A title is a prefix or suffix added to someone's name to signify either veneration, an official position or a professional or academic qualification. In some languages, titles may even be inserted between a first and last name (for example, Graf in German, Cardinal in Catholic usage or clerical titles such as Archbishop). Some titles are hereditary.


Formal social titles

  • Mr - Formal male title
  • Ms - Formal female title
  • Mrs - Formal title for married females
  • Miss - Formal title for unmarried females

Academic titles

  • Associate
    • AA - Associate of Arts
    • AAS - Associate of Applied Science
    • AS - Associate of Science
  • Bachelor
    • BA – Bachelor of Arts
    • BArch – Bachelor of Architecture
    • B.Des. - Bachelor of Design
    • BEng – Bachelor of Engineering
    • BFA - Bachelor of Fine Arts
    • LLB – Bachelor of Law
    • B.Phil – Bachelor of Philosophy
    • BSc – Bachelor of Science
    • BVSc – Bachelor of Veterinary Science
  • Dean
    • Dean Emeritus
  • Designer [Dz]
  • Doctor
    • DA – Doctor of Arts
    • DBA – Doctor of Business Administration
    • D.D. – Doctor of Divinity
    • Ed.D. – Doctor of Education
    • DFA – Doctor of Fine Arts
    • DMA – Doctor of Musical Arts
    • D.Min. – Doctor of Ministry
    • D.Mus. – Doctor of Music
    • D.Prof – Doctor of Professional Studies
    • DPA – Doctor of Public Administration
    • D.Sc. – Doctor of Science
    • J.D. – Juris Doctor
    • LL.D – Doctor of Laws
    • MD – Doctor of Medicine
    • Pharm.D. – Doctor of Pharmacy
    • Ph.D. / D.Phil. – Doctor of Philosophy
    • PsyD – Doctor of Psychology
    • Th.D. – Doctor of Theology
    • Doctorates within the field of medicine:
  • Master
    • MArch – Master of Architecture
    • MA – Master of Arts
    • MAL – Master of Liberal Arts
    • MBA – Master of Business Administration
    • MPA – Master of Public Administration
    • MPl – Master of Planning
    • MChem – Master in Chemistry
    • MC - Master of Counselling
    • M. Des - Master of Design
    • MDiv – Master of Divinity
    • MEd – Master of Education
    • MEng – Master of Engineering
    • MFA – Master of Fine Arts
    • MHA - Master of Healthcare Administration
    • LL.M – Master of Law
    • MLA - Master of Landscape Architecture
    • MMath – Master of Mathematics
    • MPhil – Master of Philosophy
    • MRes – Master of Research
    • MSc – Master of Science
    • MPhys – Master of Physics
    • MPharm - Master of Pharmacy
    • MSE – Master of Science in Engineering
    • MSRE – Master of Science in Real Estate
    • MSW - Master of Social Work
    • Magister – Magister
    • ThM – Master of Theology
    • MURP – Master of Urban and Regional Planning

Professional titles

Ecclesiastical titles

AbbessAbbotAblak • Anax • ArchbishopArchdeaconAyatollahBlessedBishopBodhisattvaBrotherBuddhaCantorCardinalCatholicosChaplainDeaconDeanDemiurgeElderFatherFriarImamKohenMahdiMessiahMinisterMonsignorMother SuperiorMullahNathPastorPatriarchPopePresident, especially in The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day SaintsPrimateProphetRabbiRebbeReverend • Rosh HaYeshiva • SaintSaoshyantSisterTer[disambiguation needed ]TirthankarVardapetVenerable

Devotional titles

  • Titles of Jesus
  • Titles of Mary
  • Śākyamuni (Buddha)
  • Titles of Mohammed
  • Mahdi
  • "King of Kings," "Elect of God," and "Conquering Lion of the Tribe of Judah the Author of Mankind", used by Rastafarians for Haile Selassie I.
  • Master used in Kung Fu and some forms of Buddhism, Shinto, Confucianism and Hinduism.
  • Rinpoche In Tibetan Buddhism.

Titles for heads of state and other leaders

Elected or popularly proclaimed


Male version Female version Realm Adjective Latin Examples
Emperor Empress Empire Imperial

Imperial and Royal (Austria)
Imperator (Imperatrix) Roman Empire, Byzantine Empire, Ottoman Empire, Holy Roman Empire, Russia , First and Second French Empire, Austria, Mexico, Brazil, German Empire (none left in Europe after 1918), Empress of India (ceased to be used after 1947 when India was granted independence from the British Empire), Japan (the only remaining enthroned emperor in the world).
King Queen Kingdom Royal Rex (Regina) Common in larger sovereign states
Viceroy Vicereine Viceroyalty Viceroyal Proconsul Historical: Spanish Empire (Peru, New Spain, Rio de la Plata, New Granada), Portuguese Empire, (India, Brazil), British Empire
Grand Duke Grand Duchess Grand duchy Grand Ducal Magnus Dux Today: Luxembourg; historical: Lithuania, Baden, Finland, Tuscany et al.
Archduke Archduchess Archduchy Archducal Arci Dux Historical: Unique only in Austria, Archduchy of Austria; title used for member of the Habsburg dynasty
Prince Princess Principality, Princely state Princely Princeps Today: Monaco, Liechtenstein, Wales;[1] Andorra (Co-Princes). Historical: Albania, Serbia
Duke Duchess Duchy Ducal Dux There are none left currently. Historical examples include Normandy.
Count Countess County Comital Comes Most common in the Holy Roman Empire, translated in German as Graf; historical: Barcelona, Brandenburg, Baden, numerous others
Baron Baroness Barony Baronial Baro There are normal baronies and sovereign baronies, a sovereign barony can be compared with a principality, however, this is an historical exception; sovereign barons no longer have a sovereign barony, but only the title and style
Pope There is no formal feminine of Pope (Popette) Note 1 Papacy Papal Papa Monarch of the Papal States and later Sovereign of the State of Vatican City

