Sri Lankan Civil War

Sri Lankan Civil War
Sri Lankan Civil War
Sri Lanka-CIA WFB Map.png
Sri Lanka is an island off the coast of India
Date July 23, 1983 – May 18, 2009[1]
Location Sri Lanka
Result Sri Lankan government victory
The LTTE had controlled most of the north of the country and half of the eastern coastline from around 2002 to 2008. In 2009 all of the territory was regained by the government.
Sri Lanka Sri Lanka
India Indian Peace Keeping Force (1987–90)
Commanders and leaders
Sri Lanka Junius Richard Jayawardene (1983–89)

India Rajiv Gandhi (1987–89)  
India V P Singh (1989–90)
Sri Lanka Ranasinghe Premadasa (1989–93) 
Sri Lanka Dingiri Banda Wijetunge (1993–94)
Sri Lanka Chandrika Kumaratunga (1994–2005)
Sri Lanka Mahinda Rajapaksa (2005–2009)

Velupillai Prabhakaran (1983–2009) 

Selvarasa Pathmanathan (2009) (POW)

Sri Lanka Sri Lanka Armed Forces:
95,000 (2001)
118,000 (2002)
158,000 (2003)
151,000 (2004)
111,000 (2005)
150,900 (2006)[2]
India Indian Peace Keeping Force:
100,000 (peak)
(excluding Auxiliary forces):
6,000 (2001)
6,000 (2002)
7,000 (2003)
7,000 (2004)
11,000 (2005)
8,000 (2006)
7,000 (2007)[2][3]
(including Auxiliary forces):
25,000 (2006)
30,000 (2008)[4]
Casualties and losses
23,327+ killed
60,000+ wounded (Sri Lankan military and police)[5][6][7]
1,200 killed
(Indian Peace-Keeping Force)[8]
27,000+ LTTE's and other Tamil militants killed[9][10][11][12]
11,644 Tigers captured[13]
60,000–100,000 killed overall (estimate)[14]
May 16, 2009: Sri Lankan Government declared a military defeat of LTTE.[15]
May 17, 2009: LTTE admit defeat by Sri Lankan Government.[16]
May 19, 2009: Mahinda Rajapaksa officially declares civil war over in parliament.

The Sri Lankan Civil War was a conflict fought on the island of Sri Lanka. Beginning on July 23, 1983, there was an on-and-off insurgency against the government by the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (the LTTE, also known as the Tamil Tigers), a separatist militant organization which fought to create an independent Tamil state named Tamil Eelam in the north and the east of the island. After a 26 year long military campaign, the Sri Lankan military defeated the Tamil Tigers in May 2009.[1]

For over 25 years, this civil war caused significant hardships for the population, environment and the economy of the country, with an estimated 80,000–100,000 people killed during its course.[14] The tactics employed by the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam resulted in their being branded as a terrorist organization in 32 countries, including the United States, India, Australia, Canada and the member nations of the European Union.[17] The Sri Lankan government forces have also been accused of human rights abuses.[18]

After two decades of fighting and four failed tries at peace talks, including the unsuccessful deployment of the Indian Army, the Indian Peace Keeping Force from 1987 to 1990, a lasting negotiated settlement to the conflict appeared possible when a cease-fire was declared in December 2001, and a ceasefire agreement signed with international mediation in 2002.[19] However, limited hostilities renewed in late 2005 and the conflict began to escalate until the government launched a number of major military offensives against the LTTE beginning in July 2006, driving the LTTE out of the entire Eastern province of the island. The LTTE then declared they would "resume their freedom struggle to achieve statehood".[20][21][22]

In 2007, the government shifted its offensive to the north of the country, and formally announced its withdrawal from the ceasefire agreement on January 2, 2008, alleging that the LTTE violated the agreement over 10,000 times.[23] Since then, aided by the destruction of a number of large arms smuggling vessels that belonged to the LTTE,[24] and an international crackdown on the funding for the Tamil Tigers, the government took control of the entire area previously controlled by the Tamil Tigers, including their de-facto capital Kilinochchi, main military base Mullaitivu and the entire A9 highway,[25] leading the LTTE to finally admit defeat on May 17, 2009.[26] Following the end of the war, the Sri Lankan government has described Sri Lanka as the first country in the modern world to eradicate terrorism on its own soil.[27][28] Following the LTTE's defeat, pro-LTTE Tamil National Alliance dropped its demand for a separate state, in favour of a federal solution.[29][30]


Origin and evolution

The root of modern conflict goes back to British colonial rule when the country was known as Ceylon. A nationalist political movement from Sinhalese communities arose in the country in the early 20th century with the aim of obtaining political independence, which was eventually granted by the British after peaceful negotiations in 1948. Disagreements between the Sinhalese and Tamil ethnic communities flared up when drawing up the country's first post-independence constitution.

After their election to the State Council in 1936, the Lanka Sama Samaja Party (LSSP) members N.M. Perera and Philip Gunawardena demanded the replacement of English as the official language by Sinhala and Tamil. In November 1936, a motion that 'in the Municipal and Police Courts of the Island the proceedings should be in the vernacular' and that 'entries in police stations should be recorded in the language in which they are originally stated' were passed by the State Council and referred to the Legal Secretary. However, in 1944, J.R. Jayawardene moved in the State Council that Sinhala should replace English as the official language.[31] In 1956 Prime Minister S. W. R. D. Bandaranaike's passage of the "Sinhala Only Act" led to ethnic riots. The civil war is a direct result of the escalation of the confrontational politics that followed.[citation needed]

In 1963, shortly after the nationalisation of oil companies by the Sri Lankan government, documents relating to a separate Tamil state of 'Tamil Eelam' began to circulate. At this time, Anton Balasingham, an employee of the British High Commission in Colombo, began to participate in separatist activities. He later migrated to Britain, where he became the chief theoretician of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam. In the late 1960s, several Tamil youth, among them Velupillai Prabhakaran also became involved in these activities. These forces together formed the Tamil New Tigers in 1972. This was formed around an ideology which looked back to the 1st Millennium Chola Empire – the Tiger was the emblem of that empire.

A further movement, the Eelam Revolutionary Organization of Students, formed in Manchester and London; it became the backbone of the Eelamist movement in the diaspora, arranging passports and employment for immigrants and levying a heavy tax on them. It became the basis of the Eelamist logistical organization, later taken over entirely by the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam.

The formation of the Tamil United Liberation Front (TULF) with its Vaddukkodei (Vattukottai) resolution of 1976 led to a hardening of attitudes.

The TULF supported the armed actions of the young militants of the TNT who were dubbed "our boys". These "boys" were the product of the post-war population explosion. Many partially educated, unemployed Tamil youth fell for revolutionary solutions to their problems. The leftist parties had remained "non-communal" for a long time, but the Federal Party (as well as its off-shoot, the TULF), deeply conservative and dominated by Vellala casteism, did not attempt to form a national alliance with the leftists in their fight for language rights.

Following the sweeping electoral victory of the UNP in July 1977, the TULF became the leading opposition party, with around one sixth of the total electoral vote winning on a party platform of secession from Sri Lanka.

In August 1977, Junius Richard Jayawardene's new UNP government followed its attack on the Left with a well organised pogrom against Tamils living in majority Sinhalese areas. In August the government granted only the educational rights demanded by the Tamils.[32] But to the Tamil leadership that was losing the control it had on the Tamil militants after not being able to follow through with the election promise of seceding from Sri Lanka to form Tamil, it was too little too late.[citation needed]

Outbreak of civil war

Sri Lanka
Coat of arms of Sri Lanka, showing a lion holding a sword in its right forepaw surrounded by a ring made from blue lotus petals which is placed on top of a grain vase sprouting rice grains to encircle it. A Dharmacakra is on the top while a sun and moon are at the bottom on each side of the vase.

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
Sri Lanka

Other countries · Atlas
Politics portal
view · talk · edit

Supported by the on-going politics of conflict in Sri Lanka, politicized Tamil youth in the north and the east started to form militant groups. These groups developed independently of the Colombo Tamil leadership, and in the end rejected and annihilated them. The most prominent of these groups was the TNT, which changed its name to the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam or the LTTE in 1976. The LTTE initially carried out a campaign of violence against the state, particularly targeting policemen and also moderate Tamil politicians who attempted a dialogue with the government. Their first major operation was the assassination of the mayor of Jaffna, Alfred Duraiappah in 1975 by Prabhakaran.

The LTTE 's modus operandi of the early war was based on assassinations. The assassination in 1977 of a Tamil Member of Parliament, M. Canagaratnam, was carried out personally by Prabhakaran, the leader of the LTTE.[33]

In July 1983, the LTTE launched a deadly ambush on a Sri Lanka Army patrol Four Four Bravo outside the town of Thirunelveli, killing an officer and 12 soldiers.[34] Using the nationalistic sentiments to their advantage, the Jayawardena organized massacres and pogroms in Colombo[5], the capital, and elsewhere (see Black July). Between 400 and 3,000 Tamils were estimated to have been killed,[35] and many more fled Sinhalese-majority areas. This is usually considered the beginning of the civil war.

Apart from the LTTE, there initially was a plethora of militant groups. The LTTE's position, adopted from that of the PLO, was that there should be only one. Initially, the LTTE gained prominence due to devastating attacks such as the massacre of civilians at the Kent and Dollar Farms in 1984 and the Anuradhapura massacre of 146 civilians in 1985. The Anuradhapura massacre was apparently answered by government forces with the Kumudini boat massacre in which over 23 Tamil civilians died. Over time, the LTTE merged with or largely exterminated almost all the other militant Tamil groups. As a result, many Tamil splinter groups ended up working with the Sri Lankan government as paramilitaries or denounced violence and joined mainstream politics, and some legitimate Tamil-oriented political parties remain, all opposed to LTTE's vision of an independent state.

