- Karl Barth
. His theology has been enormously influential throughout Europe and America.
Early life and education
Basel, Barth spent his childhood years in Bern. From 1911 to 1921 he served as a Reformed pastor in the village of Safenwilin the canton Aargau. In 1913 he married Nelly Hoffmann, a talented violinist. They would have four sons and a daughter. Later he was professor of theologyin Göttingen(1921–1925), Münster(1925–1930) and Bonn(1930–1935) ( Germany). While serving at Göttingen he met Charlotte von Kirschbaum, who became his long-time secretary and assistant and played a large role in the writing of his epic the "Church Dogmatics".Fact|date=February 2008 He had to leave Germany in 1935 after he refused to swear allegiance to Adolf Hitler. Barth went back to Switzerlandand became professor in Basel (1935–1962).
Barth was originally trained in German Protestant Liberalism under such teachers as
Wilhelm Herrmann, but reacted against this theology at the time of the First World War. His reaction was fed by several factors, including his commitment to the German and Swiss Religious Socialist movement surrounding men like Hermann Kutter, the influence of the Biblical Realismmovement surrounding men like Christoph Blumhardtand Søren Kierkegaard, and the impact of the skeptical philosophy of Franz Overbeck.
The most important catalyst was, however, his reaction to the support most of his liberal teachers had for German war aims. The 1914 "Manifesto of the Ninety-Three German Intellectuals to the Civilized World" [http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914/93intell.html Manifesto of the Ninety-Three German Intellectuals] , 1914.] carried the signature of his former teacher
Adolf von Harnack. Barth believed that his teachers had been misled by a theology which tied Godtoo closely to the finest, deepest expressions and experiences of cultured human beings, into claiming divine support for a war which they believed was waged in support of that culture, the initial experience of which appeared to increase people's love of and commitment to that culture. Much of Barth's early theology can be seen as a reaction to the theology of Friedrich Schleiermacher.
"The Epistle to the Romans"
In his commentary "
The Epistle to the Romans" (Ger. "Der Römerbrief"; particularly in the thoroughly re-written second edition of 1922) Barth argued that the God who is revealed in the cross of Jesuschallenges and overthrows any attempt to ally God with human cultures, achievements, or possessions. Many theologians believe this work to be the most important theological treatise since Friedrich Schleiermacher's "."
In the decade following the First World War, Barth was linked with a number of other theologians, actually very diverse in outlook, who had reacted against their teachers' liberalism, in a movement known as "
Dialectical Theology" (Ger. "Dialektische Theologie"). Other members of the movement included Rudolf Bultmann, Eduard Thurneysen, Emil Brunner, and Friedrich Gogarten.
In 1934, as the Protestant Church attempted to come to terms with the
Third Reich, Barth was largely responsible for the writing of the Barmen declaration(Ger. "Barmer Erklärung") which rejected the influence of Nazismon German Christianity—arguing that the Church's allegiance to the God of Jesus Christ should give it the impetus and resources to resist the influence of other 'lords'—such as the German "Führer", Adolf Hitler. Barth mailed this declaration to Hitler personally. This was one of the founding documents of the Confessing Churchand Barth was elected a member of its leadership council, the Bruderrat. He was forced to resign from his professorship at the University of Bonn for refusing to swear an oath to Hitler. Barth was praised by U.S. theologian and newspaper writer S. Parkes Cadmanin a "New York Times" article for his refusal to sign the oath of allegiance to Hitler. [cite news | author=S. Parkes Cadman | title="Barth is extolled for defying Nazis | publisher=" The New York Times" | date= December 2, 1934| url=http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=FA081EFC3558177A93C0A91789D95F408385F9 | accessdate=2007-12-18 ] Barth then returned to his native Switzerland, where he assumed a chair in systematic theology at the University of Basel. In the course of his appointment he was required to answer a routine question asked of all Swiss civil servants, whether he supported the national defense. His answer was, "Yes, especially on the northern border!" In 1938 he wrote a letter to a Czech colleague, Josef Hromádka, in which he declared that soldiers who fought against the Third Reich were serving a Christian cause.
