- Ultrasonic testing
"Step 1": The UT probe is placed on the root of the blades to be inspected with the help of a special
borescopetool (video probe).
"Step 2": Instrument settings are input.
"Step 3": The probe is scanned over the blade root. In this case, an indication (peak in the data) through the red line (or gate) indicates a good blade; an indication to the left of that range indicates a crack.]
In ultrasonic testing, very short ultrasonic pulse-waves with center frequencies ranging from 0.1-15 MHz and occasionally up to 50 MHz are launched into materials to detect internal flaws or to characterize materials. The technique is also commonly used to determine the thickness of the test object, for example, to monitor pipework corrosion.
Ultrasonic testing is often performed on steel and other metals and alloys, though it can also be used on concrete, wood and composites, albeit with less resolution. It is a form of
non-destructive testingused in many industries including aerospace, automotiveand other transportationsectors.
How it works
In ultrasonic testing, an ultrasound transducer connected to a diagnostic machine is passed over the object being inspected. The transducer is typically separated from the test object by a couplant (such as oil) or by water, as in immersion testing.
There are two methods of receiving the ultrasound waveform, reflection and attenuation. In reflection (or pulse-echo) mode, the transducer performs both the sending and the receiving of the pulsed waves as the "sound" is reflected back to the device. Reflected ultrasound comes from an interface, such as the back wall of the object or from an imperfection within the object. The diagnostic machine displays these results in the form of a signal with an
amplituderepresenting the intensity of the reflection and the distance, representing the arrival time of the reflection. In attenuation (or through-transmission) mode, a transmitter sends ultrasound through one surface, and a separate receiver detects the amount that has reached it on another surface after traveling through the medium. Imperfections or other conditions in the space between the transmitter and receiver reduce the amount of sound transmitted, thus revealing their presence.
weld for defects using an ultrasonic phased array instrument. The scanner, which consists of a frame with magnetic wheels, holds the probe in contact with the pipe by a spring. The wet area is the ultrasonic couplant that allows the sound to pass into the pipe wall.]
#High penetrating power, which allows the detection of flaws deep in the part.
#High sensitivity, permitting the detection of extremely small flaws.
#Only one surface need be accessible.
#Greater accuracy than other nondestructive methods in determining the depth of internal flaws and the thickness of parts with parallel surfaces.
#Some capability of estimating the size, orientation, shape and nature of defects.
#Nonhazardous to operations or to nearby personnel and has no effect on equipment and materials in the vicinity.
#Capable of portable or highly automated operation.
#Manual operation requires careful attention by experienced technicians
#Extensive technical knowledge is required for the development of inspection procedures.
#Parts that are rough, irregular in shape, very small or thin, or not homogeneous are difficult to inspect.
#Surface must be prepared by cleaning and removing loose scale, paint, etc, although paint that is properly bonded to a surface usually need not be removed.
#Couplants are needed to provide effective transfer of ultrasonic wave energy between transducers and parts being inspected unless a non-contact technique is used. Non-contact techniques include Laser and Electro Magnetic Acoustic Transducers (
#Inspected items must be water resistant, when using water based couplants that do not contain rust inhibitors.
Phased array ultrasonics
Time of flight diffraction ultrasonics(TOFD)
Time of Flight Ultrasonic Determination of 3D Elastic Constants(TOF)
Internal rotary inspection system(IRIS) ultrasonics for tubes
EMATElectromagnetic Acoustic Transducer
* [http://www.ndt.net/ndtaz/ndtaz.php Ultrasonic Testing Encyclopedia] from [http://www.ndt.net/ NDT.net]
* [http://www.ndt-ed.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/Ultrasonics/cc_ut_index.htm Ultrasonic testing] from NDT-ed.org
* [http://www.atomndt.com/index.php?q=node/6 Film about Russian ultrasonic testing unit ASK-132 in Kalinin NPP]
* [http://www.olympusndt.com/en/ndt-tutorials/phased-array/ Tutorial] in phased array and industrial ultrasonic testing
* Albert S. Birks, Robert E. Green, Jr., technical editors ; Paul McIntire, editor. "Ultrasonic testing", 2nd ed. Columbus, OH : American Society for Nondestructive Testing, 1991. ISBN 0931403049.
* Josef Krautkrämer, Herbert Krautkrämer. "Ultrasonic testing of materials", 4th fully rev. ed. Berlin; New York: Springer-Verlag, 1990. ISBN 3540512314.
* J.C. Drury. "Ultrasonic Flaw Detection for Technicians", 3rd ed., UK: Silverwing Ltd. 2004. (See [http://www.silverwinguk.com/en/technical%20pdfs/ultrasonics_pdf/article_1.pdf Chapter 1] online (PDF, 61 kB)).
* Nondestructive Testing Handbook, Third ed.: Volume 7, Ultrasonic Testing. Columbus, OH: American Society for Nondestructive Testing.
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