- Python (programming language)
infobox programming language
name = Python
paradigm = multi-paradigm: object-oriented, imperative, functional
year = 1991
Guido van Rossum
Python Software Foundation
latest_release_version = 2.6
latest_release_date = release date|mf=yes|2008|10|1
latest_test_version = 3.0rc1
latest_test_date = release date|mf=yes|2008|9|17
typing = strong, dynamic, duck
CPython, Jython, IronPython, PyPy
Stackless Python, RPython
influenced_by = ABC,
ALGOL 68, [cite web |url=http://www.amk.ca/python/writing/gvr-interview |title=Interview with Guido van Rossum|year=1998 |month=July |accessmonthday=29 |accessyear=2007] C, Haskell, Icon, Lisp, Modula-3, Perl, Java
influenced = Boo, Groovy, Ruby, Cobra, D
Python Software Foundation License
website = http://www.python.org/
Python is a general-purpose,
high-level programming language. [cite web |url= http://www.python.org/doc/faq/general/#what-is-python-good-for|title= What is Python Good For?|accessdate=2008-09-05 |work= General Python FAQ|publisher= Python Foundation] Its design philosophy emphasizes programmer productivity and code readability. [ cite web | url = http://www.python.org/doc/essays/blurb/ | title = What is Python? Executive Summary | publisher = Python Foundation | work = Python documentation | accessdate = 2007-03-21 ] Python's core syntax and semantics are minimalistic, while the standard libraryis large and comprehensive. Its use of whitespace as block delimiters is unusual among popular programming languages.
Python supports multiple
programming paradigms (primarily object oriented, imperative, and functional) and features a fully dynamic typesystem and automatic memory management, similar to Perl, Ruby, Scheme, and Tcl. Like other dynamic languages, Python is often used as a scripting language.
Python was first released by
Guido van Rossumin 1991. cite web | title = HISTORY | url = http://svn.python.org/view/*checkout*/python/trunk/Misc/HISTORY | work = Python source distribution | publisher = Python Foundation | accessdate = 2007-03-21 ] The language has an open, community-based development model managed by the non-profit Python Software Foundation, which also maintains the " de facto" standard definition of the language in CPython, the reference implementation.
Python was conceived in the late 1980scite web|url = http://www.artima.com/intv/pythonP.html|title = The Making of Python|accessdate = 2007-03-22|publisher = Artima Developer] by Guido van Rossum at CWI in the Netherlands as a successor to the
ABC programming languagecapable of exception handlingand interfacing with the Amoeba operating system. cite web | url = http://www.python.org/doc/faq/general/#why-was-python-created-in-the-first-place | title = Why was Python created in the first place? | publisher = Python FAQ | accessdate = 2007-03-22] Van Rossum is Python's principal author, and his continuing central role in deciding the direction of Python is reflected in the title given him by the Python community, "Benevolent Dictator for Life" (BDFL).
In 1991, van Rossum published the code (labeled version 0.9.0) to alt.sources. Already present at this stage in development were classes with inheritance, exception handling, functions, and the core datatypes of
strand so on. Also in this initial release was a
module systemborrowed from Modula-3; van Rossum describes the module as "one of Python's major programming units". Python's exception model also resembles Modula-3's, with the addition of an
elseclause. In 1994 [news://comp.lang.python comp.lang.python] , the primary discussion forum for Python, was formed, marking a milestone in the growth of Python's userbase.
Python reached version 1.0 in January 1994. The major new features included in this release were the functional programming tools
reduce. Van Rossum stated that “Python acquired lambda, reduce(), filter() and map(), courtesy of (I believe) a
Lisphacker who missed them and submitted working patches.” [cite web|url = http://www.artima.com/weblogs/viewpost.jsp?thread=98196|title = The fate of reduce() in Python 3000|author = Guido van Rossum|accessdate = 2007-03-22|publisher = Artima Developer]
The last version released while van Rossum was at CWI was Python 1.2. In 1995, van Rossum continued his work on Python at the
Corporation for National Research Initiatives(CNRI) in Reston, Virginiafrom where he released several versions.
