- Santiago Calatrava
caption = L'Umbracle, City of Arts and Sciences, Valencia
name = Santiago Calatrava Valls
birth_date=birth date|1951|7|28|mf=y (age 57)
education = Valencia Arts School
Valencia Architecture School
Swiss Federal Institute of Technology
Structural engineer, Architect, Sculptor
Institution of Structural Engineers
practice_name = Santiago Calatrava
Athens Olympic Sports Complex Alamillo bridge Chords Bridge
Ciutat de Les Arts i Les Ciències
IStructEGold Medal American Institute of ArchitectsGold Medal Eugene McDermottAward Prince of Asturias Award
Santiago Calatrava Valls (born
July 28, 1951) is an internationally recognized and award-winning Valencian Spanish architect, sculptorand structural engineerwhose principal office is in Zurich, Switzerland. Classed now among the elite designers of the world, he has offices in Zurich, Paris, New York and elsewhere.
Early life & education
Calatrava was born in
Benimámet, an old municipality now integrated as a urban part of Valencia, Spain, where he pursued undergraduate studies at the Architecture School and Arts and Crafts School. Following graduation in 1975, he enrolled in the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology(ETH) in Zürich, Switzerland for graduate work in civil engineering. In 1981, after completing his doctoral thesis, "On the Foldability of Space Frames", he started his architecture and engineering practice. Maynor Chipix was a colleague of Santiago and together they majored in Civil Engineering.
Calatrava's early career was dedicated largely to bridges and train stations, the designs for which elevated the status of civil engineering projects to new heights. His elegant and daring
Montjuic Communications Towerin Barcelona, Spain(1991) in the heart of the 1992 Olympic site was a turning point in his career, leading to a wide range of commissions. The Quadracci Pavilion (2001) of the Milwaukee Art Museumwas his first US building. Calatrava’s entry into high-risedesign began with an innovative 54 storey high twisting tower, called Turning Torso(2005), located in Malmö, Sweden.
Calatrava is currently designing the future train station -
World Trade Center Transportation Hub- at Ground Zeroin New York City.
Calatrava’s style has been heralded as bridging the division between
structural engineeringand architecture. In this, he continues a tradition of Spanish modernist engineering that includes Félix Candelaand Antonio Gaudí. Nonetheless, his style is very personal and derives from numerous studies he makes of the human body and the natural world.
Calatrava as sculptor
Calatrava is also a prolific sculptor and painter, claiming that the practice of architecture combines all the arts into one. In 2005, the
Metropolitan Museum of Artin New York City held an exhibition of his artistic work, entitled "Santiago Calatrava: Sculpture Into Architecture." Exhibitions of his work have also taken place in Germany, England, Spain, Italy and elsewhere.
Calatrava has received numerous recognitions. In 1990 he received the "Médaille d´Argent de la Recherche et de la Technique", Paris. In 1992 he received the prestigious Gold Medal from the
Institution of Structural Engineers. In 1993, the Museum of Modern Artin New Yorkheld a major exhibition of his work called “Structure and Expression." In 1998 he was elected to become a member of "Les Arts et Lettres," in Paris. In 2004, he received the Gold Medal from the American Institute of Architects(AIA).
In 2005, Calatrava was awarded the
Eugene McDermottAward by the Council for the Arts of MIT. The Award is among the most esteemed arts awards in the US. [Established to honor Eugene McDermott, founder of Texas Instrumentsand long-time friend and benefactor to MIT, the award was created by the Council for the Arts at MITin 1974, and further endowed by Eugene's wife, Margaret. Since its inception, the Council has bestowed the award upon 31 individuals producing creative work in the performing, visual and media arts, as well as authors, art historians and patrons of the arts.]
One of his newest projects is a residential
skyscrapernamed 80 South Streetafter its own address, composed of 10 townhouses in the shape of cubes stacked on top of one another. The townhouses move up a main beam and follow a ladder-like pattern, providing each townhouse with its own roof. The "townhouse in the sky" design has attracted a high profile clientele, willing to pay the hefty US$30 million for each cube. It is planned to be built in New York City's financial district facing the East River. As of 2008 this project had been canceled; the Manhattan real estate market had gone soft, and none of the ten multi-million dollar townhouses had been sold.