Historical titles for heads of state

The following are no longer officially in use, though some may be claimed by former regnal dynasties.


Elected or popularly declared


When a difference exists below, male titles are placed to the left and female titles are placed to the right of the slash.

  • Asia
    • Arasan/ArasiTamil Nadu (India), Sri Lanka
    • Bayin – The title given to the king of pre colonial Burma
    • Phrabat Somdej Phrachaoyuhua – King of Thailand (Siam), the title literally means "The feet of the Greatest Lord who is on the heads (of his subjects)" (This royal title does not refer directly to the king himself but to his feet, according to traditions.)
    • Druk Gyalpo — hereditary title given to the king of Bhutan
    • Chakrawarti Raja – India Sri Lanka
    • Chogyal — "Divine Ruler" — ruled Sikkim until 1975
    • Datu – pre-colonial Philippines
    • Engku or Ungku – Malaysia, to denote particular family lineage akin to royalty
    • Huángdì – Imperial China (Emperor)
      • Hwangje – Self-styled Korean "emperor"; states that unified Korea
      • Hoang De – Self-styled Vietnamese "emperor"; unified Vietnam
    • Meurah – Aceh before Islam
    • Maha raja/feminine form is Maharani – Emperor, Empress India, Sri Lanka
      • Racha – Thailand, same meaning as Raja
      • Raja – pre-colonial Philippines
      • RajaMalaysia, Raja denotes royalty in Perak and certain Selangor royal family lineages, is roughly equivalent to Prince or Princess
      • Raja – Nepal King
      • Rani – Nepali Queen
      • Hari – Filipino title for king
    • Patabenda – Sub- king Sri lanka
    • Preah Karuna Preah Bat Sâmdech Preah Bâromneath – King of Cambodia Khmer , the title literally means "The feet of the Greatest Lord who is on the heads (of his subjects)" (This royal title doesn't refer directly to the king himself but to his feet, according to traditions.)
    • Qaghan – Central Asian Tribes
    • Saopha – Shan, king of Shan, today as a part of Myanmar
    • Susuhanan – the Indonesian princely state of Surakarta until its abolition
    • Shahinshah or Padshah or Badshah- Persian/Iranian "King of Kings" or Persian rulers in Hindustan(India)
      • Shah – Persian/Iranian and Afghanistan and Tajikistan King
    • Sheikh – Arabic traditional regional leader, principalities of (Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, UAE)
    • Sultan/Sultana – Arabic King (present Oman and former Ottoman Empire)
      • Aceh, Brunei, Java, Oman, Malaysia, Sultan is the title of seven (Johor, Kedah, Kelantan, Pahang, Perak, Selangor, and Terengganu) of the nine rulers of the Malay states.
    • Syed – Islamic World, descendants of the Islamic prophet Muhammad
    • Tennō or Mikado – Japan
      • Sumeramikoto, Okimi – Japan, king
      • Shogun – Japanese military dictator, always a Samurai
    • Tengku – Malaysia, Indonesia, Tengku (also spelled Tunku in Johor, Negeri Sembilan, Kedah and Deli Sultanate of Indonesia is roughly equivalent to Prince or Princess
    • Veyndhan, ko/ArasiTamil Nadu(India)
    • Wang (King) – pre-Imperial China. In China, "king" is the usual translation for the term wang 王.
      • Wang – States of Korea that did not have control over the entire peninsula.
      • Vuong – States in Vietnam that did not control the entire realm.
    • Yang di-Pertuan Agong – Monarch of Malaysia, elected each five years among the reigning Sultan of each Malaysian state
  • Europe
    • Arqa/Thagavor – King of Armenia
    • Germanic king
    • Basileus – Greek ruler
    • Despot, a Byzantine court title, also granted in the states under Byzantine influence, such as the Latin Empire, Bulgaria, Serbia, and the Empire of Trebizond.
    • Vezér – Ancient Hungarian
    • Fejedelem – Ancient/Medieval Hungarian
    • Tsar – the ruler of Imperial Russia
    • Vojvoda (Serbian)/Vajda (Hungarian) – Serbian/Hungarian/Romany Title
    • Domn (in Romanian) /Gospodar (in Old Slavonian) – Medieval Romania (Moldova, Wallachia)
    • , Rí túaithe, Ruiri, Rí ruireach, and Ard Rí – King, local king, regional overking, (provincial) king of overkings, and High King in Gaelic Ireland, also Scotland
    • Kniaz'/Knyaginya/Knez/Knjeginja (generally translated as "prince") – Kievan Rus'/Serbia
    • Kaiser – Imperial Germany
    • Tsar/Tsaritsa – Bulgaria, pre-imperial Russia, Serbia
    • Kunigaikshtis (Kunigaikštis) – Lithuanian, duke as in Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
    • Župan sometimes Veliki Župan (Grand Župan) – Serbia, Croatia
    • Autocrator Greek term for the Byzantine Emperor
  • Oceania
    • Chieftain – Leader of a tribe or clan.
    • Tuʻi or tui – there were/are also kings in Oceania (i.e. Tonga, Wallis and Futuna, Nauru)
    • matai, aliʻi, tūlafale, tavana, ariki – usually translated as "chief" in various Polynesian countries.
    • "Mo'i" normally translated as King is a title used by Hawaiian monarchs since unification in 1810. The last person to hold that title was Queen Lili'uokalani.[citation needed]

