- Saint Dismas
, . According to Matthew, both of the "thieves" at first mocked Jesus (:
"39 Unus autem de his, qui pendebant, latronibus blasphemabat eum dicens: “ Nonne tu es Christus? Salvum fac temetipsum et nos! ”. 40 Respondens autem alter increpabat illum dicens: “ Neque tu times Deum, quod in eadem damnatione es? 41 Et nos quidem iuste, nam digna factis recipimus! Hic vero nihil mali gessit ”. 42 Et dicebat: “ Iesu, memento mei, cum veneris in regnum tuum ”. 43 Et dixit illi: “ Amen dico tibi: Hodie mecum eris in paradiso ”.
39 Now one of the criminals hanging there reviled Jesus, saying, "Are you not the Messiah? Save yourself and us."
40 The other, however, rebuking him, said in reply, "Have you no fear of God, for you are subject to the same condemnation?
41 And indeed, we have been condemned justly, for the sentence we received corresponds to our crimes, but this man has done nothing criminal."
42 Then he said, "Jesus, remember me when you come into your kingdom."
43 He replied to him, "Amen, I say to you, today you will be with me in Paradise."
It should be noted that the man in question has no known name. In that the canonical
Gospels were meant to be primarily a record of Jesus' life, none of the Evangelists, not even Luke who recorded the man's repentance, ever reported his name.
Regardless, later embellishments of the story elaborated on the otherwise anonymous "good thief." Dismas is his best known pseudonym and appears first in the twelfth century in the
Gospel of Nicodemus. The name of "Dismas" was adapted from a Greek word meaning "sunset" or "death." The other thief's name is given as Gestas. The apocryphal Arabic Infancy Gospelcalls the two thieves Titus and Dumachus, and adds a tale about how Titus (Dismas) prevented the other thieves in his company from robbing Mary and Joseph during their Flight into Egypt. In the Russian tradition the Good Thief's name is "Rakh" ( _ru. Рах).
Though never canonized by the church, "Dismas" carries the distinction of being the only human to be canonized by
Jesushimself, if by 'canonized' one means the formal recognition of a person's place in heaven. According to tradition, the Good Thief was crucified to Jesus' right hand, and the other thief was crucified to his left. For this reason, depictions of the crucifixionoften show Jesus' head inclined to his right, showing his acceptance of the Good Thief. In the Russian Orthodox Church, both crucifixes and crosses are usually made with three bars: the top one, representing the titulus (the inscription that Pontius Pilatewrote and was nailed above Jesus' head; the longer crossbar on which Jesus' hands were nailed; and a slanted bar at the bottom representing the footrest to which Jesus' feet were nailed. The footrest is slanted, pointing up towards the Good Thief, and pointing down towards the other.
The biblical account of the repentant thief is foundational to the teaching of the church regarding
Baptism of desire, whereby one who desires baptism, but is prevented by circumstances beyond his control from actually being baptized, may be saved by the grace and mercy of God. Traditionalist Catholicswho argue that the Church has never taught Baptism of Desire say that the Dismas died and was saved under the Old Law, not under the New Law in which all must be baptized.
Theophilus of Alexandria(385-412) wrote a "Homily on the Crucifixion and the Good Thief", which is a classic of Copticliterature.
Eastern Orthodox Church, one of the most moving hymns of Good Fridayis entitled, "The Good Thief" (or "The Wise Thief", Church Slavonic: "Razboinika blagorazumnago"), and speaks of how Christ granted Dismas Paradise. There are several moving compositions of this hymn which are used in the Russian Orthodox Churchand form one of the highlights of the Matinsservice on Good Friday.
medieval art, St Dismas is often depicted as accompanying Jesus in the Harrowing of Hellas related in bibleverse|1|Peter|3:19–20|KJV and the Apostles' Creed(though neither text mentions the thief).
A number of towns, including
San Dimas, California, are named after him, and the Christian rock band Dizmasnamed themselves after the "good thief" in recognition of his decision on the Cross to follow Christ. There also exist parish churches named after him, such as the Church of the Good Thief in Kingston, Ontario, Canada.
As part of Christ's story Dismas often appears in cinimatic portrayals though with varying degrees of importace. He sometimes appears as just a background character whose presence in the film is limited to his role in Luke's Gospel, if that much. One exception was
Cecil B. Demille's 1927 " The King of Kings" where his fate is compared to Jesus'. While in one scene people are mourning for Jesus as He is en route to Golgotha, in the next scene the very same people are throwing garbage as Dismas and Gestas, the "bad thief." Later when all three men are crucified, Dismas defends Jesus from Gestas' insults and asks to be forgiven for his own crimes. Jesus forgives Dismas. Later when the two men are dead, Mary is mourning at the foot of her Son's cross. She notices that at the foot of Dismas' cross is a disshiveled old woman crying for Dismas. The old woman says "He was my son." The two mothers embrace and console each other.
In 1961's "King of Kings", Dismas and Gestas, along with
Barrabas, are awaiting their fates. Dismas and Gestas are appalled when Barrabbas compares himself to them. They say "We're only thieves! You're a murderer!" (He and Gestas say this regardless of the fact that there is every chance that the real "Dismas" was just as violent as Barrabas and no mere thief. This is ironic considering that this "King of Kings" emphasized the political climate of first century Israel.)
A major part of Dismas' legacy is one of penance. Though a rebel and perhaps even a terrorist and not a thief, the fact that he did live a wicked life and was sorry for that life means that the traditional moral drawn from his story is still intact. Symbolic of this it is very common for
prison chapels to be dedicated to Saint Dismas, since he represents not only the epitome of a repentant malefactor, but also God's willingness to forgive even at the last moment. This is meant to convey that with the love of God, it is never too late.
List of names for the Biblical nameless
* [http://www.catholic-forum.com/saints/saintd11.htm Patron Saints: Dismas]
* [http://fatherjohn.blogspot.com/2007/04/wise-thief.html "The Wise Thief"] hymn from Eastern Orthodox Good Friday service (in English)
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