By version 1.4, Python had acquired several new features. Notable among these are the
Modula-3inspired keyword arguments (which are also similar to Common Lisp's keyword arguments), and built-in support for complex numbers. Also included is a basic form of data hidingby name mangling, though this is easily bypassed. [cite web|url=http://www.amk.ca/python/writing/12-14|title=LJ #37: Python 1.4 Update|accessdate=2007-04-29]
During van Rossum's stay at CNRI, he launched the
Computer Programming for Everybody(CP4E) initiative, intending to make programming more accessible to more people, with a basic 'literacy' in programming languages, similar to the basic English literacy and mathematics skills required by most employers. Python served a central role in this: because of its focus on clean syntax, it was already suitable, and CP4E's goals bore similarities to its predecessor, ABC. The project was funded by DARPA. [cite web|url = http://www.python.org/doc/essays/cp4e.html|author = Guido van Rossum|title = Computer Programming for Everybody|accessdate = 2007-03-22] As of|2007, the CP4E project is inactive, and while Python attempts to be easily learnable and not too arcane in its syntax and semantics, reaching out to non-programmers is not an active concern. [cite web|url = http://www.python.org/cp4e/|title = Computer Programming for Everybody|accessdate = 2007-03-22|publisher = Python Software Foundation]
In 2000, the Python core development team moved to
BeOpen.comto form the BeOpen PythonLabsteam. CNRI requested that a version 1.6 be released, summarizing Python's development up to the point at which the development team left CNRI. Consequently, the release schedules for 1.6 and 2.0 had a significant amount of overlap.cite web|url = http://www.amk.ca/python/2.0/|title = What's New in Python 2.0|author = A.M. Kuchling and Moshe Zadka|accessdate = 2007-03-22] Python 2.0 was the first and only release from BeOpen.com. After Python 2.0 was released by BeOpen.com, Guido van Rossum and the other PythonLabs developers joined Digital Creations.
The Python 1.6 release included a new CNRI license that was substantially longer than the CWI license that had been used for earlier releases. The new license included a clause stating that the license was governed by the laws of the
State of Virginia. The Free Software Foundationargued that the choice-of-law clause was incompatible with the GNU GPL. BeOpen, CNRI, and the FSF negotiated a change to Python's free software licensethat would make it GPL-compatible. Python 1.6.1 is essentially the same as Python 1.6, with a few minor bug fixes, and with the new GPL-compatible license.cite web|url = http://www.python.org/doc/2.5/lib/node951.html|title = History of the software|work = Python Library Reference|accessdate = 2007-03-22]
Python 2.0 introduced
list comprehensions, a feature borrowed from the functional programminglanguages SETLand Haskell. Python's syntax for this construct is very similar to Haskell's, apart from Haskell's preference for punctuation characters and Python's preference for alphabetic keywords. Python 2.0 also introduced a garbage collection system capable of collecting reference cycles.
Python 2.1 was close to Python 1.6.1, as well as Python 2.0. Its license was renamed
Python Software Foundation License. All code, documentation and specifications added, from the time of Python 2.1's alpha release on, is owned by the Python Software Foundation(PSF), a non-profit organization formed in 2001, modeled after the Apache Software Foundation. The release included a change to the language specification to support nested scopes, like other statically scoped languages. [cite web|url = http://www.python.org/dev/peps/pep-0227/|title = Statically Nested Scopes|author = Jeremy Hylton|accessdate = 2007-03-22] (The feature was turned off by default, and not required, until Python 2.2.)
