Panarchism is a
political philosophyemphasizing each individual's right to freely join and leave the jurisdiction of any governments they choose, without being forced to move from their current locale. The word " panarchy" was invented and the concept proposed by a Belgian political economist, Paul Émile de Puydtin an article published in 1860.P. E. de Puydt, " [http://www.panarchy.org/depuydt/1860.eng.html Panarchy] ", first published in French in the "Revue Trimestrielle", Bruxelles, July 1860.] However, the word "panarch"y" has since taken on additional, separate meanings, with the word "panarch"ism" referring to the original definition by de Puydt.
Two similar ideas are "Functional Overlapping Competing Jurisdictions" (
FOCJ) advocated by Swiss economists Bruno Frey and Reiner Eichenberger and “multigovernment” advocated by Le Grande Day and others. [Le Grand E. Day, [http://www.panarchy.org/day/multigovernment.1977.html The Theory of Multigovernment] , 1969-1977.] Such governance systems also have been described as "extra-territorial" or "exterritorial."
Panarchism has been espoused by
socialistFact|date=September 2008, anarchistand libertarian-leaning individuals, including those promoting secessionfrom existing states and those advocating creation of new micronationson ships or artificial islands ( seasteading). Max Nettlauin the early 1900s and John Zube in the latter part of the century wrote extensively on the concept in articles found on [http://www.panarchy.org Panarchy.Org] .
* [http://www.panarchy.org/ Panarchy.org] - original usage of the word "panarchy"
* [http://www.panarchism.info/ Panarchism.info] - the full philosophy (oldest site, "The Exterritorial Imperative")
* [http://www.panarchy.org/zube/toanarchists.1986.html "Some Notes For A Talk On Panarchism to Anarchists"] by John Zube
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