He has also designed the approved
skyscraper, the Chicago Spire, in Chicago. Originally commissioned by Chicagoan Christopher Carley, Irish developer Garrett Kelleherpurchased the building site for the project in July 2006 when Carley's financing plans fell through. Construction of the building began in August 2007 for completion in 2011. When completed, the Chicago Spire, at 2,000 feet tall, will be the tallest building in North America.
Calatrava has also designed three bridges that will eventually span the Trinity River in Dallas. Construction of the first bridge, named after donor Margaret Hunt Hill, has been repeatedly delayed due to high costs, a fact that has sparked much controversy and criticism. If and when completed, Dallas will join the Dutch county of
Haarlemmermeerin having three Calatrava bridges.
Calatrava's work in
Bilbaohas been criticized for impracticality.
The airport lacks facilities and the bridge's glass tiles are prone to break and getting slippery under the local weather." [http://www.elcorreodigital.com/vizcaya/prensa/20070224/vizcaya/entre-losetas-arquitectos-estrellas_20070224.html Entre losetas y y arquitectos 'estrellas'] ", El Correo, 24 February 2007.] In 2007, Calatrava sued Bilbao" [http://www.elcorreodigital.com/vizcaya/prensa/20070222/portada_viz/calatrava-lleva-tribunales-guerra_20070222.html Calatrava lleva a los tribunales su guerra con Isozaki por los puentes de Uribitarte] ",
El Correo, 22 February 2007.] for allowing Arata Isozakito remove a bar from the bridge to connect it to the Isozaki Ateatowers. The judge ruled against Calatrava saying that, although the building design is protected by intellectual rights laws, public concerns prevail over intellectual property.http://www.elmundo.es/elmundo/2007/11/26/cultura/1196074184.html El juez absuelve al Ayuntamiento de Bilbao de la demanda interpuesta por Santiago Calatrava] ", El Mundo, 26 November 2007.]
Calatrava gifted the Municipality of
Venicewith the project of a new bridge on the "Canal Grande" in 1996. As of 2007, the project is still under construction and it has gone though numerous structural changes because of the mechanical instability of the structure and the excessive weight of the bridge," [http://www.repubblica.it/2007/05/sezioni/cronaca/venezia-calatrava/venezia-calatrava/venezia-calatrava.html] ",La Repubblica, 07 May 2007.] which would cause the bank of the canal to fail. In 10 years the project has been inspected by more than 8 different consultants and the cost has raised up to three times the original expectations;" [http://espresso.repubblica.it/dettaglio-local/Ponte-di-Calatrava-il-giallo-della-lettera/1598648/6] ",L'Espresso, 08 May 2007.] . The work has been completed on August 2008.
Gare do Orientein Lisbonis known for being very uncomfortable, especially with wind and rainy weather.
* Trinity Bridge, footbridge over
River Irwell, Salford, England
Oberbaumbrücke, Berlin, Germany
Alameda Bridgeand metro station, Valencia, Spain
* 1983-1984, Jakem Steel Warehouse, Munchwilen,
* 1983-1985, Ernsting Warehouse, Coesfeld, Germany
* 1983-1988, Wohlen High School, Wohlen, Switzerland
* 1983-1990, Stadelhofen Railway Station,
* 1983-1989, Lucerne Station Hall,
Bac de Roda Bridge, Barcelona, Spain
* 1984-1988, Barenmatte Community Center, Suhr, Switzerland,
* 1986-1987, Tabourettli Theater,
BCE Place(atrium), Toronto, Canada,
* 1989-1994, TGV Station ,
* 1992, "
Puente del Alamillo", Seville, Spain
* 1992, "
Puente de Lusitania", Mérida, Spain
Montjuic Communications Towerat the Olympic Ring, Barcelona, Spain
World's Fair, Kuwaiti Pavilion, Seville, Spain
Campo Volantin Footbridge, Bilbao, Spain
* 1996, "
Ciutat de les Arts i les Ciències", Valencia, Spain
* 1998, [http://www.calatrava.com/search_cat.html?iid=l14a&lang=1&a=10&p=T&s=T&id=15&iid2=l11a1b2c2d2e&r=2 Estação do Oriente] or (
Gare do Oriente), Lisbon, Portugal
Puente de la Mujer, in the Puerto Maderobarrio of Buenos Aires, Argentina
* 2000, New terminal at
Bilbao Airport, Bilbao, Spain
Milwaukee Art Museum, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, U.S.