Peace talks between the LTTE and the government began in Thimphu in 1985, but they soon failed, and the war continued. In 1986, many civilians were massacred as part of this conflict. In 1987, government troops pushed the LTTE fighters to the northern city of Jaffna. In April 1987, the conflict exploded with ferocity, as both the government forces and the LTTE fighters engaged in a series of bloody operations.

The Sri Lankan military launched an offensive, called “Operation Liberation” or “Vadamarachchi Operation”, during May–June 1987, to regain control of the territory in the Jaffna peninsula from the LTTE. This offensive marked the Sri Lankan military's first conventional warfare on Sri Lankan soil since independence. The offensive was successful, and the LTTE leader Prabhakaran and the Sea Tiger leader Soosai narrowly escaped from advancing troops at Valvettithurai. The key military personnel involved in the operation were Lt Col. Vipul Boteju, Lt Col. Sarath Jayawardane, Col. Vijaya Wimalaratne, Brig. Denzil Kobbekaduwa and Maj. Gotabaya Rajapaksa.

In July 1987, the LTTE carried out their first suicide attack. "Captain Miller" of the Black Tigers drove a small truck carrying explosives through the wall of a fortified Sri Lankan army camp, reportedly killing forty soldiers. They carried out over 170 suicide attacks, more than any other organization in the world, and the suicide attack became a trademark of the LTTE and a characteristic of the civil war.[36]

The killings of Father Mary Bastian and George Jeyarajasingham, both human rights activists, have been attributed to the government forces. These are but two examples of the thousands murdered in this period.[citation needed][37]

Indian involvement

LTTE leaders at Sirumalai camp, India in 1984 while they are being trained by RAW (from R to L, weapon each one carrying is included in brackets) - Chief of Intelligence Pottu Amman (M 16), Mannar commander Victor (M203), Trincomalee commander Pulendran (AK-47), LTTE founder-leader Prabhakaran (pistol), Batticaloa commander Aruna (Berreta SMG), and Prabhakaran's bodyguard Lingam (Hungarian AK).

India became involved in the conflict in the 1980s for a number of reasons, including its leaders' desire to project India as the regional power in the area and worries about India's own Tamils seeking independence. The latter was particularly strong in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, where ethnic kinship led to strong support for independence for Sri Lankan Tamils. Throughout the conflict, the Indian central and state governments have supported both sides in different ways. Beginning in the 1980s, India, through its intelligence agency R&AW, provided arms, training and monetary support to a number of Sri Lankan Tamil militant groups, including the LTTE and its rival Tamil Eelam Liberation Organization (TELO)[citation needed]. The LTTE's rise is widely attributed to the initial backing it received from R&AW. It is believed that by supporting different militant groups, the Indian government hoped to keep the Tamil independence movement divided and be able to exert overt control over it.[38]

India became more actively involved in the late 1980s, and on June 5, 1987, the Indian Air Force airdropped food parcels to Jaffna while it was under siege by Sri Lankan forces. At a time when the Sri Lankan government stated they were close to defeating the LTTE, India dropped 25 tons of food and medicine by parachute into areas held by the LTTE in a direct move of support toward the rebels.[39] Negotiations were held, and the Indo-Sri Lanka Peace Accord was signed on July 29, 1987, by Indian Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi and Sri Lankan President Jayewardene. Under this accord, the Sri Lankan Government made a number of concessions to Tamil demands, including devolution of power to the provinces, a merger—subject to later referendum—of the Northern and the Eastern provinces into the single province, and official status for the Tamil language (this was enacted as the 13th Amendment to the Constitution of Sri Lanka). India agreed to establish order in the North and East through a force dubbed the Indian Peace Keeping Force (IPKF), and to cease assisting Tamil insurgents. Militant groups including the LTTE, although initially reluctant, agreed to surrender their arms to the IPKF, which initially oversaw a cease-fire and a modest disarmament of the militant groups.

The signing of the Indo-Lanka Accord, so soon after JR Jayawardene's declaration that he would fight the Indians to the last bullet, led to unrest in south. The arrival of the IPKF to take over control of most areas in the North of the country enabled the Sri Lanka government to shift its forces to the south (in Indian aircraft) to quell the protests. This led to an uprising by the Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna in the south, which was put down bloodily over the next two years.

While most Tamil militant groups laid down their weapons and agreed to seek a peaceful solution to the conflict, the LTTE refused to disarm its fighters.[40] Keen to ensure the success of the accord, the IPKF then tried to demobilize the LTTE by force and ended up in full-scale conflict with them. The three year long conflict was also marked by the IPKF being accused of committing various abuses of human rights by many human rights groups as well as some within the Indian media. The IPKF also soon met stiff opposition from the Tamils.[41][42] Simultaneously, nationalist sentiment led many Sinhalese to oppose the continued Indian presence in Sri Lanka. These led to the Sri Lankan government's call for India to quit the island, and they allegedly entered into a secret deal with the LTTE that culminated in a ceasefire. The LTTE and IPKF continued to have frequent hostilities, and according to some reports, the Sri Lankan government even armed the rebels in order to see the back of the Indian forces.[43] Although casualties among the IPKF mounted, and calls for the withdrawal of the IPKF from both sides of the Sri Lankan conflict grew, Gandhi refused to remove the IPKF from Sri Lanka. However, following his defeat in Indian parliamentary elections in December 1989, the new prime Minister V. P. Singh ordered the withdrawal of the IPKF, and their last ship left Sri Lanka on March 24, 1990. The 32 month presence of the IPKF in Sri Lanka resulted in the deaths of 1100 Indian soldiers and over 5000 Sri Lankans. The cost for the Indian government was estimated at over 20 billion rupees.[citation needed]

Rajiv Gandhi's assassination

Support for the LTTE in India dropped considerably in 1991, after the assassination of ex-Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi by suicide bomber Thenmuli Rajaratnam. The Indian press has subsequently reported that Prabhakaran decided to eliminate Gandhi as he considered Gandhi to be against the Tamil liberation struggle and feared that Gandhi might re-induct the IPKF, which Prabhakaran termed the "satanic force", if he won the 1991 Indian elections.[44] In 1998 a court in India presided over by Special Judge V. Navaneetham found the LTTE and its leader Velupillai Prabhakaran responsible for the assassination.[45] and in a 2006 interview, LTTE ideologue Anton Balasingham stated regret over the assassination, although he stopped short of outright acceptance of responsibility for it.[46][47]

India remains an outside observer to the ongoing peace process, with frequent demands by many groups for an extradition of Velupillai Prabhakaran, now deceased.[48]

Pan-Tamil support

In 2008, the central coalition in India was rocked by threats, resignations, and arrests based on Tamil nationalism, and hence support to Tamils in Sri Lanka. Following the historically pro-Tamil DMK party's accession to power in Tamil Nadu and the centre, it was seen as though there would be more political support from India. In 2008, party chief and TN CM Karunanidhi accepted the resignation of multiple MP's of his party in protest against an increasing casualty count of Tamil civilians in the war. Following this, MDMK founder and general secretary, Vaiko, courted arrest on charges of sedition in saying he would take up arms to fight on the side of the Tamils. He then charged the Indian Government with abetting the Sri Lankan Government in order to eliminate the Tamils there. He added that Sri Lanka would heed a request for a ceasefire if India imposed economic sanctions on the country.[49]

In a rare show of unanimity, all the parties in Tamil Nadu assembly unanimously demanded a ceasefire in conflict, while appealing to the Centre to make efforts to stop the Sri Lankan military offensive.

Even the Congress party, which had seen the issue as an untouchable subject for more than a decade, said there could be no two opinions on the need for a ceasefire. To this, party floor leader, D Sudarsanam, said that the Centre was making efforts to stop the war and the results would soon be known. Congress whip, Peter Alphonse, denied that his party was acting against the interests of the Sri Lankan Tamils and said he was ready to list his party's efforts for the welfare of the said Tamils. The deputy leader of the opposition and senior AIADMK leader, O Panneerselvam, made a charge that the "intransigent attitude" of the Sri Lankan government was the reason for the continuation of the war. He added that the Sri Lankan army was bombing schools and public places that had resulted in the deaths of innocent people, including children.

The LTTE, which was cornered in a tiny section of the island, desperately pleaded with the Indian Tamil parties to demand a ceasefire, in order to save their leadership from annihilation, which led to several Indian Tamil politicians requesting the Sri Lankan Government to call for an immediate ceasefire.[50]

Eelam War II

In the 1980s and 1990s, successive governments enacted a number of official acts to appease the Tamil community, including recognizing Tamil as an official language and merging the Northern and the Eastern Provinces of the country.

Yet the violence continued, as the LTTE continued to massacre innocent villagers living in the deep rural Eastern and North-Eastern areas. The Dollar and Kent Farm massacres, where hundreds of men, women and children were attacked during the night as they slept and were hacked to death with fatal blows to the head from axes, are two clear examples of the acts committed by the LTTE. Some of the men who defended themselves were executed their hands tied behind their backs. The LTTE used these terror tactics to scare Sinhalese and Muslim farmers away from these areas and swiftly took control of significant parts of the North, which could be considered an act of ethnic cleansing. When the Indian Peace Keeping Force withdrew, the LTTE established many government-like functions in the areas under its control. A tentative ceasefire held in 1990 as the LTTE occupied itself with destroying rival Tamil groups while the government cracked down on the JVP uprising. When both major combatants had established their power bases, they turned on each other and the ceasefire broke down. The government launched an offensive to try to retake Jaffna.

