- VR Group
VR or VR Group ( _fi. VR-Yhtymä Oy, _sv. VR-Group Ab) is a state-owned
railwaycompany in Finland, and formerly known as Suomen Valtion Rautatiet "(Finnish State Railways)" until 1922 and Valtionrautatiet "(State Railways)" until 1995. Its most important function is the operation of freight and passenger rail services. Maintenance and construction of the railway network itself is the responsibility of the Finnish Rail Administration(Ratahallintokeskus - RHK). Both operation and network were originally carried out by the parent company "Valtionrautatiet", which split into the two current ones in 1995.
Companies in the VR group also provide road freight and bus services, carry out catering activities and real estate management, and provide data, technological, and telecommunications services for the transport and logistics sectors. The group owns a bus company
Pohjolan Liikenneand a road freight haulage company Transpoint.
Finnish trains have a reputation for being spacious, comfortable and clean. The scenery surrounding the railway lines is considered to be of outstanding natural beauty, especially in
Eastern Finlandwhere there are many lakes. Because in most parts of Finland the density of population is low, Finland is not very well suited for railways. Commuter services are nowadays rare outside the Helsinkiarea, but there are express train connections between most of the cities. As in France, passenger services are mostly connections from various parts of the country to the capital, Helsinki. In addition there are also good ExpressBusand aeroplane connections, both of which are generally little or a lot more expensive than trains. Buses are sometimes faster and/or cheaper than trains (e.g. Helsinki- Pori).
VR also provides car transport services on certain routes. There are six stations that allow loading/unloading of cars on trains: Helsinki, Turku and Tampere in the south, Oulu further north, and Rovaniemi and Kolari in Lapland. Car transport trains also stop at other stations along the way for normal passenger transport.
The only international passenger rail services from Finland are to
Russia. There are two passenger trains a day to Saint Petersburg, called Sibelius and Repin, and one overnight train to Moscowvia Saint Petersburg called Tolstoi. There are plans to modernise the tracks on the Helsinki - Saint Petersburg line to enable them to support higher speed Pendolinotrains. International freight traffic is mostly concentrated to the four railways across the Russian border, but there is also a connection to the Swedish rail network in Tornioand rail ferryconnections from Turkuto Stockholm, Sweden and to Travemünde, Germany.
Both domestic and international freight services are provided by [http://www.vrcargo.fi VR Cargo] , part of VR Group.
Altogether the group of companies includes 21 companies employing a total of about 14,400 persons. The President and CEO of the VR group of companies is Henri Kuitunen.
The Finnish State Railways was founded by the
Senate of Finlandin 1860.Fact|date=March 2007 As Finland was a Grand Principality under Imperial Russia, railways were built to the broader Russian track gaugeof RailGauge|1524|lk=on, rather than to the Western European standard gaugeof RailGauge|sg|lk=off. The first rail line between Helsinki and Hämeenlinnawas opened in 1862. An extension from Riihimäkito the new Finland Stationin Saint Petersburgwas opened in 1870. The entire line was owned by the Finnish State Railways, even though parts of it were built on Russian soil. Between 1875 and 1950 most private broad-gauge Finnish railways were incorporated into the State Railways, such as the Hanko-Hyvinkää Railroadwhich was the first private railroad in Finland, and the first one to be sold to the state in 1875.
Finland Railway Bridgeacross the River Nevain Saint Petersburg, opened in 1912, connected the Finnish State Railways to Russian Railways. Following Finnish independence, the Russian part of the line was handed over to Russian authorities. As of 2007, only one private railway company exist in Finland, the Karhula-Sunila Railroad, a short branch line with freight traffic only, in Karhula, near Kotka. However several museum railways exist that are unrelated to VR Group.
Finnish Railway Museumin Hyvinkääis the official company museum.
Travel time and speed
Travel time and speed by fastest train connections from/to Helsinki after 3 September 2006.
Of locomotive hauled passenger coaches, VR has four main types:
*"Blue" carriages - popularly known as such due to their blue and white liveries. Once the mainstay of VR's network, they are have now been largely replaced on most long distance services starting from Helsinki. They are still extensively used on Turku-Tampere services. Top speed is usually 140 km/h.
*"Red" carriages - similar to the "blue" coaches, but with a red and cream livery, different seat layout and repositioned entrance doors, mainly used for locomotive-hauled commuter services to and from Helsinki during hush hours, occasionally also in place of the blue carriages in long-distance services. Top speed is 140 km/h.
*Single-deck InterCity carriages - used on many routes, including the Helsinki-Saint Petersburg "Sibelius" train. Top speed is 160 km/h.
*Double-deck InterCity 2 carriages - extensively used on the Helsinki-Tampere route. Many long distance trains consist of both InterCity and InterCity 2 coaches. Built in Finland by
Transtech Oy, these are VR's most modern carriages.
1st class carriages are distinguished by a yellow stripe above the windows. On the "Blue" carriages restaurant cars are distinguished by a red stripe above the windows. Aggregate cars (used on InterCity trains on non-electrified track) are distinguished by a blue stripe above the windows.
The last wooden-bodied carriages were withdrawn by the mid-1980s. Prior to the 1970s these had been the mainstay of VR's passenger rolling stock.
VR also operates sleeper services between Helsinki/Turku and Lapland, which also include car-carrying (
motorail) waggons. New double-deck sleeping carriages (including rooms with "en suite" showers and toilets) were introduced on the Helsinki- Rovaniemiservice in the 2000s. These wagons are painted in a red-and-white livery similar to the InterCity coaches. Other overnight services (Turku-Rovaniemi and Helsinki-Kolari) are operated by older "blue" sleeper carriages.