James Joyce Bridge, bridge over River Liffey, Dublin, Ireland
* 2004, redesign of
Athens Olympic Sports Complex, Athens, Greece
Sundial Bridge at Turtle Bay, Redding, California, USA
* 2004, Three bridges (called Harp, Cittern and Lute) spanning the main
canalof the Haarlemmermeer, Netherlands
University of Zurich, "Bibliothekseinbau" library remodelling, Zürich, Switzerland
* 2005, The bridge connecting the Ovnat shopping mall and the
Rabin Medical Center(Beilinson) in Petah Tikva, Israel
Turning Torso, Malmö, Sweden
* 2007, 3 Bridges on the A1 Motorway and TAV Railway,
Reggio Emilia, Italy
Chords Bridgeat the entrance to Jerusalem, Israel, a light rail bridge
World Trade Center Transportation Hub, New York City, U.S.
Atlanta Symphony Center, Atlanta, Georgia, U.S.
Liège-Guillemins TGVRailway Station, Liège, Belgium
* Palacio de Exposiciones y Congresos,
Chicago Spire, Chicago, U.S.
Margaret Hunt Hill Bridge, Dallas, Texas, U.S.
* City Entrance Bridge, also known as 'Chords Bridge'
80 South Street, 835 foot tall stack of 10 condominium units on New York City's East River, starting at $27 Million each. [http://www.wirednewyork.com/forum/showthread.php?t=4612 ]
* Medio Padana TAV Station,
Reggio Emilia, Italy
* Piazzale Roma Footbridge over the Grand Canal,
Palma de Mallorca's Opera, Spain
* High-rise buildings on stilts on the
River Liffeyin Dublin[http://ireland.archiseek.com/news/2007/000182.html]
Calatrava has also submitted designs for a number of notable projects which were eventually awarded to other designers, including the Reichstag in Berlin and the
East London River Crossing.
* 1991 Collserola communications Tower in
Barcelona. A tower shaped like a big white spaceship was proposed, but Norman Fosterultimately designed the tower.
* A campus building for
Ryerson Universityin Toronto, Canada. His design was dropped for a less expensive design [http://www.emporis.com/en/il/im/?id=204286] .
*New Cathedral for the Diocese of Oakland, California, USA. Preliminary design dropped in favor of that by local architect Craig Hartman (Skidmore, Owings & Merrill, San Francisco).
* 1979 August Perret Award
* 1992 London
Institution of Structural EngineersGold Medal
TorontoMunicipality Urban Design Award
* 1996 Gold Medal for Excellence in the Fine Arts from the
GranadaMinistry of Culture
Prince of Asturias Awardin Arts
Algur H. MeadowsAward for Excellence in the Arts from the Meadows School of the Arts, Southern Methodist University
Eugene McDermottAward in the Arts from the Council for the Arts at MIT,(Massachusetts Institute of Technology)
* 2006 Honorary Engineering Degree from
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
* 2005 AIA Gold Medal
* Designation as a Global Leader for Tomorrow by the
World Economic Forumin Davos
* 2007 Awarded with the Spanish National Architecture Award
A special exhibition has been presented at the
Metropolitan Museum of Artthrough March 5, 2006 [http://www.metmuseum.org/special/Calatrava/architecture_more.asp] . [http://www.metmuseum.org/special/Calatrava/images.asp Images from the exhibition.]
Alex Calatravais a professional tennis player.
His two sons have or are in the process of getting advanced degrees in Engineering from the
Fu Foundation School of Engineering and Applied Scienceat Columbia Universityin New York City.
