- Parental responsibility (criminal)
Canadaand the United States, the term "parental responsibility" refers to the potential or actual liability that may be incurred by parentsfor the behaviour of their children.
The Canadian law
Parental responsibility legislation has been enacted in three Canadian provinces: Manitoba (1997), Ontario (2000), and British-Columbia (2001).
Under the Parental Responsibility Act, 2000, a "child" is anyone under the age of 18 years, and "parent" means:
*either the biological,
adoptive, or legal guardianparent of the child,
*or the person who has lawful custody of, or a right of access to, the child.The Small Claims Court may order such parents to compensate those suffering any loss or damage intentionally caused by their child, unless the parent was exercising reasonable supervision over the child at the time the child engaged in the activity that caused the loss or damage and made reasonable efforts to prevent or discourage the child from engaging in the kind of activity that resulted in the loss or damage. (see http://www.e-laws.gov.on.ca/DBLaws/Statutes/English/00p04_e.htm).
The U.S. law
There is a
politicalmovement for greater parental accountability following of a number of highly publicised violent crimes committed by children. While all US statesallow parents to be sued for the various actions of their children, the idea of criminal legislationto enable the prosecution of adults for “neglectful” parenting is relatively new. For example, a number of states have enacted or proposed laws that will:
*automatically hold parents financially responsible for all expenses associated with a second false bomb threat or 911 call made by a child;
prisonterm of up to 18 months and order payment of restitution to any victims if the child commits a serious crime;
*imposes a fine and/or a prison term if a child uses a gun owned by the parent to commit a crime
*fine and/or imprison parents whose children fail to attend school or skip school more than 10 times in a year.Such legislation is constitutionally problematic in that it is often both broad and vague, and may very well infringe upon the
privacyof the family. The sponsors of these laws argue that "parental delinquency" is usually the cause of the "juvenile delinquency", but opponents argue that there is little evidence to support the claim that youth crime is caused by “bad parenting” and that there are many other social, culturaland economiccauses that should be addressed. As more parents are forced to work long hours and hold two or more jobs to earn enough to cover basic family needs, it is less appropriate to cut federal spending on social welfareschemes and medicaid, and likely to produce injustice if parents are prosecuted for being unavailable to supervise their children. But, Californiaenacted the Street Terrorism and Prevention Act 1988 with prison sentences of up to one year and fines up to $2,500 if parents “grossly” or “culpably” deviate from the “normal” standards of supervision, and the California Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of this Act.
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