Barth's theology found its most sustained and compelling expression through his thirteen-volume magnum opus, the "Church Dogmatics" (Ger. "Kirchliche Dogmatik"). Widely regarded as an important theological work, the "Church Dogmatics" represents the pinnacle of Barth's achievement as a theologian. Barth published the first part-volume of the Dogmatics in 1932 and continued working on it until his death in 1968, by which time it was 6 million words long in thirteen part-volumes. Highly contextual, the volumes are written chronologically, beginning with Vol. I/1, and address political issues (generally quite subtly) as well as questions raised by his students after lectures. (The material published as the "Church Dogmatics" was originally delivered in lecture format to students at Bonn and then Basel.) Barth explores the whole of Christian
doctrine, where necessary challenging and reinterpreting it so that every part of it points to the radical challenge of Jesus Christ, and the impossibility of tying God to human cultures, achievements or possessions. It was translated into English under the editorial leadership of T. F. Torranceand G. W. Bromiley.
After the end of the
Second World War, Barth became an important voice in support both of German penitence and of reconciliation with churches abroad. Together with Hans-Joachim Iwand, he authored the Darmstadt Statementin 1947, which was a more concrete statement of German guilt and responsibility for the Third Reich and Second World War than the Stuttgart Declarationof 1945. In it, he made the point that the Church's willingness to side with anti-socialist and conservative forces had led to its susceptibility for National Socialist ideology. In the context of the developing Cold War, this controversial statement was rejected by anti-Communists in the West, who supported the CDU course of re-militarization, as well as by East German dissidents who believed that it did not sufficiently depict the dangers of Communism. In the 1950s, Barth sympathized with the peace movementand opposed German rearmament.
Barth wrote a 1960 article for "
The Christian Century" regarding the "East-West question", in which he denied any inclination toward Eastern communism, and stated he did not wish to live under Communism nor did he wish anyone to be forced to do so, but acknowledged a fundamental disagreement with most of those around him and wrote: "I do not comprehend how either politics or Christianity require or even permit such a disinclination to lead to the conclusions which the West has drawn with increasing sharpness in the past 15 years. I regard anticommunism as a matter of principle an evil even greater than communism itself." ["No Angels of Darkness and Light", "The Christian Century", 20 January 1960, pp. 72 ff.]
In 1962, Barth visited the USA, where he lectured at
Princeton Theological Seminary, University of Chicago, Union Theological Seminary, and San Francisco Theological Seminary. He was invited to be a guest at the Second Vatican Council, after which he wrote a small volume, Ad Limina Apostolorum [At the Threshold of the Apostles] (Karl Barth, a Theological Legacy, page 26). Also in 1962, Barth was featured on the cover of the April 20 issue of TIME magazine, showing that his influence reached out of academic and ecclesiastical circles and into the popular press.
Barth tries to recover the Doctrine of the Trinity in theology from its putative loss in liberalism. His argument follows from the idea that God is the object of God’s own self-knowledge, and
revelationin the Biblemeans the self-unveiling to humanity of the God who cannot be discovered by humanity simply through its own efforts.
One of the most influential and controversial features of Barth's Dogmatics was his doctrine of
election("Church Dogmatics" II/2). One thread of the Reformed tradition, following one interpretation of its most influential thinker, John Calvin, had long argued for so-called double predestination: that God chose some humans for salvationthrough Christ and others for damnation. These groups were sometimes called the "elect" and "reprobate." This choice (or "election") was made by God and was the result of God's "absolute decree," a mysterious and fundamentally inscrutable decision which, though it was a decision of ultimate consequence for the individual human, was fundamentally inaccessible and unknowable to him or her. God chose each person to be saved or damned based on the divine will, and it was impossible to know why God chose some and not others or whether God had elected or rejected oneself.
Barth's doctrine of election involves a firm rejection of the notion of an absolute decree. In keeping with his Christo-centric methodology, Barth argues that to ascribe the salvation or damnation of humanity to an abstract absolute decree is to make some part of God more final and definitive than God's saving act in Jesus Christ. God's absolute decree, if one may speak of such a thing, is God's gracious decision to be for humanity in the person of Jesus Christ. With the earlier Reformed tradition, Barth retains the notion of double predestination but makes Jesus Himself the object of both divine election and reprobation simultaneously: Jesus embodies both God's election of humanity and God's rejection of human
sin. While someFact|date=February 2008 regard this revision of the doctrine of election as an improvement on the Calvinist doctrine of double predestination, critics Fact|date=February 2008 have charged that Barth's view amounts to a lax universalism.