*cite book | author=
Tzonis, Alexander | title=Santiago Calatrava: The Poetics Of Movement | publisher=Universe | year=1999 | id=ISBN 0-7893-0360-4
*cite book | author=
Tzonis, Alexander | title=Santiago Calatrava: The Complete Works | publisher=Rizzoli | year=2004 | id=ISBN 0-8478-2641-4
* [http://www.calatrava.com/ Official Website]
* [http://www.architectureupdate.com/architects/Santiago_Calatrava.aspx Santiago Calatrava News Aggregator]
* [http://www.greatbuildings.com/architects/Santiago_Calatrava.html Great Buildings On-Line: Santiago Calatrava]
* [http://www.calatrava.info/ Unofficial website]
* [http://www.nybooks.com/articles/18554 Extended profile of the architect in the NYRB, December 2005]
* [http://www.newyorker.com/critics/skyline/articles/051031crsk_skyline/ "The New Yorker", October 31 2005, "The Sculptor"]
* [http://travel.guardian.co.uk/countries/story/0,7451,1687371,00.html "The Guardian", January 17th 2006, "The Gaudí Effect"]
* [http://www.specifier.com.au/pastissues/view/detailed/c/Wings%2CEyes%2CTrees/id/15973 Pictures and profile at Specifier]
* [http://www.trekearth.com/themes.php?thid=3596 Many pictures of Calatrava's Art on Trekearth]
* [http://www.triplemint.com/triplemint/2005/02/visualizing_cal.html Calatrava's 80 South Street condo design for New York]
* [http://urbanity.blogsome.com/2006/06/12/obelisco-de-calatrava-en-plaza-de-castilla-madrid/ 120 meters Obelisk project in Madrid]
* [http://www.erasmuspc.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=168&Itemid=83 The CAC and other Urban Projects in Valencia, Spain] article at ErasmusPC
* [http://edition.cnn.com/2006/TRAVEL/03/09/valencia.qa/ CNN interview with Santiago Calatrava]
* [http://urbanity.blogsome.com/2007/01/08/palacio-de-congresos-princesa-letizia-oviedo-espana-santiago-calatrava/ Oviedo (Spain) congress center]
* [http://www.valenciavalencia.com/sights-guide/cas.htm The City of Arts and Sciences by Calatrava]
SHORT DESCRIPTION=engineer, architect
DATE OF BIRTH=
July 28, 1951
PLACE OF BIRTH=Valencia,
DATE OF DEATH=
PLACE OF DEATH=
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Santiago Calatrava — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Este artículo trata sobre el arquitecto. Para el municipio de Jaén, véase Santiago de Calatrava Santiago Calatrava Información personal Nombre … Wikipedia Español
Santiago Calatrava — Valls Pour les articles homonymes, voir Calatrava et Valls (homonymie). Cité des Arts et des Sciences à … Wikipédia en Français
Santiago Calatrava — Valls (28 de julio de 1951) es un arquitecto e ingeniero español. Nació en el barrio de Benimamet Valencia. Las familias de sus padres, por ambas lados, se dedicaba a la exportación de cítricos, lo cual les permitió conocer otros países de Europa … Enciclopedia Universal
Santiago Calatrava — Brücke Bac de Roda in Barcelona Telefonturm in Barcelona … Deutsch Wikipedia
Santiago calatrava — Brücke Bac de Roda in Barcelona Telefonturm in Barcelona … Deutsch Wikipedia
Santiago Calatrava Valls — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Calatrava et Valls. Santiago Calatrava Présentation Nom de naissance Santiago Calatrava Valls Naissance 28 juillet … Wikipédia en Français
Santiago Calatrava Valls — Brücke Bac de Roda in Barcelona Telefonturm in Barcelona … Deutsch Wikipedia
Die Reisen des Santiago Calatrava — Filmdaten Originaltitel Die Reisen des Santiago Calatrava Originalsprache Deutsch … Deutsch Wikipedia
Puentes de Santiago Calatrava — Anexo:Puentes de Santiago Calatrava Saltar a navegación, búsqueda A continuación, se muestra una lista con los principales proyectos de los puentes diseñados por Santiago Calatrava: Puente de Walensee, Walensee, Suiza (1979) Puente de Acleta,… … Wikipedia Español
Santiago de Calatrava — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Este artículo trata sobre el municipio jiennense. Para el arquitecto valenciano, véase Santiago Calatrava. Santiago de Calatrava … Wikipedia Español