This phase of the war soon acquired the name Eelam War II. It was marked by unprecedented brutality. The LTTE massacred 600-774 Policemen after they had surrendered on promises of safe conduct. The government placed an embargo on food and medicine entering the Jaffna peninsula and the air force relentlessly bombed LTTE targets in the area. The LTTE responded by attacking Sinhalese and Muslim villages and massacring civilians. One of the largest civilian massacres of the war occurred when the LTTE massacred 166 Muslim civilians at Palliyagodella. The government trained and armed Home Guard Muslim units then took revenge on Tamil villages. There was also significant massacre of Tamil civilians attributed to government forces, especially in the Eastern Province. Notable international jurist Neelan Thiruchelvam, in a speech at the ICES-Colombo, indicated that the appropriate investigations into massacres and disappearances of civilians including many children in the Sathurukondan, Eastern University, Mylanthanai and the mass murder and burial of school children at Sooriyakanda were hampered by the adoption of emergency regulations which were contributing to a climate of impunity.[51] Along roadsides in the North and East, burning bodies became a common sight. Throughout the country, government death squads hunted down, kidnapped, or killed Sinhalese or Tamil youth suspected of being JVP or LTTE sympathizers, respectively.[52] In October 1990, the LTTE expelled all the Muslims residing in Jaffna. A total of 28,000 Muslims were forced to leave their homes taking nothing but the clothes on their backs.[53]

The largest battle of the war was in July 1991, when the army's Elephant Pass (Alimankada) base, which controlled access to the Yapanaya (Jaffna) peninsula, was surrounded by 5,000 LTTE troops. More than 2,000 died on both sides in the month-long siege, before 10,000 government troops arrived to relieve the base.[54]

In February 1992, another series of government offensives failed to capture Jaffna due to Indian intervention, which led to a military stand-off as Indian threatened to invade Sri Lanka. The Sri Lankan Government backed off and ordered the withdrawal of its forces, only days away from capturing LTTE supremo Velupillai Prabharan, whilst he lay surrounded in his home town of Vellvetithurai. Lt. General Denzil Kobbekaduwa together with Major General Vijaya Wimalaratne and Rear Admiral Mohan Jayamaha, died on August 8, 1992, at Araly (Aeraella) point Jaffna due to a land mine blast, which badly affected military morale.

The LTTE, for its part, scored a major victory when one of their suicide bombers killed Sri Lankan President Ranasinghe Premadasa in May 1993. In November 1993 the LTTE succeeded in the Battle of Pooneryn.

Eelam War III

In the 1994 parliamentary elections, the UNP was defeated and, amidst great hope, the People's Alliance, headed by Chandrika Kumaratunga, came to power on a peace platform. Chandrika Kumaratunga won the presidential elections as well after the LTTE assassinated the opposition leader Gamini Dissanayake. A ceasefire was agreed in January 1995, but the ensuing negotiations proved fruitless. The LTTE broke the ceasefire on April 19 and thus began the next phase of the war, dubbed Eelam War III.[55]

The new government then pursued a policy of "war for peace". Determined to retake the key rebel stronghold of Jaffna, which was occupied by 2,000 rebels,[56] it poured troops into the peninsula. In one particular incident in August 1995, Air Force jets bombed St. Peter's church at Navali (Naavaella), killing at least 65 refugees and wounding 150 others.[57] Government troops initially cut off the peninsula from the rest of the island,[56] and then after 7 weeks of heavy fighting succeeded in bringing Jaffna under government control for the first time in nearly a decade. In a high profile ceremony, Sri Lankan Defense Minister Anurudda Ratwatte raised the national flag inside the Jaffna fort on December 5, 1995. The government estimated that approximately 2500 soldiers and rebels were killed in the offensive, and an estimated 7,000 wounded.[58] Many civilians were killed as part of this conflict such as the Navaly church bombing in which over 125 civilians died. The LTTE and more than 350,000 civilians, compelled by LTTE pressure to leave Jaffna,[59] fled to the Vanni region in the interior. Most of the refugees returned later the next year.

The LTTE responded by launching Operation Unceasing Waves and decisively won the Battle of Mullaitivu in July 1996.

The government launched another offensive in August 1996. Another 200,000 civilians fled the violence.[59] The town of Kilinochchi (GiraaNikke) was taken on September 29. On May 13, 1997, 20,000 government troops tried to open a supply line through the LTTE-controlled Vanni, but failed. Civilians were regularly killed and wounded by both sides.

As violence continued in the North, LTTE suicide and time bombs were exploded numerous times in populated city areas and public transport in the south of the country, killing hundreds of civilians. In January 1996, the LTTE carried out one of their deadliest suicide bomb attacks at the Central Bank in Colombo, killing 90 and injuring 1,400. In October 1997 they bombed the Sri Lankan World Trade Centre and, in January 1998, detonated a truck bomb in Kandy (Mahanuvara), damaging the Temple of the Tooth, one of the holiest Buddhist shrines in the world. In response to this bombing, the Sri Lankan government outlawed the LTTE and with some success pressed other governments around the world to do the same, significantly interfering with their fund-raising activities.

On September 27, 1998, the LTTE launched the Operation Unceasing Waves II and after heavy fighting captured Kilinochchi, thus winning Battle of Kilinochchi.

In March 1999, in Operation Rana Gosa, the government tried invading the Vanni from the south. The army made some gains, taking control of Oddusuddan (Oththan-thuduva) and Madhu, but could not dislodge the LTTE from the region. In September 1999 the LTTE massacred 50 Sinhalese civilians at Gonagala

The LTTE returned to the offensive with the Operation Unceasing Waves III on November 2, 1999. Nearly all the Vanni rapidly fell back into LTTE hands. The LTTE launched 17 successful attacks in the region which culminated in the overrunning of the Paranthan (Puranthaenna) Chemicals Factory base and the Kurrakkan Kaddukulam (kurakkan-kaela vaeva) base.[60] Thousands were killed in the fighting. The rebels also advanced north towards Elephant Pass (Alimankada) and Jaffna (Yapanaya). The LTTE was successful in cutting all land and sea supply lines of the Sri Lankan armed forces to the south, west and north of the town of Kilinochchi. In December 1999 the LTTE attempted to assassinate President Chandrika Kumaratunga in a suicide attack at a pre-election rally. She lost one eye, among other injuries, but was able to defeat opposition leader Ranil Wickremesinghe in the Presidential election and was reelected for her second term in office.[61]

On April 22, 2000, the Elephant Pass military complex, which had separated the Jaffna peninsula from the Vanni mainland for 17 years, completely fell to the hands of the LTTE.[62][63] The army then launched Operation Agni Khiela to take back the southern Jaffna Peninsula, but sustained losses. The LTTE continued to press towards Jaffna, and many feared it would fall to the LTTE, but the military repulsed LTTE offensives and was able to maintain control of the city.

Early peace efforts

Exhaustion with the war was building as casualties mounted and there appeared to be no end in sight. By mid-2000, human rights groups estimated that more than one million people in Sri Lanka were internally displaced persons, living in camps, homeless and struggling for survival. As a result, a significant peace movement developed in the late 1990s, with many organizations holding peace camps, conferences, trainings and peace meditations, and many other efforts to bridge the two sides at all levels. As early as February 2000, Norway was asked to mediate by both sides, and initial international diplomatic moves began to find a negotiated settlement to the conflict.[64]

Hopes for peace gained ground as the LTTE declared a unilateral ceasefire in December 2000, but they canceled it on April 24, 2001, and launched another offensive against the government. After securing a vast area controlled by the military, the LTTE further advanced northwards. This advancement of the LTTE was posing a serious threat to the Elephant Pass (Alimankada) military complex that housed 17,000 troops of the Sri Lankan forces.[65]

In July 2001, the LTTE carried out a devastating suicide attack on Bandaranaike International Airport, destroying eight of the air force's planes (2 IAI Kfirs, 1 Mil-17, 1 Mil-24, 3 K-8 trainers, 1 MiG-27) and four Sri Lankan Airlines planes (2 Airbus A330s, 1 A340 and 1 A320), dampening the economy and causing tourism, a vital foreign exchange earner for the government, to plummet.

2002 peace process

Beginning of the ceasefire

Towards the end of 2001, however, following the attacks of September 11 attacks, the LTTE began to declare their willingness to explore measures for a peaceful settlement to the conflict. The LTTE are believed to have taken this action after fear of international pressure and even direct US support of the Sri Lankan Government as part of the War on Terror.[66] In the south, the government was facing increasing criticism over its "war for peace" strategy, with peace nowhere in sight, and the economy in tatters. After losing a no-confidence motion, President Kumaratunga was forced to dissolve parliament and call for fresh elections. The elections, held on December 5, 2001, saw a sweeping victory for the United National Front, led by Ranil Wickremasinghe, who campaigned on a pro-peace platform and pledged to find a negotiated settlement to the conflict.

On December 19, amidst efforts by Norway to bring the government and the Tamil Tigers to the negotiating table, the LTTE announced a 30 day ceasefire with the Sri Lankan government and pledged to halt all attacks against government forces.[67] The new government welcomed the move, and reciprocated it 2 days later, announcing a month long ceasefire and agreeing to lift a long standing economic embargo on rebel-held territory.[66]

Signing of Memorandum of Understanding

LTTE Sea Tiger boat patrolling during the peace.

The two sides formalized a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) on February 22, 2002, and signed a permanent ceasefire agreement (CFA). Norway was named mediator, and it was decided that they, together with the other Nordic countries, monitor the ceasefire through a committee of experts named the Sri Lanka Monitoring Mission.[68] In August, the government agreed to lift the ban on the LTTE and paved the way for the resumption of direct negotiations with the LTTE.[69]

Following the signing of the ceasefire agreement, commercial air flights to Jaffna began and the LTTE opened the key A9 highway, which linked government controlled area in the south with Jaffna and ran through LTTE territory, allowing civilian traffic through the Vanni region for the first time in many years, but only after paying a tax to the LTTE. Many foreign countries also offered substantial financial support if peace was achieved and optimism grew that an end to the decades-long conflict was in sight.

