- Performance appraisal
Performance appraisal, also known as employee appraisal, is a method by which the
job performanceof an employeeis evaluated (generally in terms of quality, quantity, costand time). Performance appraisal is a part of career development.
Performance appraisals are a regular review of employee performance within
Generally, the aims of a scheme are:
* Give feedback on performance to employees.
* Identify employee
Documentcriteria used to allocate organizational rewards.
* Form a basis for personnel decisions:
salaryincreases, promotions, disciplinary actions, etc.
* Provide the opportunity for organizational diagnosis and development.
* Facilitate communication between employee and administrator.
* Validate selection techniques and human resource policies to meet federal
Equal Employment Opportunityrequirements.
A common approach to assessing performance is to use a numerical or
scalarrating system whereby managers are asked to score an individual against a number of objectives/attributes. In some companies, employees receive assessments from their manager, peers, subordinates and customers while also performing a self assessment. This is known as 360° appraisal.
The most popular methods that are being used as performance appraisal process are:
Management by objectives( MBO)
* 360 degree appraisal
Behavioral Observation Scale( BOS)
Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale( BARS) Traitbased systems, which rely on factors such as integrityand conscientiousness, are also commonly used by businesses. The scientific literature on the subject provides evidence that assessing employees on factors such as these should be avoided. The reasons for this are two-fold:
1) because trait based systems are by definition based on
personality traits, they make it difficult for a manager to provide feedback that can cause positive change in employee performance. This is caused by the fact that personality dimensions are for the most part static, and while an employee can change a specific behaviorthey cannot change their personality. For example, a person who lacks integrity may stop lying to a manager because they have been caught, but they still have low integrity and are likely to lie again when the threat of being caught is gone.
2) Trait based systems, because they are vague, are more easily influenced by
office politics, causing them to be less reliable as a source of information on an employee's true performance. The vagueness of these instruments allows managers to fill them out based on who they want to/feel should get a raise, rather than basing scores on specific behaviors employees should/should not be engaging in. These systems are also more likely to leave a company open to discriminationclaims because a manager can make biased decisions without having to back them up with specific behavioral information.
* 1998, Archer North & Associatiates, Introduction to Performance Appraisal, http://www.performance-appraisal.com/intro.htm
* U.S. Department of the Interior, [http://www.doi.gov/hrm/guidance/370dm430hndbk.pdf Performance Appraisal Handbook ]
* [http://www.cnr.berkeley.edu/ucce50/ag-labor/7labor/06.htm Negotiated Approach to Performance Appraisal] , University of California
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