A major innovation in Python 2.2 was the unification of Python's types (types written in C), and classes (types written in Python) into one hierarchy. This single unification made Python's object model purely and consistently object oriented. [cite web |url= http://www.python.org/doc/2.2.3/whatsnew/sect-rellinks.html|title= PEPs 252 and 253: Type and Class Changes|accessdate=2008-09-05 |author= A.M. Kuchling|date= 2001-12-21|work= What's New in Python 2.2|publisher= Python Foundation] Also added were generators which were inspired by Icon. [cite web |url= http://www.python.org/doc/2.2.3/whatsnew/node5.html|title= PEP 255: Simple Generators|accessdate=2008-09-05 |author= A.M. Kuchling|date= 2001-12-21|work= What's New in Python 2.2|publisher= Python Foundation]
Python's standard library additions and syntactical choices were strongly influenced by Java in some cases: the
loggingpackage, [ [http://www.python.org/dev/peps/pep-0282/ PEP 282 - A Logging System ] ] introduced in version 2.3, [ [http://www.python.org/doc/2.3/whatsnew/node9.html 8 PEP 282: The logging Package ] ] the
SAXparser, introduced in 2.0, and the decorator syntax that uses
@, [ [http://www.python.org/dev/peps/pep-0318/ PEP 318 - Decorators for Functions and Methods ] ] added in version 2.4 [ [http://www.python.org/doc/2.4/whatsnew/node6.html 5 PEP 318: Decorators for Functions and Methods ] ]
A Python Enhancement Proposal (or "PEP") is a standardized design document providing general information related to Python, including proposals, descriptions, and explanations for language features. PEPs are intended as the primary channel for proposing new features, and for documenting the underlying design rationale for all major elements of Python. [http://www.python.org/dev/peps/pep-0001/ PEP 1 -- PEP Purpose and Guidelines] ] Outstanding PEPs are reviewed and commented upon by van Rossum, the BDFL. [http://www.python.org/doc/essays/pepparade.html Parade of the PEPs ] ]
There are plans for a future version, to be called Python 3.0 (the project is called "Python 3000" or "Py3K") that will break backwards compatibility with the 2.x series in order to repair perceived flaws in the language. The guiding principle is to "reduce feature duplication by removing old ways of doing things".
Python 3.0 is being developed with the same philosophy as in prior versions, so any reference to Python philosophy will apply to Python 3.0 as well. However, as Python has accumulated new and redundant ways to program the same task, Python 3.0 has an emphasis on removing duplicative constructs and modules, in keeping with “There should be one—and preferably only one—obvious way to do it”.
Nonetheless, Python 3.0 will remain a multi-paradigm language. Coders will still have options among
object orientation, structured programming, functional programming, and aspect-oriented programmingand other paradigms, but within such broad choices, the details are intended to be more obvious in Python 3.0 than they have become in Python 2.x.
Timeline and compatibility
The first release candidate of Python 3.0 was released on September 17, 2008. [ [http://python.org/download/releases/3.0/ Python 3.0rc1 Release] ] The Python 2.x and Python 3.x series will coexist for several releases in parallel, where the 2.x series exists largely for compatibility and with some new features being backported from the 3.x series. [http://www.python.org/dev/peps/pep-3000/ PEP 3000] contains more information about the release schedule.
Python 3.0 will break
backward compatibility. There is no requirement that Python 2.x code will run unmodified on Python 3.0. There are basic changes such as changing the print statement into a print function (so any use of print as a statement will cause the program to fail), and switching to Unicode for all text strings. Python's dynamic typingcombined with the plans to change the semantics of certain methods of dictionaries, for example, makes perfect mechanical translation from Python 2.x to Python 3.0 very difficult. However, a tool called "2to3" does most of the job of translation, pointing out areas of uncertainty using comments or warnings. Even in an alpha stage, 2to3 appears to be fairly successful at performing the translation. [Sam Ruby, [http://intertwingly.net/blog/2007/09/01/2to3 2to3] , September 1, 2007] [http://www.python.org/dev/peps/pep-3000/ PEP 3000] recommends keeping one source (for the 2.x series), and producing releases for the Python 3.x platform using 2to3. The resulting code should not be edited until the program no longer needs to run on Python 2.x.
Python 2.6 includes forward compatibility features, as well as a "warnings" mode that will warn of potential transition problems. Warnings will be reported for builtins which will no longer exist in 3.0, as well as various old Python 2.x features that Python 3.0 will remove (see [http://www.python.org/dev/peps/pep-0361/ PEP 361] for more information).