The much-anticipated peace talks began in Phuket, Thailand on September 16, and 5 further rounds followed in Phuket, Norway and Berlin, Germany.[70] During the talks, both sides agreed to the principle of a federal solution and the Tigers dropped their long-standing demand for separate state. This was a key compromise from the LTTE, which had always insisted on an independent Tamil state and it also represented a compromise from the government, which had seldom agreed to more than minimal devolution. Both sides also exchanged prisoners of war for first time.[66]

Political changes in the South

Following the elections of 2001, for the first time in Sri Lanka's history, the President and Prime Minister were of two different parties. This co-habitation was uneasy, especially since Prime Minister Wickremasinghe and the UNP favoured a federal solution to the conflict, while hard-line elements within President Kumaratunga's party and other Sinhala nationalist groups allied to her opposed one as they did not trust the LTTE, which continued to levy taxes, strengthen themselves by smuggling in arms and ammunition, recruit child soldiers, and engage in killings of members of rival Tamil groups and government intelligence agents. During this time the LTTE also succeeded in setting up a series of vital bases around the Trincomalee (Gokanna) harbour (see Eelam War IV) and the Eastern Province.

The talks broke down on April 21, 2003, when the Tamil Tigers announced they were suspending any further talks due to their "displeasure" at the handling of some "critical issues". Among the reasons the Tigers gave were their exclusion from reconstruction talks in Washington DC on April 14 and a more general insinuation that they were not receiving the full economic rewards of peace. They cited the failure, as they saw it, of peace-dividends to transfer to security withdrawals on the ground and the disparity, as they saw it, between the relative calm of the government-held northeast and continuing violence in Tiger-held areas. However, the LTTE maintained it was committed to a settlement to the two-decade conflict, but stated that progress had to be made on the ground before the settlement proceeded.[71]

On October 31, the LTTE issued its own peace proposal, calling for an Interim Self Governing Authority (ISGA). The ISGA would be fully controlled by the LTTE and would have broad powers in the North and East. (see the Full text of the proposals) This provoked a strong backlash among the hardline elements in the South, who accused Prime Minister Wickremasinghe of handing the North and East to the LTTE. Under pressure from within her own party to take action, Kumaratunga declared a state of emergency and took three key government ministries, the Ministry of Mass Media, the Interior Ministry and the crucial Defense Ministry.[72] She then formed an alliance with the JVP, called the United People's Freedom Alliance, opposed to the ISGA and advocating a harder line on the LTTE, and called for fresh elections. The elections, held on April 8, 2004, resulted in victory for the UPFA with Mahinda Rajapakse appointed as Prime Minister. Initial fears of a resumption of the conflict were proved unfounded when the new government expressed its desire to continue the peace process and find a negotiated settlement to the conflict.

Split of the LTTE

Meanwhile, in March 2004 there had been a major fracturing between the northern and eastern wings of the LTTE. Colonel Karuna, the Eastern commander of the LTTE and one of Prabhakaran's trusted lieutenants, pulled 5,000 eastern cadres out of the LTTE, claiming insufficient resources and power were being given to Tamils of the eastern part of the island. It was the biggest expression of dissension in the history of the LTTE and a civil war within the LTTE seemed imminent. After the parliamentary elections, brief fighting south of Trincomalee (formerly known as Gokanna) led to a rapid retreat and capitulation of Karuna's group, their leaders eventually going into hiding including Karuna himself, who was helped to escape by Seyed Ali Zahir Moulana, a powerful politician from the ruling party. However, the "Karuna faction" maintained a significant presence in the East and continued to launch attacks against the LTTE.[73] The LTTE accuses the army of covertly backing the breakaway group, which subsequently formed a political party named the TamilEela Makkal Viduthalai Pulikal (TMVP) and hopes to contest in future elections.

The ceasefire largely held through all this turmoil, with over 3000 infractions by the LTTE and some 300 by the SLA recorded by the Sri Lanka Monitoring Mission (SLMM) by 2005.[74] The situation was further complicated by allegations that both sides were carrying out covert operations against each other. The government claimed that the LTTE was killing political opponents, recruiting children, importing arms, and killing government security and intelligence officers. The rebels accused the government of supporting paramilitary groups against them, especially the Karuna group.

Tsunami and aftermath

On December 26, 2004, the Indian Ocean tsunami hit Sri Lanka, killing more than 30,000 people, and leaving many more homeless. Aid poured in from donor countries, but disagreements arose instantly over how it should be distributed to the Tamil regions under LTTE control. By June 24, the government and LTTE agreed on the Post-Tsunami Operational Management Structure (P-TOMS), but it received sharp criticism from the JVP, who left the government in protest. The legality of P-TOMS was also challenged in the courts. President Kumaratunga eventually had to scrap P-TOMS, which led to widespread criticism that sufficient aid was not reaching the North and East of the country. However, immediately following the tsunami there was a marked decrease in violence in the North.

Sri Lankan Foreign Minister Lakshman Kadirgamar, a Tamil who was highly respected by foreign diplomats and who had been sharply critical of the LTTE, was assassinated at his home on August 12, 2005, allegedly by an LTTE sniper.[75] His assassination led to the marginalization of the LTTE from the international community, and is thought to be the instant when the LTTE lost much of its sympathy in the eyes of foreign nations. Hence the silence of the international community when the Sri Lankan government took military action against the LTTE in 2006, when the latter closed the Mavil Oya (Mavil aru) sluice.

Further political change occurred when the Supreme Court of Sri Lanka declared President Kumaratunga's second and final term over and ordered her to hold fresh presidential elections. The main candidates for the election, which was held in November, were the UNF candidate, former Prime Minister Ranil Wickremasinghe, who advocated the reopening of talks with the LTTE, and the UPFA candidate, Prime Minister Rajapaksa, who called for a tougher line against the LTTE and a renegotiation of the ceasefire. The LTTE openly called for a boycott of the election by the Tamils. Many of them were expected to vote for Wickremasinghe, and the loss of their votes proved fatal to his chances as Rajapakse achieved a narrow win.

Following the election, the LTTE leader Velupillai Prabhakaran stated in his annual address that the Tigers would "renew their struggle" in 2006 if the government did not take serious moves toward peace.

Resumption of hostilities

Just days after Prabhakaran's speech, a new round of violence erupted. Beginning in December 2005, there was increased guerrilla activity to the northeast, including Claymore mine attacks which killed 150 government troops,[76] clashes between the Sea Tigers and the Sri Lanka navy, and the killings of sympathizers on both sides including Taraki Sivaram, a pro-LTTE journalist, and Joseph Pararajasingham, a pro-LTTE MP allegedly by the government of Sri Lanka.

At the beginning of 2008, the focus of the civil war turned to civilian targets, with commuter bus and train bombings carried out in most parts of the country,[77] including a series of attacks against commuters in and around Colombo.[78]

Talks and further violence

In light of this violence, the co-chairs of the Tokyo Donor conference called on both parties to return to the negotiating table. The co-chairs—the United States in particular—were heavily critical of the violence perpetrated by the LTTE. US State Department officials, as well as the US ambassador to Sri Lanka, gave warnings to the Tigers claiming a return to hostilities would mean that the Tigers would face a "more capable and more determined" Sri Lankan military.[79] While the talks were going on there was violence targeted towards civilians such as massacre of 5 Tamil students on January 2, 2006, in Trincomalee when high school students playing by the beach were briefly detained and then shot dead.[80][81]

In a last-minute effort to salvage an agreement between the parties, the Norwegian special envoy Erik Solheim and the LTTE theoretician Anton Balasingham arrived in the island. The parties severely disagreed on the location of the talks; however, continued efforts produced a breakthrough when both parties agreed on February 7, 2006, that new talks could be held in Geneva, Switzerland on February 22 and February 23. These talks were reported to have gone "above expectations", with both the government and the LTTE agreeing to curb the violence and to hold further talks on April 19–21.[82]

During the weeks after the talks, there was a significant decrease in violence. However, the LTTE resumed attacks against the military in April beginning with a Claymore anti-personnel mine attack on military vehicles which killed 10 navy sailors on April 11. The following day, coordinated bombings by rebels and rioting in the north-eastern part of the country left 16 dead. First, a Claymore anti-personnel mine exploded in Trincomalee, killing two policemen in their vehicle. Another blast, set off in a crowded vegetable market, killed one soldier and some civilians. Ensuing rioting by civilians left more than a dozen dead.[83] Responsibility for these attacks was claimed by an organisation called the Upsurging People's Force, which the military accused of being a front for the LTTE.

