Stillbirth


Stillbirth

]

Canada

Beginning in 1959, "the definition of a stillbirth was revised to conform, in substance, to the definition of fetal death recommended by the World Health Organization." [Statistics Canada (“Canada’s National Statistical Agency”), [http://64.233.183.104/search?q=cache:pg80dWnVthcJ:www.statcan.ca/english/sdds/document/3234_D2_T9_V1_E.pdf+still+birth+canada+definition&hl=en&gl=uk&ct=clnk&cd=10 History, Vital Statistics - Stillbirth Database] , in [http://www.statcan.ca/cgi-bin/imdb/p2SV.pl?Function=getSurvey&SDDS=3234&lang=en&db=IMDB&dbg=f&adm=8&dis=2 Vital Statistics – Stillbirth Database] .] The definition of "fetal death" promulgated by the World Health Organization in 1950 is as follows::"Fetal death" means death prior to the complete expulsion or extraction from its mother of a product of human conception, irrespective of the duration of pregnancy and which is not an induced termination of pregnancy. The death is indicated by the fact that after such expulsion or extraction, the fetus does not breathe or show any other evidence of life, such as beating of the heart, pulsation of the umbilical cord, or definite movement of voluntary muscles. Heartbeats are to be distinguished from transient cardiac contractions; respirations are to be distinguished from fleeting respiratory efforts or gasps."

United Kingdom

Throughout the United Kingdom, stillbirths must be registered by law. The Stillbirth Definition Act (1992) states: "any ‘child’ expelled or issued forth from its mother after the 24th week of pregnancy that did not breathe or show any other signs of life should be registered as a stillbirth." [ [http://www.rcm.org.uk/info/docs/040305174735-351-1.doc "Registration of Stillbirths and Certification for Pregnancy Loss before 24 Weeks Gestation"] "Royal College of Midwives". Retrieved September 27, 2007] In England and Wales, this must be done within 42 days and a Stillbirth Certificate is issued to the parent(s). [ [http://www.gro.gov.uk/gro/content/stillbirths/ Guide to registering stillbirths in the UK] ] In Scotland, this must be done within 21 days. [ [http://www.gro-scotland.gov.uk/regscot/registering-a-stillbirth.html Registering a stillbirth] General Register Office for Scotland]

United States

In the United States, there is no standard definition of the term 'stillbirth'. cite book | author =Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | authorlink=Centers for Disease Control and Prevention |title=State Definitions and Reporting Requirements | edition=1997 Revision | publisher =National Center for Health Statistics | url=http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/misc/itop97.pdf] The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention collects statistical information on "live births, fetal deaths, and induced termination of pregnancy" from 57 reporting areas in the United States. Each reporting area has different guidelines and definitions for what is being reported; many do not use the term "stillbirth" at all. The federal guidelines suggests (at page 1) that fetal death and stillbirth can be interchangeable terms. The CDC definition of "fetal death" is based on the definition promulgated by the World Health Organization in 1950 (see section above on Canada). The federal guidelines recommend reporting those fetal deaths whose birth weight is over 350g, or those more than 20 weeks gestation. Forty-one areas use a definition very similar to the federal definition, thirteen areas use a shortened definition of fetal death, and three areas have no formal definition of fetal death. Only 11 areas specifically use the term 'stillbirth' , often synonymously with late fetal death, however they are split between whether stillbirths are "irrespective of the duration of pregnancy", or whether some age or weight constraint is applied.

ee also

Childbirth
*Live birth
*Perinatal death
**Intrapartum death
**Neonatal death
***Sudden infant death syndrome
*Abortion
**Elective abortion
***Anomalous pregnancy
****Ectopic pregnancy
****Molar pregnancy
**Spontaneous abortion
*Maternal death

References

External links

Grieving resources

* [http://www.missingangelsbill.org/ MISSing Angels Bill Legislation for Stillbirth] Grassroots movement of bereaved stillbirth families, a program of the MISS Foundation
* [http://www.forgottengrief.com/ The Forgotten Grief: Miscarriage, Stillbirth and Neo-natal Death]
* [http://www.missfoundation.org/ MISS Foundation] support site for those bereaved of a child and advice for professionals on their support.
* [http://www.sands.org.au/ SANDS AUSTRALIA] providing support, information & counselling for bereaved parents & families
* [http://www.firstcandle.org/ First Candle] First Candle promotes safe pregnancies and the survival of babies through the first years of life. With programs of research, education and advocacy, they are working toward a future where all babies are provided the best possible chance to reach not only their first birthday, but many happy birthdays beyond. Until this goal is reached, they remain committed to providing compassionate grief support to all those affected by the death of a baby.