Some of the major changes scheduled for Python 3.0 are:
from __future__ import print_function. [ [http://www.python.org/dev/peps/pep-3105/ PEP 3105] ]
filter) out of the built-in namespace and into functools (the rationale being that operations using "reduce" are expressed more clearly using an accumulation loop); [ [http://www.artima.com/weblogs/viewpost.jsp?thread=211200 Thread on Artima programmer blog] ]
* Adding support for optional function annotations that can be used for informal type declarations or other purposes; [ [http://www.python.org/dev/peps/pep-3107/ PEP 3197] ]
* Unifying the
unicodetypes, representing text, and introducing a separate immutable
bytestype; and a mostly corresponding mutable
bytearraytype, which both represent arrays of
bytes; [ [http://www.python.org/dev/peps/pep-3137/ PEP 3137] : Immutable Bytes and Mutable Buffer]
* Removing backward-compatibility features, including old-style classes, integer-truncating division, string exceptions, and implicit relative imports.
Some of the largest projects that use Python are the
Zopeapplication server, YouTube[ [http://www.python.org/about/quotes/ Quotes about Python ] ] [ [http://sayspy.blogspot.com/2006/12/youtube-runs-on-python.html Coder Who Says Py: YouTube runs on Python! ] ] [ [http://mail.python.org/pipermail/python-dev/2006-December/070323.html [Python-Dev [Python-checkins MSI being downloaded 10x morethan all other files?! ] ] , and the original BitTorrent client. Large organizations that make use of Python include Yahoo!, CERNand NASA. [ [http://www.python.org/about/success/usa/ Python Success Stories ] ] ITA uses Python for some of its components. [ [http://www.eweek.com/c/a/Application-Development/Python-Slithers-into-Systems/ Python Slithers into Systems by Darryl K. Taft] ]
Python has also seen extensive use in the
information securityindustry. Notably, in several of the tools offered by Immunity Security, [ [http://www.immunitysec.com/products-immdbg.shtml IMMUNITY : Knowing You're Secure ] ] [ [http://www.immunitysec.com/resources-freesoftware.shtml IMMUNITY : Knowing You're Secure ] ] in several of the tools offered by Core Security, [ [http://oss.coresecurity.com/ CORE Security Technologies' open source software repository] ] in the Web application securityscanner Wapiti, [ [http://wapiti.sourceforge.net/ Wapiti - Web application security auditor ] ] and in the fuzzerTAOF. [ [http://www.theartoffuzzing.com/joomla/ TAOF - theartoffuzzing.com - Home ] ] Python is commonly used in exploit development. [ [http://www1.corest.com/files/files/13/CanSecWest2002.pdf Core Security | Home ] ] [ [http://fist.immunitysec.com/pipermail/dailydave/2004-September/000851.html [Dailydave RE: Network Exploitation Tools aka Exploitation Engines ] ]
Python has been successfully embedded in a number of software products as a scripting language. It is commonly used in 3D animation packages, as in Houdini, Maya,
Softimage XSI, TrueSpace, Poser, Modo, Nuke and Blender. It is also used in GIMP, Krita, Inkscape, Scribusand Paint Shop Pro. [Documentation of the PSP Scripting API can be found at [http://www.jasc.com/support/customercare/articles/psp9components.asp "JASC Paint Shop Pro 9: Additional Download Resources"] ] ESRIis now promoting Python as the best choice for writing scripts in ArcGIS. [cite web|title=About getting started with writing geoprocessing scripts | url=http://webhelp.esri.com/arcgisdesktop/9.2/index.cfm?TopicName=About_getting_started_with_writing_geoprocessing_scripts | year=2006 | month=Nov | accessyear=2007 | accessmonth=Apr] It is also used in games like Civilization IVand Mount&Bladeas the control language for modding and event interaction. [ [http://www.2kgames.com/civ4/blog_03.htm Civilization IV ] ] Eve Online, an MMORPG, is also built using Python. [ [http://myeve.eve-online.com/devblog.asp?a=blog&bid=488. EVE Online | EVE Insider | Dev Blog ] ]
For many operating systems, Python is a standard component; it ships with most
Linux distributions, with NetBSD, and OpenBSD, and with Mac OS X. Red Hat Linuxand Fedora both use the pythonic Anaconda installer. Gentoo Linuxuses Python in its package managementsystem, Portage, and the standard tool to access it, emerge. Pardus uses it for administration and during system boot. [ [http://www.pardus.org.tr/eng/projects/comar/PythonInPardus.html :: Pardus :: TÜBİTAK/UEKAE :: ] ]
yntax and semantics
Python was intended to be a highly readable language. It aims toward an uncluttered visual layout, frequently using English keywords where other languages use punctuation. Python requires less boilerplate than traditional statically-typed structured languages such as C or Pascal, and has a smaller number of syntactic exceptions and special cases than either of these. [ cite web | title = Is Python a good language for beginning programmers? | url = http://www.python.org/doc/faq/general/#is-python-a-good-language-for-beginning-programmers | work = General Python FAQ | date = March 7, 2005 | accessdate = 2007-03-21 | publisher = Python Foundation ]
Python uses whitespace indentation, rather than curly braces or keywords, to delimit
statement blocks (a feature also known as the off-side rule). An increase in indentation comes after certain statements; a decrease in indentation signifies the end of the current block.