Barth, Liberals and Conservatives
Although Barth's theology rejected German Protestant Liberalism, his theology has usually not found favour with those at the other end of the theological spectrum: confessionalists and fundamentalists. His doctrine of the Word of God, for instance, holds that Christ is the Word of God, and does not proceed by arguing or proclaiming that the
Biblemust be uniformly historically and scientifically accurate, and then establishing other theological claims on that foundation.
fundamentalistcritics have joined liberal counterparts in referring to Barth as "neo-orthodox" because, while his theology retains most or all of the tenets of their understanding of Christianity, he is seen as rejecting the belief which is a linchpin of their theological system: biblical inerrancy. Such critics believe the written text must be considered to be historically accurate and verifiable and see Barth's view as a separation of theological truth from historical truth.Fact|date=June 2007 Barth could respond by saying that the claim that the foundation of theology is biblical inerrancy is to use a foundation other than Jesus Christ, and that our understanding of Scripture's accuracy and worth can only properly emerge from consideration of what it means for it to be a true witness to the incarnate Word, Jesus.Fact|date=June 2007
The relationship between Barth, liberalism and fundamentalism goes far beyond the issue of inerrancy, however. From Barth's perspective, liberalism, as understood in the sense of the 19th century with
Friedrich Schleiermacherand Hegelas its leading exponents and not necessarily expressed in any particular political ideology, is the divinization of human thinking. This, to him, inevitably leads one or more philosophical concepts to become the false God, thus attempting to block the true voice of the living God. This, in turn, leads to the captivity of theology by human ideology. In Barth's theology, he emphasizes again and again that human concepts of any kind, breadth or narrowness quite beside the point, can never be considered as identical to God's revelation. In this aspect, Scripture is also written human language, which bears witness to the self-revelation of God in Jesus Christ. Scripture cannot be considered as identical to God's self-revelation, which is properly only Jesus Christ. However, in his freedom and love, God truly reveals himself through human language and concepts, with a view toward their necessity in reaching fallen humanity. Thus Barth claims that Christ is truly presented in Scripture and the preaching of the church, echoing a stand expressed in his native Swiss Reformed Church's Helvetic Confessionof the 16th century.
In general, Barth stands in the heritage of the Reformation in his opposition against attempts to closely relate theology and philosophy. His approach in that respect is predominately Christo-centric, and is thus termed "
kerygmatic," as opposed to " apologetic."
Relationship with Charlotte von Kirschbaum
Barth has also fallen victim to criticism for his relationship with his secretary and confidant,
Charlotte von Kirschbaum. One critic has written: "Part of any realistic response to the subject of Barth and von Kirschbaum must be anger." [S. Seliger, "Charlotte von Kirschbaum and Karl Barth"; quoted in K. Sonderegger's [http://scdc.library.ptsem.edu/mets/mets.aspx?src=PSB2000212&div=9&
] .] When they first met in 1924, Barth had already been married for 12 years to his wife, Nelly, with whom he had also had five children. [George Hunsinger's [http://libweb.ptsem.edu/collections/barth/reviews/CharlotteKirschbaum.aspx?menu=296&subText=468 review] of S. Seliger, "Charlotte von Kirschbaum and Karl Barth: A Study in Biography and the History of Theology".] The precise nature of their relationship is unclear (in particular whether the two were ever sexually involved), but scholars agree their relationship went far beyond the bounds of the simply professional. In 1929, von Kirschbaum, with Barth's consent, moved into the Barth family household. This arrangement--described by one scholar as "convoluted, extremely painful for all concerned, yet not without integrity and joys"--lasted for 35 years. [Hunsinger] Hunsinger summarizes the influence of von Kirschbaum on Barth's work: "As his unique student, critic, researcher, adviser, collaborator, companion, assistant, spokesperson, and confidant, Charlotte von Kirschbaum was indispensable to him. He could not have been what he was, or have done what he did, without her."
*"Jesus does not give recipes that show the way to God as other teachers of religion do. He is Himself the way."
*"The best theology would need no advocates: it would prove itself."
*"Belief cannot argue with unbelief, it can only preach to it."