Activism/Prevention

* [http://www.missingangelsbill.org/ MISS Foundation] an activist site of the MISS Foundation for parents of stillborn infants.
* [http://www.stillnomore.org/ National Stillbirth Society] an activist group of parents for stillbirth education.
* [http://www.protectyourpregnancy.com/ Preferred Pregnancy Protocol] for minimizing the risk of stillbirth due to cord accidents.
* [http://www.griefdoc.com/ Dr. Joanne Cacciatore] Arizona State University researcher who specializes in stillbirth and traumatic loss.
* [http://www.stillbirthalliance.org/ International Stillbirth Alliance] is a non-profit coalition of organizations dedicated to understanding the causes and prevention of stillbirth.
* [http://www.firstcandle.org/ First Candle] First Candle promotes safe pregnancies and the survival of babies through the first years of life. With programs of research, education and advocacy, they are working toward a future where all babies are provided the best possible chance to reach not only their first birthday, but many happy birthdays beyond. Until this goal is reached, they remain committed to providing compassionate grief support to all those affected by the death of a baby.

Factual/Reference

* [http://www.wisc.edu/wissp/ The Wisconsin Stillbirth Service Program (WiSSP), a branch of the University of Wisconsin-Madison's Clinical Genetics Center.] One of the foremost authorities on the causes of stillbirth and responsible for many stillbirth evaluation protocols, including the widespread use of the Kleihauer-Betke test in deciding whether Rh disease is to blame for a stillbirth.
* [http://www.preginst.com/ Pregnancy Institute] founded by Dr. Jason H. Collins, OB/GYN specializes in umbilical cord research
* [http://fn.bmjjournals.com/cgi/content/full/89/4/F285/ Investigating perinatal death: a review of the options when autopsy consent is refused.]


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Stillbirth — Still birth , n. 1. The birth of a dead fetus. [1913 Webster] 2. a fetus which was born dead. [PJC] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • stillbirth — 1785, from STILL (Cf. still) (adj.) + BIRTH (Cf. birth) …   Etymology dictionary

  • stillbirth — ► NOUN ▪ the birth of an infant that has died in the womb …   English terms dictionary

  • stillbirth — [stil′bʉrth΄] n. 1. the birth of a stillborn fetus 2. a stillborn fetus …   English World dictionary

  • Stillbirth — The tragic birth of a dead baby, the delivery of a fetus that has died before birth. There is no possibility of resuscitation. The word stillbirth is a fusion of still in the now obsolete sense of dead and birth = dead birth. The distinction… …   Medical dictionary

  • stillbirth — n. birth of a fetus that shows no evidence of life (heartbeat, respiration, or independent movement) at any time later than 24 weeks after conception. Under the Stillbirth (Definition) Act 1992, there is a legal obligation to notify all… …   The new mediacal dictionary

  • stillbirth — UK [ˈstɪlˌbɜː(r)θ] / US [ˈstɪlˌbɜrθ] noun [countable/uncountable] Word forms stillbirth : singular stillbirth plural stillbirths a birth in which the baby is born dead …   English dictionary

  • stillbirth — noun The birth of a dead fetus. The delivery of an infant which is dead at birth. Each year, approximately a million pregnancies in the United States end in miscarriage, stillbirth, or the death of the newborn child. See Also: stillborn …   Wiktionary

  • stillbirth — [[t]stɪ̱lbɜː(r)θ[/t]] stillbirths N VAR A stillbirth is the birth of a dead baby …   English dictionary

  • stillbirth — noun Date: 1880 the birth of a dead fetus …   New Collegiate Dictionary


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