tatements and control flow
Python's statements include:
ifstatement, which conditionally executes a block of code, along with
elif(a contraction of else-if).
forstatement, which iterates over an iterable object, capturing each element to a local variable for use by the attached block.
classstatement, which executes a block of code and attaches its local namespace to a class, for use in
object oriented programming.
defstatement, which defines a function.
withstatement which encloses a code block within a context manager (for example, acquiring a lock before the block of code is run, and releasing the lock afterwards).
Each statement has its own semantics: for example, the
defstatement does not execute its block immediately, unlike most other statements.
CPython does not support
continuations, and according to Guido van Rossum it never will. [ cite web | title = Language Design Is Not Just Solving Puzzles | url = http://www.artima.com/weblogs/viewpost.jsp?thread=147358 | first = Guido | last = van Rossum | date = February 9, 2006 | accessdate = 2007-03-21 | work = Artima forums | publisher = Artima ] However, better support for coroutine-like functionality is provided in 2.5, by extending Python's generators. [ cite web | url = http://www.python.org/peps/pep-0342.html | title = Coroutines via Enhanced Generators | date = April 21, 2006 | first = Guido | last = van Rossum | coauthors = Phillip J. Eby | work = Python Enhancement Proposals | publisher = Python Foundation | accessdate = 2007-03-21 ] Prior to 2.5, generators were lazy iterators — information was passed unidirectionally out of the generator. As of Python 2.5, it is possible to pass information back into a generator function.
Methods on objects are functions attached to the object's class; the syntax
instance.method(argument)is, for normal methods and functions,
Class.method(instance, argument). Python methods have an explicit
selfparameter to access
instance data, in contrast to the implicit self in some other object-oriented programming languages (for example, Java, C++or Ruby). [ cite web | url = http://www.python.org/doc/faq/general/#why-must-self-be-used-explicitly-in-method-definitions-and-calls | title = Why must 'self' be used explicitly in method definitions and calls? | work = Python FAQ | publisher = Python Foundation ]
duck typingand has typed objects but untyped variable names. Type constraints are not checked at compile time; rather, operations on an object may fail, signifying that the given object is not of a suitable type. Despite not enforcing static typing, Python is strongly typed, forbidding nonsense operations (for example, adding a number to a string) rather than silently attempting to make sense of them.