*"There is a notion that complete impartiality is the most fitting and indeed the normal disposition for true exegesis, because it guarantees complete absence of prejudice. For a short time, around 1910, this idea threatened to achieve almost a canonical status in Protestant theology. But now, we can quite calmly describe it as merely comical." (Church Dogmatics 1:2, 469)
*"The center is not something which is under our control, but something that controls us." (Church Dogmatics)
*"Barth’s dedication to the sole authority and power of the Word of God was illustrated for us… while we were in Basel. Barth was engaged in a dispute over the stained glass windows in the Basel Münster. The windows had been removed during World War II for fear they would be destroyed by bombs, and Barth was resisting the attempt to restore them to the church. His contention was that the church did not need portrayals of the gospel story given by stained glass windows. The gospel came to the church only through the Word proclaimed. …the incident was typical of Barth’s sole dedication to the Word. " --Elizabeth Achtemeier
*"To clasp the hands in prayer is the beginning of an uprising against the disorder of the world."
*"In the Resurrection the new world of the Holy Spirit touches the old world of the flesh, but touches it as a tangent touches a circle, that is, without touching it." (Barth 1933, p. 30)
*"What expressions we used — in part taken over and in part newly invented! — above all, the famous ‘wholly other’ breaking in upon us ‘perpendicularly from above,’ the not less famous ‘infinite qualitative distinction’ between God and man, the vacuum, the mathematical point, and the tangent in which alone they must meet." (Barth 1960, p. 42)
*"It may be that when the angels go about their task of praising God, they play only Bach. I am sure, however, that when they are together en famille they play Mozart and that then too our dear Lord listens with special pleasure."
*Once a young student asked Barth if he could sum up what was most important about his life's work and theology in just a few words. The question was posed even with gasps from the audience. Barth just thought for a moment and then smiled, "Yes, in the words of a song my mother used to sing me, 'Jesus loves me, this I know, for the Bible tells me so.'" [http://www.christianitytoday.com/history/special/131christians/barth.html]
Karl Barth's views on Mary
The Epistle to the Romans" ISBN 0-19-500294-6
* " [http://www.worldinvisible.com/library/barth/prayerpreaching/prayerpreaching.c.htm Prayer and Preaching]
* "Preaching Through the Christian Year" ISBN 0-8028-1725-4
* "God Here and Now
* "Fides Quaerens Intellectum: Anselm's Proof of the Existence of God in the Context of His Theological Scheme", John Knox (1960); reprinted by Pickwick Publications (1985) ISBN 0-915138-75-1
* "Evangelical Theology: An Introduction"
* "Church and State"
* "The Humanity of God", 1960, John Knox Press, ISBN 0-8042-0612-0
*"The Christian Life ", posthumous lecture fragments, ISBN 0-567-09320-4, ISBN 0-8028-3523-6
*"The Word in this World: Two Sermons by Karl Barth". Edited by Kurt I. Johanson. Regent Publishing (Vancouver, BC, Canada): 2007
*"No Angels of Darkness and Light", "The Christian Century", 20 January 1960, p. 72 (reprinted in "Contemporary Moral Issues, Second Edition", Harry K. Girvetz, editor. Wadsworth Publishing Company, Inc., 1968)
"The Church Dogmatics" in English translation
*Volume I Part 1: "Doctrine of the Word of God: Prolegomena to Church Dogmatics", hardcover: ISBN 0-567-09013-2, softcover: ISBN 0-567-05059-9
*Volume I Part 2: "Doctrine of the Word of God", hardcover: ISBN 0-567-09012-4, softcover: ISBN 0-567-05069-6
*Volume II Part 1: "The Doctrine of God: The Knowledge of God; The Reality of God", hardcover: ISBN 0-567-09021-3, softcover: ISBN 0-567-05169-2