In light of this violence, the LTTE called for a postponement of the Geneva talks until April 24–25, and the government initially agreed to this. Following negotiations, both the government and the rebels agreed to have a civilian vessel transport the regional LTTE leaders with international truce monitors on April 16, which involved crossing government-controlled territory. However, the climate shifted drastically when the Tamil Tigers canceled the meeting, claiming not to have agreed to a naval escort. According to the SLMM, the Tamil rebels had previously agreed to the escort. This led to Helen Olafsdottir, spokesperson for the SLMM saying "It was part of the agreement. The rebels should have read the clauses carefully. We are frustrated."[84]

On April 20, 2006, the LTTE officially pulled out of peace talks indefinitely. While they stated that transportation issues had prevented them from meeting their regional leaders, some analysts and the international community held a deep skepticism, seeing the transportation issue as a delaying tactic by the LTTE in order to avoid attending peace talks in Geneva.[85]

Violence continued to spiral and on April 23, 2006, six Sinhalese rice farmers were massacred in their paddy fields by suspected LTTE cadres in the Trincomalee district.[86][dead link] The following day, two suspected Tamil Tiger rebels were shot dead in Batticaloa when caught planting mines after rebels reportedly hacked a young mother to death and kidnapped her infant.[87]

After LTTE launched a suicide assault on a naval convoy in which 18 sailors died, the Allaipiddy massacre of May 13, 2006, happened in which 13 minority Tamil civilians were killed in separate incidents in three villages in the islet of Kayts (Uruthota) in northern Sri Lanka.[88] International condemnation against the LTTE skyrocketed following the attempted assassination of the commander of the Sri Lanka Army, Lieutenant General Sarath Fonseka by a pregnant LTTE Black Tiger suicide bomber Anoja Kugenthirasah, who blew herself up at the Sri Lankan Army headquarters in the capital, Colombo. Lt. Gen. Fonseka and twenty-seven others were injured, while ten people were killed in the attack. For the first time since the 2001 ceasefire, the Sri Lanka Air Force carried out aerial assaults on rebel positions in the north-eastern part of the island nation in retaliation for the attack.[89]

This attack, along with the assassination of Lakshman Kadiragamar a year earlier and an unsuccessful attack against a naval vessel carrying 710 unarmed security force personnel on holiday, proved the catalysts as the European Union decided to proscribe the LTTE as a terrorist organisation on May 19, 2006. It resulted in the freezing of LTTE assets in the member nations of the EU, and put an end to its efforts to raise funds its campaign in Sri Lanka. In a statement, the European Parliament said that the LTTE did not represent all the Tamils and called on it to "allow for political pluralism and alternate democratic voices in the northern and eastern parts of Sri Lanka".[90]

As the North and East of the country continued to be rocked by attacks, new talks were scheduled in Oslo, Norway, between June 8–9. Delegations from both sides arrived in Oslo, but the talks were canceled when the LTTE refused to meet directly with the government delegation claiming its fighters were not been allowed safe passage to travel to the talks. Norwegian mediator Erik Solheim told journalists that the LTTE should take direct responsibility for the collapse of the talks.[91]

Further violence followed, including the Vankalai massacre in which a family of four minority Sri Lankan Tamils from the village of Vankalai in the district of Mannar in Sri Lanka on June 8, 2006, were tortured and killed. Both the mother and the nine year old daughter were allegedly raped before being killed. The gory images of the corpses published by the pro rebel Tamilnet news site created controversy in Sri Lanka and abroad. The Sri Lankan army and Tamil Tiger rebels have blamed each other for the killings.[92][93][94][95][96][97] There was also the Kebithigollewa massacre on June 15, 2006, in which the LTTE attacked a bus killing at least 64 Sinhalese civilians and prompting more air strikes by the Air Force,[98] and the assassination of Sri Lanka's third highest-ranking army officer and Deputy Chief of Staff General Parami Kulatunga on June 26 by an LTTE suicide bomber.[99] These events led the SLMM to question whether a ceasefire could still be said to exist.[100] However most analysts continued to believe that the return to full-scale war was unlikely and the "low-intensity conflict" would continue.[99]

Mavil Aru water dispute

A new crisis leading to the first large-scale fighting since signing of the ceasefire occurred when the LTTE closed the sluice gates of the Mavil Oya (Mavil Aru) reservoir on July 21 and cut the water supply to 15,000 villages in government controlled areas.[101] After initial negotiations and efforts by the SLMM to open the gates failed, the Air Force attacked LTTE positions on July 26, and ground troops began an operation to open the gate.[102]

The sluice gates were eventually reopened on August 8, with conflicting reports as to who actually opened them. Initially, the SLMM claimed that they managed to persuade the LTTE to lift the waterway blockade conditionally.[103] However a government spokesman said that "utilities could not be used as bargaining tools" by the rebels[101] and government forces launched fresh attacks on LTTE positions around the reservoir. These attacks prompted condemnation from SLMM Chief of Staff, who stated "(The government) have the information that the LTTE has made this offer." "It is quite obvious they are not interested in water. They are interested in something else."[101] The LTTE then claimed they opened the sluice gates "on humanitarian grounds" although this was disputed by military correspondents, who stated the water began flowing immediately after the security forces carried out a precise bombing of the Mavil Aru anicut.[104] Eventually, following heavy fighting with the rebels, government troops gained full control of the Mavil Aru reservoir on August 15.[105]

LTTE offensives in Muttur and Jaffna

As fierce fighting was ongoing in the vicinity of (Mavil Oya) Mavil Aru, the violence spread to Gokanna (Trincomalee), where the LTTE launched an attack on a crucial Sri Lanka Navy base,[103] and to the strategic government controlled coastal town of Muttur in early August, resulting in the deaths of at least 30 civilians and displacing 25,000 residents of the area.[106] The clashes erupted on August 2, 2006 when the LTTE launched a heavy artillery attack on Muttur[107] and then moved in, gaining control of some parts of the town.[108] The military retaliated, and reestablished full control over the town by August 5, killing over 150 LTTE cadres in heavy fighting.[107]

Soon afterwards, 17 persons working for the International French charity Action Against Hunger (ACF) in Mooduthara (Muthur), were found executed. They were found lying face down on the floor of their office, with bullet wounds, still wearing their clearly marked T-shirts indicating they were international humanitarian workers. The murders prompted widespread international condemnation.[109] The SLMM claimed that the government was behind the attack,[110] but the government denied the allegation calling it "pathetic and biased", and stated that the SLMM had "no right to make such a statement because they are not professionals in autopsy or post-mortem."[111] An official investigation launched by the government with the aid of international forensic experts is currently ongoing.[112]

Meanwhile, in the north of the country, some of the bloodiest fighting since 2001 took place after the LTTE launched massive attacks on Sri Lanka Army defence lines in the Jaffna peninsula on August 11. The LTTE used a force of 400 to 500 fighters in the attacks which consisted of land and amphibious assaults, and also fired a barrage of artillery at government positions, including the key military airbase at Paluyaala (Palaly).[113] Initially, the Tigers broke through army defense lines around Muhamalai (Mahakanda), and advanced further north,[114] but they were halted after 10 hours of fierce fighting. Isolated battles continued over the next few days, but the LTTE was forced to give up its offensive due to heavy casualties.[115] The LTTE is estimated to have lost over 250[115] cadres in the operation, while 90 Sri Lankan soldiers and sailors were also killed.[116]

Chencholai air strike

As ground battles were ongoing in the North and the East of Sri Lanka, Sri Lanka Air Force carried out an air strike against a facility in the rebel held Mullaitivu area, killing a number of Tamil girls. Although the LTTE claimed 61 girls were killed, the SLMM stated they were able to count just 19 bodies.[117] The government stated that it was an LTTE training facility and that the children were LTTE child soldiers,[118] although the LTTE claimed the victims were schoolgirls attending a course on first aid at an orphanage.[118]

Attack on the Pakistani High Commissioner

On the same day, a convoy carrying the Pakistani High Commissioner to Sri Lanka Bashir Wali Mohamed was attacked by a claymore antipersonnel mine concealed within an auto rickshaw. The High Commissioner escaped unhurt, but seven people were killed and a further seventeen injured in the blast.[119] No group claimed responsibility for the attack, but the Sri Lankan government blamed the LTTE. The Pakistani High Commissioner, Bashir Wali Mohamed, claimed that India was strongly believed to have carried it out,[120] in order to intimidate Pakistan, which is one of the main suppliers of military equipment to the Sri Lankan government.[120] Pakistan had promised one shipload of the wherewithal every 10 days in coming months, it was Pakistan’s assurance of solid support which prompted Sri Lankan Defence Secretary Gotabhaya Rajapakse to publicly state that Kilinochchi, the headquarters of the LTTE, would be liberated by the end of December.

Fall of Sampur

Since the resumption of violence, concerns were mounting among the military establishment that the strategically crucial[121] Sri Lanka Navy base in Trincomalee was under grave threat from LTTE gun positions located in and around Sampur, which lies across the Koddiyar Bay from Trincomalee.[122][123] Artillery fired from LTTE bases in the area could potentially cripple the naval base, bringing it to a complete standstill and therefore cutting the only military supply chain to Jaffna. All movements of naval vessels were also under the constant surveillance of the LTTE.[122] These fears were backed up by a United States military advisory team which visited the island in 2005.

Following the clashes in Mavil Aru (Mavil Oya) and Muttur (Mooduthara), the LTTE had intensified attacks targeting the naval base in Trincomalee (Gokanna),[123] and in a speech on August 21, Sri Lankan president Mahinda Rajapakse made clear the government intentions were to neutralize the LTTE threat from Sampur.[123] On August 28, the Sri Lankan military launched an assault to retake the LTTE camps in Sampur and the adjoining Kaddaiparichchan (Gaeta-bara-hena)and Thoppur (Thupapura) areas. This led the LTTE to declare that if the offensive continued, the ceasefire would be officially over.