Python also allows programmers to define their own types. This is done using classes, which are most often used for an
object-orientedstyle of programming. New instances of classes are constructed by calling the class (eg,
FooClass()), and the classes themselves are instances of the class
type(itself an instance of itself), allowing
The mainstream Python implementation, also known as "
CPython", is written in C meeting the C89 standard, [ [http://www.python.org/dev/peps/pep-0007/ PEP 7 - Style Guide for C Code ] ] . CPython compiles the Python program into intermediate byte code [ [http://docs.python.org/lib/bytecodes.html CPython byte code] ] , which is then executed by the virtual machine [ [http://www.troeger.eu/teaching/pythonvm08.pdf Python 2.5 internals] ] . It is distributed with a large standard library written in a mixture of C and Python. CPython ships in versions for many platforms, including Microsoft Windowsand most modern Unix-likesystems. CPython was intended from almost its very conception to be cross-platform; its use and development on esoteric platforms such as Amoeba, alongside more conventional ones like Unix, or Macintoshhas greatly helped in this regard. [ [http://www.oreilly.com/pub/a/oreilly/frank/rossum_1099.html O'Reilly - An Interview with Guido van Rossum ] ] Cythonis a code translator that is targeted at writing fast C extensions for the CPython interpreter. It accepts a language that is mostly Python (with a few exclusions) and has additional syntax support for most language features of the C language, and some features of the C++ language. The result of the translation process is optimised C code that is portable across many platforms and CPython versions. While not a stand-alone Python implementation by itself, Cython has the secret goal of becoming a real Python compiler as a companion to the CPython runtime. Stackless Pythonis a significant fork of CPython that implements microthreads; it does not use the C memory stack. CPython uses a GIL to allow only one thread to execute at a time while the Stackless Python threads are independent of the OS and can run concurrently. Stackless Python is better suited to scalable tasks and for use on microcontrollers or other limited resource platforms due to the thread's light weight. It can be expected to run on approximately the same platforms that CPython runs on. Jythoncompiles the Python program into Java byte code, which can then be executed by every Java Virtual Machineimplementation. This also enables the utilization of Java class library functions from the Python program. IronPythonfollows a similar approach in order to run Python programs on the .NET Common Language Runtime. PyPyis an experimental self-hostingimplementation of Python, written in Python, that can output several types of bytecode, object codeand intermediate languages.
Several programs exist to package the Python interpreter with application programs (or scripts) as standalone UNIX, Linux, Windows or Mac OS X executables, including [http://wiki.python.org/moin/Freeze Freeze] , a pure Python utility that ships with Python, or [http://www.py2exe.org/ py2exe] , [http://pyinstaller.python-hosting.com/ PyInstaller] , [http://python.net/crew/atuining/cx_Freeze/ cx_Freeze] and [http://svn.pythonmac.org/py2app/py2app/trunk/doc/index.html py2app] , all of which are available separately. Many third-party libraries for Python (and even some first-party ones) are only available on Windows, Linux, BSD, and Mac OS X.
Nokiareleased a Python interpreter for the Series 60 mobile phones called PyS60. It includes many of the modules from the CPython implementations, but also some additional modules for integration with the Symbianoperating system. This project has been kept up to date to run on all variants of the S60 platform and there are several third party modules available such as [http://pdis.hiit.fi/pdis/download/miso/ Miso] and [http://cyke64.googlepages.com/ uitricks] .
" [http://www.chinesepython.org/cgi_bin/cgb.cgi/english/english.html ChinesePython] " (中蟒) is a Python programming language using Chinese language lexicon. Besides reserved words and variable names, most data type operations can be coded in Chinese as well.
Most Python implementations (including CPython, the primary implementation) can function as a
command line interpreter, for which the user enters statements sequentially and receives the results immediately. In short, Python acts as a shell. While the semantics of the other modes of execution (bytecode compilation, or compilation to native code) preserve the sequential semantics, they offer a speed boost at the cost of interactivity, so they are usually only used outside of a command-line interaction (eg, when importing a module).
Other shells add capabilities beyond those in the basic interpreter, including IDLE and
IPython. While generally following the visual style of the Python shell, they implement features like auto-completion, retention of session state, and syntax highlighting.
Some implementations can compile not only to bytecode, but can turn Python code into
machine code. So far, this has only been done for restricted subsets of Python. PyPy takes this approach, naming its restricted compilable version of Python " RPython". Psycois a specialising just in time compilerwhich transforms bytecode to machine code at runtime. The produced code is specialised for certain data typesand is faster than standard Python code. Psyco is compatible with all Python code, not only a subset. [ [http://psyco.sourceforge.net/introduction.html Introduction to Psyco] ]
Python has a large standard library, commonly cited as one of Python's greatest strengths, [http://www.oracle.com/technology/pub/articles/piotrowski-pythoncore.html] providing pre-written tools suited to many tasks. This is deliberate and has been described as a "batteries included" Python philosophy. The modules of the standard library can be augmented with custom modules written in either C or Python. Recently,
Boost C++ Librariesincludes a library, Boost.Python, to enable interoperability between C++ and Python. Because of the wide variety of tools provided by the standard library, combined with the ability to use a lower-level language such as C and C++, which is already capable of interfacing between other libraries, Python can be a powerful glue languagebetween languages and tools.