*Volume II Part 2: "The Doctrine of God: The Election of God; The Command of God", hardcover: ISBN 0-567-09022-1, softcover: ISBN 0-567-05179-X
*Volume III Part 1: "The Doctrine of Creation: The Work of Creation", hardcover: ISBN 0-567-09031-0, softcover: ISBN 0-567-05079-3
*Volume III Part 2: "The Doctrine of Creation: The Creature", hardcover: ISBN 0-567-09032-9, softcover: ISBN 0-567-05089-0
*Volume III Part 3: "The Doctrine of Creation: The Creator and His Creature", hardcover: ISBN 0-567-09033-7, softcover: ISBN 0-567-05099-8
*Volume III Part 4: "The Doctrine of Creation: : The Command of God the Creator", hardcover: ISBN 0-567-09034-5, softcover: ISBN 0-567-05109-9
*Volume IV Part 1: "The Doctrine of Reconciliation", hardcover: ISBN 0-567-09041-8, softcover: ISBN 0-567-05129-3
*Volume IV Part 2: "Doctrine of Reconciliation: Jesus Christ the Servant As Lord", hardcover: ISBN 0-567-09042-6, softcover: ISBN 0-567-05139-0
*Volume IV Part 3, 1st half: "Doctrine of Reconciliation: Jesus Christ the True Witness", hardcover: ISBN 0-567-09043-4, softcover: ISBN 0-567-05189-7
*Volume IV Part 3, 2nd half: "Doctrine of Reconciliation: Jesus Christ the True Witness", hardcover: ISBN 0-567-09044-2, softcover: ISBN 0-567-05149-8
*Volume IV Part 4 (unfinished): "Doctrine of Reconciliation: The Foundation of the Christian Life (Baptism)", hardcover: ISBN 0-567-09045-0, softcover: ISBN 0-567-05159-5
*Volume V: "Church Dogmatics: Contents and Indexes", hardcover: ISBN 0-567-09046-9, softcover: ISBN 0-567-05119-6
*"Church Dogmatics", 14 volume set, softcover, ISBN 0-567-05809-3
*"Dogmatics in Outline", (1947 lectures), Harper Perennial, 1959, ISBN 0-06-130056-X
*"Church Dogmatics: A Selection", with intro. by H. Gollwitzer, 1961, Westminster John Knox Press 1994 edition, ISBN 0-664-25550-7
*"Church Dogmatics", dual language German and English, books with CDROM, ISBN 0-567-08374-8
*"Church Dogmatics", dual language German and English, CDROM only, ISBN 0-567-08364-0
* "Evangelical Theology, American lectures 1962" - given by Barth in
Chicago, Illinoisand Princeton, New Jersey, ISBN 978-0-9785738-0-5 and ISBN 0-9785738-0-3
*Timothy Bradshaw, "Trinity and ontology: a comparative study of the theologies of Karl Barth and
Wolfhart Pannenberg" ( Edinburgh: Rutherford HouseBooks, 1988) reprint edn. (Lewiston; Lampeter: Edwin Mellen Press for Rutherford House, Edinburgh, 1992)
* Bromiley, Geoffrey William. 1979. "An introduction to the theology of Karl Barth". Grand Rapids, Mich. : William B. Eerdmans Pub. Co.,
* McCormack, Bruce "Karl Barth’s Critically Realistic Dialectical Theology: Its Genesis and Development, 1909–1936" : Oxford University Press, USA (March 27, 1997), ISBN 978-0198269564
* Gorringe, Timothy "Karl Barth: Against Hegemony", (Oxford: OUP, 1999)
* Mark Galli (2000). [http://www.christianitytoday.com/ch/2000/001/5.23.html "Neo-Orthodoxy: Karl Barth"] . "
Kirkcaldy: MOBFP, 2007)
* Mangina, Joseph L., "Karl Barth: Theologian of Christian Witness." Louisville: Westminster John Knox, 2004.
* [http://libweb.ptsem.edu/collections/barth The Center for Barth Studies] at Princeton Theological Seminary
* [http://webserver.pthu.nl/barth/index_Eng.htm Barth Literature Search Project] Complete Bibliography of Literature by and about Karl Barth
* [http://www.time.com/time/covers/0,16641,1101620420,00.html April 20, 1962 Time Magazine Cover story on Karl Barth]
* [http://pages.unibas.ch/karlbarth/ Karl Barth-Archiv]
NAME= Barth, Karl
DATE OF BIRTH=
May 10, 1886
PLACE OF BIRTH=
DATE OF DEATH=
December 10, 1968
PLACE OF DEATH=
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Karl Barth — Karl Barth, 1955 Karl Barth (* 10. Mai 1886 in Basel; † 10. Dezember 1968 ebenda) war ein Schweizer evangelisch reformierter Theologe. Er gilt im Bereich der europäischen evangelischen Kirchen aufgrund seines theologischen Gesamtwerks als… … Deutsch Wikipedia
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