camp): World War One Prisoners Of War At Trial Bay] (online exhibition)

* [http://members.iinet.net.au/~perthdps/shipping/mig-sa2.htm] South Australian Migrant Shipping (1836-1860)

* [http://homepage.mac.com/graememoad/Family/Ships/san_francisco.htm] SAN FRANCISCO passenger list and some other link.

ee also

*German Australian
*Forty-Eighters
*Barossa German
*Ethnic Germans
*Immigration to Australia
*German Baptist settlers in Australia
*Australian place names changed from German names


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