The standard library is particularly well tailored to writing Internet-facing applications, with a large number of standard formats and protocols (such as
MIMEand HTTP) already supported. Modules for creating graphical user interfaces, connecting to relational databases, arithmetic with arbitrary precision decimals, and manipulating regular expressions are also included. [ [http://www.python.org/peps/pep-0327.html PEP 327 - Decimal Data Type ] ] Python also includes a unit testingframework for creating test suites.
Some parts of the standard library are covered by specifications (for example, the WSGI implementation
wsgireffollows [http://www.python.org/dev/peps/pep-0333/ PEP 333] ), but the majority of the modules are not. They are specified by their code, internal documentation, and test suite (if supplied). However, because most of the standard library is cross-platform Python code, there are only a few modules that must be altered or completely rewritten by alternative implementations.
Python is a
multi-paradigm programming language. This means that, rather than forcing programmers to adopt a particular style of programming, it permits several styles: object orientedand structured programmingare fully supported, and there are a number of language features which support functional programmingand aspect-oriented programming. Many other paradigms are supported using extensions, such as [http://www.nongnu.org/pydbc/ pyDBC] and [http://www.wayforward.net/pycontract/ Contracts for Python] which allow Design by Contract. Python uses dynamic typingand a combination of reference countingand a cycle detecting garbage collector for memory management. An important feature of Python is dynamic name resolution, which binds method and variable names during program execution (also known as late binding).
Another target of the language's design is ease of extensibility, rather than having everything built into the language core. New built-in modules are easily written in C or
C++. Python can also be used as an extension language for existing modules and applications that need a programmable interface. This design, of a small core language with a large standard library and an easily-extensible interpreter, was intended by van Rossum from the very start, due to his frustrations with ABC, which espoused the opposite mindset.
The design of Python offers limited support for
functional programmingin the Lisp tradition. However, there are significant parallels between the philosophy of Python and that of minimalist Lisp-family languages such as Scheme. The library has two modules (itertools and functools) that implement proven functional tools borrowed from Haskell and Standard ML. [ [http://docs.python.org/lib/module-itertools.html 6.5 itertools - Functions creating iterators for efficient looping ] ]
While offering choice in coding methodology, the Python philosophy rejects exuberant syntax, such as in
Perl, in favor of a sparser, less cluttered one. As with Perl, Python's developers expressly promote a particular "culture" or ideology based on what they want the language to be, favoring language forms they see as "beautiful", "explicit" and "simple". As Alex Martelliput it in his "Python Cookbook" (2nd ed., p.230): "To describe something as clever is NOT considered a compliment in the Python culture." Python's philosophy rejects the Perl " there is more than one way to do it" approach to language design in favor of "there should be one—and preferably only one—obvious way to do it". [ [http://www.python.org/dev/peps/pep-0020/ PEP 20 - The Zen of Python ] ]
Python eschews premature optimization, and moreover, rejects patches to non-critical parts of CPython which would offer a marginal increase in speed at the cost of clarity. [ [http://www.python.org/dev/culture/ Python Culture] ] It is sometimes described as 'slow'. [ [http://peter.mapledesign.co.uk/weblog/archives/python-is-slow Python is... slow? — Peter Bowyer’s weblog] ] However, most problems are not speed critical, and as computer hardware continues to become exponentially faster, languages do have more hardware resources available. When speed is a problem, Python programmers tend to try to optimize bottlenecks by algorithm improvements or data structure changes, by using a JIT compiler such as Psyco, or by rewriting the time-critical functions in "closer to the metal" languages such as C, or compile their Python code to fast C code using tools like [http://cython.org Cython] . [ [http://www.python.org/doc/essays/list2str.html Python Patterns - An Optimization Anecdote] ]
neologismin the Python community is "pythonic", which can have a wide range of meanings related to program style. To say that a piece of code is pythonic is to say that it uses Python idioms well, that it is natural or shows fluency in the language. Likewise, to say of an interface or language feature that it is pythonic is to say that it works well with Python idioms, that its use meshes well with the rest of the language.