Electrification was extended from
Oulunorthwards to Rovaniemi, but not the full way to Kemijärvi. In 2006, direct sleeper services were controversially discontinued beyond Rovaniemi (to Kemijärvi) as to the new double-deck sleeping carriages were unable to operate with diesel haulage. The sleeper service to Kemijärvi was restarted in March 2008, with new "aggregate" carriages converted to use 1,500 V electrification of the sleeper cars between Rovaniemi and Kemijärvi. Sleeper services to and from Joensuu were withdrawn in 2006, but with the opening of the new direct line between Lahtiand Kerava, this has allowed the acceleration of daytime services.
The Finnish loading gauge allows the operation of freight vehicles considerably larger than most other railways in the European Union. Containers can be double-stacked and road trailers (often of VR's subsidiary
Transpoint) can be easily accommodated on ordinary flat waggons. Much of the freight on the VR network is carried from Russia in Russian waggons, including large capacity eight-axle oil tank waggons.
VR also has a one-third ownership of
SeaRail, a specialist operator of freight waggons designed for through running (via ferry) to Sweden and elsewhere in Western Europe.
VR currently operates one class of diesel-powered multiple units and four classes of electric-powered multiple units.
The Sm3 class Pendolino is the VR's "flagship", mainly connecting largest cities to the capital.
Helsinki area commuter services are largely operated by classes Sm1, Sm2 and (the newest) Sm4
electric multiple units (EMU).
A new class of high speed EMUs will be built for
Karelian Trains. This is a joint venture between VR and Russian Railwayswhich will operate the Helsinki-Saint Petersburg service from 2009.
Czech-built single carriage diesel multiple units (VR Dm12 class) are currently being introduced on secondary services, such as the
Parikkala- Savonlinnabranch line.
Multiple unit classification system
The multiple unit classification system follows a similar logic as the locomotive classification system: the first letter signifies the power source (in addition to electric and diesel, gasoline (B, "bensiini") and wood gas (P, "puukaasu") have been used), followed by the letter m ("moottorivaunu") signifyng a multiple unit, followed by a serial number.
Commuter traffic in Helsinki area
VR runs commuter traffic in
Helsinki Metropolitan Area. See VR commuter rail.
Karelian Trains"(jointly owned by VR and RZD to operate Helsinki - Saint Petersburg trains from 2009)"
List of Finnish government owned companies
List of railway companies
List of railway lines in Finland
Public transport in Helsinki
Transportation in Finland
Transtech Oy"(Finnish rolling stock manufacturer)"
Finnish Railway Museum
* [http://www.vr.fi VR]
* [http://www.rhk.fi/english/index.html Finnish Rail Administration]
* [http://www.dlc.fi/~srhs/srhseng.htm Finnish Railway History Society]
* [http://www.rautatie.org Finnish Railway Museum]
* [http://www.europrail.net/ For Eurail and Finland Rail Passes]
* [http://www.kotimaki.com/rautatie/ Railway page for Finland (maintained by Kimmo Kotimäki)]
* [http://www.transtech.fi Transtech Oy (Finnish rolling stock manufacturer, formerly Talgo Oy)]
* [http://www.steam.dial.pipex.com/trains/finland01.htm Steam Locomotives in Finland Including the Finnish Railway Museum]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
См. также в других словарях:
Group theory — is a mathematical discipline, the part of abstract algebra that studies the algebraic structures known as groups. The development of group theory sprang from three main sources: number theory, theory of algebraic equations, and geometry. The… … Wikipedia
Group psychotherapy — is a form of psychotherapy in which one or more therapists treat a small group of clients together as a group. The term can legitimately refer to any form of psychotherapy when delivered in a group format, including Cognitive behavioural therapy… … Wikipedia
Group dynamics — is the study of groups, and also a general term for group processes. Relevant to the fields of psychology, sociology, and communication studies, a group is two or more individuals who are connected to each other by social relationships. [Forsyth … Wikipedia
Group of death — is an informal sobriquet used in football and other team sports to describe a situation that often occurs during the group stage of a tournament (such as the first round of the World Cup), where:* all the teams present in one group are considered … Wikipedia
Group buying — Group buying, also known as collective buying, offers products and services at significantly reduced prices on the condition that a minimum number of buyers would make the purchase. Origins of group buying can be traced to China… … Wikipedia
group — [gruːp] noun [countable] 1. also group of companies ORGANIZATIONS a large business organization that consists of several companies that all have the same owner: • Burmah Castrol, the lubricants group • the sale of the Rover Group to BMW … Financial and business terms
Group — can refer to: Sociology * Group action (sociology) * Group behaviour * Groups of people, a description of various different human groups ** Peer group ** Workgroup * Group dynamics * Group (sociology), a sub set of a culture or of a society *… … Wikipedia
Group f/64 — was a group of famous San Francisco photographers who espoused a common philosophy and photographic style. The group was created in 1932, and it is usually listed as including: * Ansel Adams+ * Imogen Cunningham+ * John Paul Edwards+ * Consuelo… … Wikipedia
Gröûp X — (also known as Gröûp X: Arabian Rap Sensations) is a faux Arabian rock band, claiming to be from the fictional village of Cramshananteen, Saudi Arabia. They play a mix of rap and rock. They are known for using comically accented and mangled… … Wikipedia
Group polarization — is the tendency of people to make decisions that are more extreme when they are in a group as opposed to a decision made alone or independently. Overview Study of this effect has shown that after participating in a discussion group, members tend… … Wikipedia
Group marriage — Group marriage, also known as multi lateral marriage, is a form of polyamory in which more than two persons form a family unit, with all the members of the group marriage being considered to be married to all the other members of the group… … Wikipedia