- Pope Alexander V
name = Alexander V
caption = coat of arms
June 26, 1409
May 3, 1410
predecessor = Benedict XIII (Avignon claimant) Gregory XII (Roman claimant)
Antipope John XXIII
opposed = Benedict XIII (Avignon claimant) Gregory XII (Roman claimant)
birth_name = Peter Phillarges
birth_date = 1339
birthplace = Crete
May 3, 1410
Alexander V (also "Peter of Candia" or "Peter Phillarges", ca. 1339 –
May 3, 1410) was antipopeduring the Western Schism(1378–1417). He reigned from June 26, 1409to his death in 1410 and is officially regarded by the Roman Catholic Churchas an antipope.
Alexander V was born in
Creteof unknown parents and entered the Franciscan order. His abilities were such that he was sent to study at the universities of Oxford and Paris. While he was in Paris the Western Schismoccurred; Philarges supported Pope Urban VI(1378–89). He settled in Lombardy, where, thanks to the favour of Giangaleazzo Visconti, the Duke of Milan, he became bishop, first of Piacenza(1386), then of Vicenza(1387), then of Novara(1389), and finally archbishop of Milan(1402).
On being created cardinal by
Pope Innocent VII(1404–06) in 1405, he devoted all his energies to the reunion of the Church, in spite of the two rival Popes. He was one of the promoters of the Council of Pisaand his politicking incurred the displeasure of Pope Gregory XII(1406–15), who ordered Philarges deprived of both his archbishopric and his cardinalitial dignity.
At the Council of Pisa (from
March 25, 1409) the assembled cardinals chose Philarges as the new prelatefor a chair they presumed was vacant. He was crowned on June 26, 1409as Alexander V, making him in reality the third rival pontiff.
During his ten month reign, Alexander V's aim was to extend his obedience with the assistance of
France, and, notably, of Duke Louis II of Anjou, upon whom he conferred the investitureof the Kingdom of Sicily, having removed it from Ladislas of Naples. He proclaimed and promised rather than effected a certain number of reforms: the abandonment of the rights of "spoils" and "procurations," and the re-establishment of the system of canonical electionin the cathedral churches and principal monasteries. He also gave out papal favours with a lavish hand, from which the mendicant orders benefitted especially.
Death came upon Alexander V suddenly while he was with Cardinal Baldassare Cossa at
Bologna, on the night of 3 May– 4 May 1410. His remains were placed in the church of St. Francis at Bologna. A rumour spread that he had been poisoned by Cossa, who did succeed him as John XXIII (1410–15). Whether Alexander V was a Pope or an antipope is still a matter of debate, although he is not listed by the Vatican as a Pope.Infobox Antipopestyles
name = Alexander V
offstyle = Your Holiness
relstyle = Holy Father
deathstyle = Unknown
* [http://www.ucy.ac.cy/isa/Candia/ The Peter of Candia Homepage]
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