In contrast, a mark of "unpythonic" code is that it attempts to "write C++ (or Lisp, or Perl) code in Python"—that is, provides a rough transcription rather than an idiomatic translation of forms from another language. The concept of pythonicity is tightly bound to Python's minimalist philosophy of readability and avoiding the "there's more than one way to do it" approach. Unreadable code or incomprehensible idioms are unpythonic.
Users and admirers of Python—most especially those considered knowledgeable or experienced—are often referred to as "Pythonists", "Pythonistas", and "Pythoneers".
The prefix "Py" can be used to show that something is related to Python. Examples of the use of this prefix in names of Python applications or libraries include
Pygame, a binding of SDL to Python (commonly used to create games); PyS60, an implementation for the Symbian Series 60 Operating System; PyQtand PyGTK, which bind Qt and GTK, respectively, to Python; and PyPy, a Python implementation written in Python. The prefix is also used outside of naming software packages: the major Python conference is named PyCon.
An important goal of the Python developers is making Python fun to use. This is reflected in the origin of the name (based on the television series "
Monty Python's Flying Circus"), in the common practice of using Monty Python references in example code, and in an occasionally playful approach to tutorials and reference materials. [ [http://docs.python.org/tut/node3.html Python Tutorial] ] For example, the metasyntactic variables often used in Python literature are "spam" and "eggs", instead of the traditional "foo" and "bar".
Influences on other languages
Python's design and philosophy have influenced several programming languages:
* Boo uses indentation, a similar syntax, and a similar object model. However, Boo uses
static typingand is closely integrated with the .NET framework. [ [http://boo.codehaus.org/Gotchas+for+Python+Users BOO - Gotchas for Python Users ] ]
* Cobra is also similar to Python, using indentation for blocks. It offers optional static typing and generates code designed for .NET/Mono. Cobra directly supports design-by-contract contracts. [ [http://cobra-language.com/docs/python/ Comparison to Python] , cobra-language.com]
ECMAScriptborrowed iterators, generators and list comprehensions from Python. [ [http://wiki.ecmascript.org/doku.php?id=proposals:iterators_and_generators proposals:iterators_and_generators [ES4 Wiki ] ]
* Groovy was motivated by the desire to bring the Python design philosophy to Java. [cite web
author = James Strachan
date = 2003-08-29
title = Groovy - the birth of a new dynamic language for the Java platform
url = http://radio.weblogs.com/0112098/2003/08/29.html]
* Converge is syntactically similar to Python, but has an interesting approach to generators and
backtrackingas well as macros and compile-time metaprogramming. [cite web
author = Laurence Tratt
title = Converge - About
url = http://convergepl.org/about.html]
OCamlhas an optional syntax, called twt (That Whitespace Thing), inspired by Python, and a new Batteries Included approach, also inspired by Python. [cite web
author = David Teller
title = OCaml Batteries Included
url = http://forge.ocamlcore.org/projects/batteries/]
Python's development practices have also been emulated by other languages. The practice of requiring a document describing the rationale for, and issues surrounding, a change to the language (ie, a PEP) is also used in
Tclbecause of Python's influence. [ [http://www.tcl.tk/cgi-bin/tct/tip/3.html TIP #3: TIP Format ] ]
List of programming languages
Comparison of computer shells
Comparison of programming languages
List of applications written in Python
List of integrated development environments for Python
Guido van Robot
* [http://www.python.org/ Python Official Website]
* [http://www.python.org/doc/ Official documentation and resources]
* [http://www.computerworld.com.au/index.php/id;66665771 Computerworld Interview with Guido Van Rossum on Python]
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