After steady progress, Sri Lankan security forces led by Brigade Commander Sarath Wijesinghe[124] re-captured Sampur (Somapura) from the LTTE on September 4, and began to establish military bases there,[125] as the LTTE admitted defeat and stated their cadres "withdrew" from the strategically important town.[126] It marked the first significant territorial change of hands since the signing of the ceasefire agreement in 2002.[127] The Sri Lankan Military estimated that 33 personnel were killed in the offensive, along with over 200 LTTE cadres.[124]

LTTE retaliation and further peace talks

The LTTE struck back in October. First, they killed nearly 130 soldiers in a fierce battle at Muhamalai (Mahakanda), the crossing-point between government and LTTE controlled area in the north of the country.[128] Just days later, a suspected LTTE suicide bomber struck a naval convoy in Habaraba, in the center of the country killing about 100 sailors who were returning home on leave.[129][130] It was the deadliest suicide attack in the history of the conflict.[131]

Two days later, LTTE Sea Tiger cadres launched an attack against the Dakshina naval base in the southern port city of Galle. It was the farthest south any major LTTE attack had taken place, and involved 15 LTTE cadres who arrived in five suicide boats. The attack was repulsed by the government, and the damage to the naval base was minimum. All 15 LTTE suicide cadres are believed to have died in the attack, along with one Sri Lanka Navy sailor.[132]

Despite these incidents, both parties agreed to unconditionally attend peace talks in Geneva on October 28–29.[133] However the peace talks broke down due to disagreements over the reopening of the key A9 highway, which is the link between Jaffna and government controlled areas in the south. While the LTTE wanted the highway, which was closed following fierce battles in August, to be reopened, the government refused, stating the LTTE would use it to collect tax from people passing through and would use it to launch further offensives against government troops.[134]

Following the dawn of the new year, suspected LTTE cadres carried out two bus bombings in the south of the country, killing 21 civilians. News reports stated that the attacks bore all the hallmarks of an LTTE attack.[135] The Sri Lankan government condemned the attacks and blamed the LTTE for carrying them out,[136] although the LTTE denied any involvement. Iqbal Athas, an analyst for Jane's Defence Weekly commented that the LTTE's targeting of civilians was a cause for concern, and that further attacks against civilians could not be ruled out.[137] Other analysts too expressed fears that LTTE attacks, which had largely been confined to military and political targets during the ceasefire period, may now increasingly target civilians as in earlier stages of a conflict.

Government offensive in the East

In December 2006, the Commander of the Army and other senior government officials expressed their plans to initially drive the LTTE out of the Eastern Province of Sri Lanka, and then use the full strength of the military to defeat the LTTE in the North of the country.[102] Among the reasons cited by the military for the offensives in the East were the need to "free the civilians in the area from the LTTE", who the military stated was firing artillery towards civilian settlements and were using 35,000 people as human shields.[138] These claims were later backed by the civilians who told reporters that they were held by force by the Tamil Tigers.[139] On November 7, 2006, in the midst of conflicting claims over 45 Tamil civilians were killed in what is known as the Vaharai bombing.

Victory monument at Karadiyanaru junction.

Subsequently, the Army began an offensive against the LTTE on December 8, 2006, in the Batticoloa district with the objective of taking Vakarai, the principle stronghold of the LTTE in the East,[140] but temporarily aborted it after a week of fighting due to the large number of civilians in the area and the difficulty in conducting combat operations due to the ongoing Monsoon rain.[141] Over the next few weeks, an estimated 20,000 civilians fled from Vaakare to Government controlled areas fearing the imminent assault. The Army launched a new offensive in mid January, and Vaakarr fell to the advancing troops on January 19, 2007. While the offensive in the East was ongoing, the LTTE and others accused the government of murdering 15 civilians in the Padahuthurai bombing on January 2, 2007, when the Sri Lanka Air Force bombed what they claimed to be rebel LTTE naval base in Illuppaikadavai in Northern Sri Lanka.[142][143] The Army launched assaults from three different directions, and the LTTE and Defence Spokesman Keheliya Rambukwella announced that "The people of Vaakare have been liberated from the clutches of the terrorists". The loss of Vaakare (Vakarai) has been predicted to cut off supply routes of the northern Tigers to their cadres in the East, thus weakening the Tigers' already diminishing grip on the East.[144][145]

As the military offensive was ongoing, the LTTE continued to carry out attacks against civilians in government held territory. On April 1, 2007, the Sri Lankan military accused the LTTE of killing six Sinhalese tsunami aid workers in the Eastern district of Batticaloa.[146][147] The next day, suspected LTTE cadres set off a bomb aboard a civilian bus in Ampara which killed seventeen people, including three children.[148][149]

Troops mostly operating in small groups of Special Forces and Commando units began a new operation in February[150] to clear the last remaining LTTE cadres from the Eastern Province. As part of the operation, troops captured the key LTTE base in Gokatugolla (Kokkadicholai) on March 28,[151] and the strategic A5 highway on April 12, bringing the entire highway under government control for the first time in 15 years.[152] This meant the LTTE's presence in the East was reduced to a 140 square kilometer pocket of jungle land in the Thoppigala area north-west of Madakalapuva (Batticaloa). The offensive had left nine soldiers dead along with 184 Tiger cadres, with no civilian casualties, according to military estimates.[150]

Government offensive in the North. Targeting LTTE leadership

Sporadic fighting in the North had been going on for months, but the intensity of the clashes increased after September 2007. During clashes in the Forward Defence Lines, separating their forces, both sides exchanged heavy artillery fire, after which military incursions followed.[153] By December 22, 2007, the LTTE defences at Uyilankulama and Thampanai were lost to advancing troops of the Sri Lanka Army.[154] On December 29, 2007, the Army overran the LTTE stronghold at Parappakandal, in Mannar District.[155][156]

In an interview with the Sunday Observer the Army Commander Lt. Gen. Sarath Fonseka said that the Army had occupied the LTTE's Forward Defence Lines and surrounded the Wanni LTTE bases from all directions. He also said that there were around 3,000 Tigers remaining and that the military intended to annihilate them within the first six months of the next year.[157] A day later there were less optimistic statements by Army, Air Force and Navy Commanders. The Army was to face an estimated 5,000 Tiger cadres in the Wanni. The Commander of the Army intended to shift the current battles in the Forward Defence Lines to a decisive phase in August 2008. In the Commanders' view, it was quite possible to defeat the LTTE in 2008.[158]

The military of Sri Lanka claimed that the leader of the LTTE, Velupillai Prabhakaran, was seriously injured during air strikes carried out by the Sri Lanka Air Force on a bunker complex in Jayanthinagar on November 26, 2007.[159] Earlier, on November 2, 2007, S. P. Thamilselvan, who was the head of the rebels' political wing, was killed during another government air raid.[160] The Sri Lanka Air Force openly vowed to destroy the entire leadership of the LTTE.[158] On January 5, 2008, Colonel Charles, Head of LTTE Military Intelligence, was killed in a claymore mine ambush by a suspected Sri Lanka Army Deep Penetration Unit, according to a pro-LTTE website.[161][162]

Abrogation of ceasefire agreement

Defense secretary Gotabhaya Rajapaksa urged the government to abandon the ceasefire agreement on December 29, 2007,[163] and on January 2, 2008, the Sri Lankan government officially did so.[164] Between February 2002 to May 2007, Sri Lanka Monitoring Mission had documented 3,830 ceasefire violations by the LTTE, with respect to 351 by the security forces.[4] From May 2007, the SLMM ceased making determinations on ceasefire violations. Thus the government stated there was no need for a ceasefire anymore. Donor countries such as the United States,[165] Canada,[166] and Norway,[167] as well as India,[168] The LTTE formally responded that since the government had unilaterally withdrawn from the ceasefire agreement without any justification and that they were prepared to continue to honour the agreement, the international community ought to immediately remove the bans it had placed on the LTTE.[169][170]

The government then attempted to open a third front along the Muhamalai Forward Defence Line. After an initial setback on April 23,[171] the Sri Lankan Army advanced rapidly, capturing the town of Adampan on May 9,[172] Vidattaltivu on July 16,[173] and Iluppaikkadavai on July 20.[174]

On July 21, 2008, the LTTE announced that it would be declaring a unilateral ceasefire from July 28 to August 4, to coincide with the 15th summit of the heads of state of SAARC to be held in Colombo.[175] However, the government of Sri Lanka dismissed the LTTE's offer as needless and treacherous.[176]

Significant military gains by the government

On August 2, 2008, Vellankulam town, the LTTE's last stronghold in Mannar District, fell to the advancing SLA troops, completing the eight-month effort to recapture the district.[177] The Army followed this up by taking control of Mallavi on September 2, following weeks of heavy military confrontation.[178] The LTTE countered with a surprise attack on the Vavuniya air base on September 9, in which both sides claimed victory.[179][180][181]

From Mannar, the Army had entered Kilinochchi District, the last stronghold of the LTTE, at the end of July,[182] with the intention of taking Kilinochchi before the end of the year. On October 3, 2008, a UN aid convoy managed to unload all its cargo in Kilinochchi District and described Kilinochchi town as having been nearly abandoned,[183] but the LTTE were able to kill retired Major General Janaka Perera along with 26 other victims in a suicide blast on October 6.[184]

On October 17, 2008, SLA troops cut off the Mannar-Poonaryn (A-32) road north of Nachchikuda, the main remaining Sea Tiger stronghold on the northwestern coast of the island, thus effectively encircling it.[185] They began their assault on October 28 and captured it the next day.[186][187] After that the Army Task Force 1 continued their advance towards Pooneryn and captured Kiranchchi, Palavi, Veravil, Valaipadu and Devil's Point.[188][189] On November 15, 2008, troops of the Army Task Force 1 entered the strategically important Tamil Tiger stronghold of Pooneryn.[190][191] Simultaneously, the newly created Army Task Force 3 was introduced into the area of Mankulam with the objective of engaging the LTTE cadres in a new battlefront towards the east of the Jaffna–Kandy (A-9) road.[192] SLA troops captured Mankulam and the surrounding area on November 17, 2008.[193]

Meanwhile, the situation of more than 200,000 civilians who had been displaced in the latest round of fighting was turning into a humanitarian disaster; however, due to a number of reasons including doubts regarding the sincerity of the LTTE's negotiations, neither Western governments nor India intervened to broker a new ceasefire.[194]

Fall of Kilinochchi and subsequent events

The Sri Lankan Army began the attack on Kilinochchi on November 23, 2008. Troops were attacking rebels' defences from three directions.[195] However, the LTTE offered a stiff resistance, and the prolonged attack resulted in heavy casualties on both sides.[196]