Fictional and hypothetical titles for heads of state

The title of a character found in Tarot cards based upon the Pope on the Roman Catholic Church. As the Bishop of Rome is an office always forbidden to women there is no formal feminine of Pope, which comes from the Latin word papa (an affectionate form of the Latin for father). Indeed the Oxford English Dictionary does not contain the word.[2]
The mythical Pope Joan, who was reportedly a woman, is always referred to with the masculine title pope, even when her female identity is known. Further, even if a woman were to become Bishop of Rome it is unclear if she would take the title popess; a parallel might be drawn with the Anglican Communion whose female clergy use the masculine titles of priest and bishop as opposed to priestess or bishopess.
Nonetheless some European languages, along with English, have formed a feminine form of the word pope, such as the Italian papessa, the French papesse, and the German Päpstin.

Honorary titles granted by heads of state





  • Burggraf
  • Graf
  • Freigraf
  • Landgraf
  • Markgraf
  • Pfalzgraf
  • Reichsgraf



  • Augusta (The masculine equivalent is Augustus)
  • Comes
  • Concubine (The Chinese imperial system, for instance, had a vastly complex hierarchy of titled concubines and wives to the emperor)
  • Ras (which translates as Head)
  • Bitwoded (translates as Beloved)
  • Fitawrari (translates as Leader of the Vanguard)
  • Dejazmach (translates as Commander of the Gate)
  • Kenyazmach (translates as Commander of the Right)
  • Gerazmach (translates as Commander of the Left)
  • Gentleman (used as a title is such forms as Gentleman at Arms, Gentleman of the Bedchamber, and Gentleman Usher. The feminine equivalent of a Gentleman is a Gentlewoman, or, in some circumstances, a Lady.)
  • Sahib

Executive branch of government and other sub-national rulers

Currently in use


Judicial titles

In current use


Legislative titles

In current use  


Honorary titles granted by an institution

Titles granted by an institution and used in direct address:

Titles awarded by institutions due to merit but not used in correspondence:

Honorary job titles in the royal household:

  • Hereditary Falconer
  • Queen's Swan Marker
  • Grand Carver
  • Herb Strewer

Titles granted by institutions due to position rather than merit (e.g. job title):

Honorary titles granted by a mentor with the same title

Honorary titles granted by peers

Honorary titles bestowed by followers

See also


  • African Kings by Daniel Lainé
  • Keepers of the Kingdom by Alastair Bruce, Julian Calder, and Mark Cator
  • Master and Commander, film directed by Peter Weir


  1. ^ Prince of Wales is a title granted, following an investiture, to the eldest son of the Sovereign of the United Kingdom – he is not a monarch in his own right.
  2. ^ "?". http://oxforddictionaries.com/noresults?dictionaryVersion=region-uk&isWritersAndEditors=true&noresults=true&page=1&pageSize=20&q=popess&searchUri=All&sort=alpha&type=dictionarysearch. 

External links

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.


Look at other dictionaries:

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  • Title — Ti tle, n. [OF. title, F. titre, L. titulus an inscription, label, title, sign, token. Cf. {Tilde}, {Titrate}, {Titular}.] 1. An inscription put over or upon anything as a name by which it is known. [1913 Webster] 2. The inscription in the… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • title — [tīt′ l] n. [OFr < L titulus, inscription, label, title, sign] 1. the name of a book, chapter, poem, essay, picture, statue, piece of music, play, film, etc. 2. a) short for TITLE PAGE b) a literary work of a particular title [150 new titles… …   English World dictionary

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  • Title TK — Álbum de The Breeders Publicación 20 de mayo de 2002 Grabación 2002 Género(s) Rock alternativo Duración 37:55 …   Wikipedia Español

  • title — [n1] heading, label appellation, banner, caption, close, description, head, headline, inscription, legend, name, rubric, salutation, sign, streamer, style, subtitle; concept 283 title [n2] name appellation, appellative, brand, cognomen,… …   New thesaurus

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