Not until January 1, 2009, were SLA troops able to capture Paranthan, located to the north of Kilinochchi along the A-9 route. This isolated the southern periphery of the Elephant Pass LTTE foothold and also exposed the LTTE's main fortification at Kilinochchi.[197] This made the capture of Kilinochchi, which the rebels had used for over a decade as their de facto administrative capital, far simpler, and they were able to accomplish this on January 2. The loss of Killinochchi caused a substantial dent in the LTTE's image as a capable, ruthless terrorist group,[198] and observers forecasted the LTTE was likely to collapse before long under unbearable military pressure on multiple fronts.[199]

The Tigers quickly abandoned their positions on the Jaffna peninsula to make a last stand in the jungles of Mullaitivu, their last main base.[200] The entire Jaffna peninsula was captured by the Sri Lanka Army by January 14, 2009.[201] However, they were unable to hold out for long, and on January 25, SLA troops captured Mullaitivu.[202][203] The last Sea Tiger base in Chalai was next to fall on February 5, reducing the territory under rebel control to less than some 200 km2.[204]

This stage of the war was marked by increased brutality against civilians and rapidly mounting civilian casualties. On February 19, 2009, Human Rights Watch issued a report accusing the Sri Lankan army of "slaughtering" the civilians during indiscriminate artillery attacks (including repeated shelling of hospitals) and calling on the Sri Lankan government to end its policy of "detaining displaced persons" in military-controlled internment camps. Human Rights Watch also urged the Tamil Tigers to permit trapped civilians to leave the war zone and to "stop shooting at those who try to flee".[205] The UN was also concerned over the condition of internally displaced persons and estimated that some 200,000 people were being squeezed into a narrow 14 square kilometre patch of land on the coast in Vanni, which the government had declared the 'no-fire zone'.[206]

On February 20, 2009, two LTTE planes on a suicide mission attacked the Sri Lankan capital Colombo, killing 2 and wounding 45, but both planes were shot down by the Sri Lankan Air Force before they could damage the intended targets which were the Army Headquarters and the main Air Force base.[207][208]

By late March, the Tamil Tigers controlled only one square kilometre outside the no-fire zone. down from about 15,000 km2 a mere three years previous. Political pressure was placed on Mahinda Rajapaksa to find a political solution to the conflict and he called for a meeting with parliamentarians allied with the Tigers, but they refused until the government resolved the humanitarian crisis faced by civilians trapped in the fighting.[209]

Fighting in the 'no-fire zone'

SLA troops were able to push the Tamil Tigers into the no-fire zone set up for civilians.[210][211] The LTTE then built a 3-kilometre (2 mi) long bund in the no-fire zone, trapping over 30,000 civilians, but the SLA was able to destroy this.[212][213]

On April 21, Sri Lankan troops launched an assault, targeting LTTE leader, Vellupillai Prabhakaran. At the same time, a mass Tamil exodus from the 'no-fire zone' was underway.[214][215] The next day, two senior LTTE members (LTTE media co-ordinator Velayuthan Thayanithi, alias Daya Master, and a top interpreter Kumar Pancharathnam, alias George)[216] surrendered to the advancing Sri Lankan army. This came as "a rude shock" and a major setback for the rebel leadership.[217] When asked why they had surrendered, both men stressed that rebels were shooting at the civilians and preventing them from escaping from the 'no-fire zone' to safety in government-controlled areas. They also alleged that the LTTE were still abducting and conscripting children as young as 14 years old, and would fire at anyone who tried to resist.[218][219]

By April 25, the area under the LTTE was reduced to 10 km2. While the Tamil exodus from the 'no-fire zone' continued, the UN estimated that around 6,500 civilians may have been killed and another 14,000 wounded between January 2009 and April 2009.[220][221] The BBC reported that the land recaptured by the army from the rebels was totally depopulated and utterly devastated.[222]

As fighting continued, a group of independent United Nations experts called on the Human Rights Council to urgently set up an international inquiry to address the “critical” situation in Sri Lanka amid fighting between the Army and Tamil rebels. According to the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), over 196,000 people fled the conflict zone, a shrinking pocket of land on the north-east coastline, where clashes continued between government troops and the LTTE, while at least 50,000 people were still trapped there.[223] A UN spokesman in Colombo, Gordon Weiss, said more than 100 children died during the "large-scale killing of civilians" and described the situation in northern Sri Lanka as a "bloodbath".[224] UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon said he was appalled at the killing of hundreds of Sri Lankan civilians caught in the middle of hostilities between the army and separatist Tamil rebels over the weekend. He voiced deep concern over the continued use of heavy weapons in the conflict zone, but also stressed that the “reckless disrespect shown by the LTTE for the safety of civilians has led to thousands of people remaining trapped in the area”.[225]

On May 16, 2009, Sri Lankan troops broke through LTTE defences and captured the last section of coastline held by Tamil Tiger rebels. The army reported it was set to "clear" remaining rebel-held land within days.[226][227] Later the military claimed, allegedly citing intercepted LTTE communication, that rebels were preparing for a mass suicide after being effectively cut-off of escape routes.[228] Some rebels have been reported to be blowing themselves up.[229]

As many as 20,000 civilians may have been killed in the no-fire zone,[230] both as a result of the Tigers as well as shelling by the Sri Lankan military, with up to 1,000 killed each day in the final two weeks of the war.[231] However, the UN says it has no confirmed estimates of civilian casualties, with one UN officially calling it a "dangerous extrapolation",[232] and the Sri Lankan government disputed the number.[233] A number of deaths were reported by five doctors who worked in the no-fire zone, but they recanted their initial reports, stating that the casualty figures they released were exaggerated and were handed to them by the LTTE.[234] They further stated that between January 2009 and the end of the war in May 2009 some 600–700 civilians were killed and twice that number had been injured. This contradicts the figures issued by international aid agencies: the United Nations says that 6,500 were killed between late January and early April; and the Red Cross evacuated 14,000 sick and injured people between mid-February and mid-May.[234]

End of the war

May 16: Sri Lanka declares victory

Addressing the G11 summit in Jordan, President Mahinda Rajapaksa stated "my government, with the total commitment of our armed forces, has in an unprecedented humanitarian operation finally defeated the LTTE militarily".[235] Sri Lankan Commander of the Army Sarath Fonseka also declared victory over LTTE.[236] Sri Lankan troops raced to clear the last LTTE pockets of resistance. As the last LTTE strongpoints crumbled, Sri Lankan troops killed 70 rebels attempting to escape by boat.[237] The whereabouts of LTTE leader Vellupillai Prabhakaran and other major rebel leaders were not certain.

May 17: Tigers admit defeat

The LTTE finally admitted defeat on May 17, 2009, with the rebels' chief of international relations, Selvarasa Pathmanathan, stating on the website that "This battle has reached its bitter end ... We have decided to silence our guns. Our only regrets are for the lives lost and that we could not hold out for longer".[26][238]

May 18: First claim of Prabhakaran's death

The Sri Lankan armed forces claimed that the leader of the LTTE, Velupillai Prabhakaran, was killed in the morning of May 18, 2009 while he was trying to flee the conflict zone in an ambulance. The announcement on state television came shortly after the military said it had surrounded Prabhakaran in a tiny patch of jungle in the north-east. The Daily Telegraph wrote that, according to Sri Lankan TV, Prabhakaran was "... killed in a rocket-propelled grenade attack as he tried to escape the war zone in an Ambulance with his closest aides. Colonel Soosai, the leader of his "Sea Tigers" navy, and Pottu Amman, his intelligence chief were also killed in the attack."[239]

The head of the Sri Lankan army, General Sarath Fonseka, said the military had defeated the rebels and "liberated the entire country". Military spokesman Brigadier Udaya Nanayakkara stated 250 Tamil Tigers, who were hiding and fighting from within the no fire zone,[240] were killed overnight.[241]

May 19: President addresses the Parliament and Prabhakaran is dead

At 9:00 a.m. on 19 May 2009 President Mahinda Rajapaksa delivered a victory address to the Parliament and declared that Sri Lanka is liberated from terrorism.[242][243] Around 9:30 a.m. troops attached to Task Force VIII of Sri Lanka Army, reported to its commander, Colonel G.V. Ravipriya that a body similar to Velupillai Prabhakaran has been found among the mangroves in Nandikadal lagoon.[244] It was identified by the officer. At 12:15 p.m. Army Commander Sarath Fonseka officially announced Prabhakaran's death, through the State television ITN. At around 1:00 p.m. his body was shown in Swarnavahini for the first time.[245] Prabakaran's identity was confirmed by Karuna Amman, his former confidant, and through DNA testing against his son's genetic material who had been killed earlier by the Sri Lanka Military.[246] However, LTTE Chief of international relations, Selvarasa Pathmanathan on the same day claimed that "Our beloved leader is alive and safe."[247] But on 24 May 2009, he admitted the death of Prabhakaran, retracting the previos statement.[248]


Sri Lanka

United National Party leader Ranil Wickremasinghe, through a telephone call, congratulated President Mahinda Rajapaksa and the state's security forces on 18 May 2009 for their victory over the LTTE.[249] In a press release issued that day, Roman Catholic Archbishop Oswald Gomis said:

I congratulate His Excellency President Mahinda Rajapakse, President of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, for his very courageous leadership and thank the Chiefs of the Defense outfit who supported him with deep commitment and self-sacrifice. I also offer my deepest sympathies to those who laid down their lives in battle and those innocent civilians killed, trapped in war.

In a sense we could say that we have won the battle but the war is not ended. The war would end only on the day that we grow in nationhood realizing that we are all one people in one country with equal right. We have to realize the fact that we are a multi-ethnic, multi-religious and multi-cultural community. As such we are now left with the great task of nation- building forgetting our ethnic, political and religious differences.

It is imperative that there be a political formula that will inspire confidence and promote a sense of belonging among the minority groups in the country. We have to leave the sad and bitter memories of the past three decades and look positively and optimistically towards the future in hope. All of us have to share the blame for our division and forgive each other. We should have the humility and wisdom to learn from the sad experiences of that past.

It is then, and only then, that we could build nationhood that will bring true peace and prosperity to our beloved country – Sri Lanka. Let us always remember that united we will flourish but divided we will perish.[250]

With the announced end of the war, Sri Lanka's stock exchange registered its sixth highest percentage gain ever.[251]

International organisations

 United Nations – At a press conference in Geneva on 19 May 2009, United Nations Secretary General Ban Ki-moon said, "I am relieved by the conclusion of the military operation, but I am deeply troubled by the loss of so many civilian lives. The task now facing the people of Sri Lanka is immense and requires all hands. It is most important that every effort be undertaken to begin a process of healing and national reconciliation. I listened very carefully to what President Rajapaksa said in his address to Parliament today. The legitimate concerns and aspirations of the Tamil people and other minorities must be fully addressed." The Secretary General went on to announce his upcoming visit to the wartorn region.[252]

 European Union – The European Council met in Brussels on 18 May 2009, during which it adopted a statement calling on "the Government of Sri Lanka urgently to proceed towards a comprehensive political process" and "the President of Sri Lanka to outline a clear process leading to a fully inclusive political solution, based on consent, equality and the rule of law". The Council stated that such moves are the only way toward long-term security, post-conflict reconstruction and prosperity in Sri Lanka. The statement concluded: "The EU continues to call for appropriate action by the United Nations Human Rights Council."[253] The Times reported that EU member nations sold arms to the Sri Lankan government in spite of fears of human rights abuses.[254]

Other countries

 Canada – Minister of Foreign Affairs Lawrence Cannon stated "Canadians are very concerned about the aftermath of the military action in Sri Lanka and the appalling effect it has had on civilians. This terrible, decades-long war has inflicted untold devastation and heartbreak on Sri Lankans. The Government of Canada wishes to express its concerns about civilian casualties, and to convey its condolences to the people of Sri Lanka and those around the world who have lost friends and family members in this horrific conflict.

Canada urges the Government of Sri Lanka to begin to find a long-term political solution that responds to the legitimate aspirations of all the people of Sri Lanka. Canada is prepared to assist Sri Lankan efforts to find political reconciliation and a lasting peace."[255]

 India – The Indian Ministry of External Affairs issued a statement on 18 May 2009 saying "In a telephone conversation with External Affairs Minister Shri Pranab Mukherjee earlier today, the President of Sri Lanka confirmed that armed resistance by the LTTE has come to an end and that LTTE leader Velupillai Prabhakaran is dead.

India will work with the people and Government of Sri Lanka to provide relief to those affected by the tragic conflict, and to rapidly rehabilitate all those who have been displaced, bringing their lives to normalcy as soon as possible.

It is our view that as the conventional conflict in Sri Lanka comes to an end, this is the moment when the root causes of conflict in Sri Lanka can be addressed. This would include political steps towards the effective devolution of power within the Sri Lankan Constitution so that Sri Lankans of all communities, including the Tamils, can feel at home and lead lives of dignity of their own free will."[256]

 IranForeign Minister of the Islamic Republic of Iran Manouchehr Mottaki telephoned Foreign Minister Rohitha Bogollagama on 19 May 2009 to extend his warm congratulations to the President, the Foreign Minister and the Government of Sri Lanka on the success achieved by Sri Lanka in defeating LTTE terrorism.

"Iran has maintained close relations with Sri Lanka and has always condemned terrorism and, consistently upheld the sovereignty and the territorial integrity of Sri Lanka". He states that he was speaking on behalf of the President of Iran who has conveyed his best wishes to Sri Lanka and will personally speak to the President of Sri Lanka at a mutually convenient time. Iran has also offered assistance through the Red Crescent, for the emergency relief operations for the IDPs in the North.[257]

 Japan – The Japanese premier's office released a statement of Prime Minister Taro Aso's telephone conversation with Sri Lankan President Mahinda Rajapakse. The statement said the Prime Minister "welcomed the end of the civil war between the Sri Lankan government and the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam", and that "it is now important to help internally displaced people and their resettlement as well as to start showing improvement in the political process towards peace-building".

It also outlined that poverty was one of the factors that create fertile ground for terrorism and said he would like to see Sri Lanka build infrastructure, adding that Japan would support Sri Lanka's efforts as much as possible.[258]

 Maldives – Both President Mohamed Nasheed and Vice-president Mohammed Waheed Hassan congratulated the government and people of Sri Lanka for their tremendous success in effecting an end to the decades-old conflict in their country.

The President reaffirmed continued their support and solidarity with the government and people of Sri Lanka, as Sri Lanka celebrates as a unified nation. “I take this opportunity to express on behalf of the Government and the people of Maldives our sincerest best wishes to Your Excellency and the people of Sri Lanka”.[259]

”This momentous occasion in Sri Lanka’s history will pave the way towards realising greater equality and justice for all Sri Lankans.”[260]

 NorwayNorwegian Foreign Minister Jonas Gahr Store said in a statement "our thoughts go to all who have lost relatives and loved ones in the war. We must cooperate to aid the victims. People in the refugee camps must quickly be allowed to return home."

Store also said the situation in the refugee camps for internally displaced people must be improved, in line with demands made by the United Nations.[261]

 Pakistan – Minister of State for Foreign Affairs of Pakistan, Nawabzada Malik Amad Khan telephoned Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs of Sri Lanka, Hussein A. Bhaila congratulating Sri Lanka's "great victory over terrorism".

The Pakistani State Minister stated that Pakistan has always been a steadfast friend of Sri Lanka and strongly supported the country's unity, sovereignty and territorial integrity and re-affirmed his government's continued cooperation with Sri Lanka in countering terrorism. He requested the Deputy Minister to convey his good wishes and felicitations to President Mahinda Rajapaksa and Foreign Minister, Rohitha Bogollagama.[262]

 Philippines – A Department of Foreign Affairs press release, dated 22 May 2009: "welcomes the return of law and order in northern Sri Lanka and supports the Government of Sri Lanka’s search for a comprehensive, fair, and lasting political solution to the problems faced by its Tamil minority.

The Philippines hopes that a lasting political solution will be crafted in order that the Tamil minority share in the fruits of peace in their country."[263]

 Russia – "The government of Russia has extended warmest congratulations to the president and the government of Sri Lanka on the success achieved by the island nation in defeating LTTE (Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam) terrorism," the Department of Government Information said in a statement.

Officials from Sri Lanka's Foreign Ministry said Russia has said that it supports the fight of the Sri Lankan government against terrorism and separatism.

Russia hoped that the end to the bloody armed conflict that lasted in Sri Lanka for more than a quarter century will be a guarantee of the establishment of an enduring peace, security and stability in the country.[264]

 South Africa – The South African government released a statement through Deputy International Relations and Cooperation Minister Ehrahim Ebrahim regarding the end of military operations in Sri Lanka.

“The South African government expresses grave regret at the manner in which the military offensive was conducted and urges the United Nations Human Rights Commission to urgently investigate possible violations of international human rights law and contraventions of the Geneva Convention.”, said Ebrahim. The statement also called for immediate humanitarian aid and international media access to the areas affected.

“The South African government has noted the conciliatory tone in the speech of President Mahinda Rajapaksa on 19 May 2009 and express our hope that the end of the military campaign will result in a peaceful dialogue with all minorities to address their long standing grievances. We will continue to support any efforts aimed at bringing about peace and reconciliation between the parties”[265]

 Singapore – The Singapore Ministry of Foreign Affairs issued the following statement 29 May 2009 after Minister for Foreign Affairs George Yeo met Sri Lankan Minister of Foreign Affairs Rohitha Bogollagama at the Shangri-La Dialogue held in Singapore: "Singapore is relieved to see an end to the long-standing conflict in Sri Lanka. The conflict had taken a great toll on the country. Not only have tens of thousands of lives been lost, but hundreds of thousands of Sri Lankan civilians have also been displaced from their homes. The final cessation of military operations by the Sri Lankan Government provides a short window of opportunity to close a sad chapter of history and quickly begin a process of genuine national healing and reconciliation. A long term agreement taking into full consideration the interests of all communities within Sri Lanka must be forged and implemented to ensure a lasting peace."[266]

George Yeo congratulated Rohitha Bogollagama and the Sri Lankan government over the victory of LTTE terrorists.[267]

 Switzerland – In a press statement dated 19 May 2009, Switzerland's government welcomed the end of the armed conflict. However, Switzerland "regrets that international humanitarian law has been violated and appeals to all parties to comply with and to ensure respect for international regulations and obligations in all circumstances."

"Switzerland calls on all parties to refrain from incitement to hatred and to work towards reconciliation by means of unilateral or jointly agreed measures. All parties and groupings as well as members of the diaspora should work openly and in conjunction with international institutions to initiate a reconciliation process and a sustainable solution in the framework of a political dialogue."[268]

 Turkey – The president of Sri Lanka, Mahinda Rajapaksa, telephoned the president of Turkey, Abdullah Gül. The conversation was released by the Turkish Presidency Media Center. The Sri Lankan president informed Gül about the recent achievements in the fight against terrorism. President Gül stated that he was pleased with the recent events and Turkey was ready to provide humanitarian aid, in the telephone conversation.[269]

 United KingdomForeign Secretary David Miliband made the following written statement to the House of Commons on 19 May 2009: "On 19 May, the Sri Lankan President formally announced that on 18 May military forces had retaken all the territory once held by the LTTE and that they had captured or killed the senior leadership of that organisation. Many Sri Lankans of all communities, Sinhalese, Tamil and Muslim, will be relieved that the long and brutal conflict may at last be over. Sri Lanka has before it an historic opportunity to resolve the underlying causes of the conflict and ensure a lasting peace. We must continue to work with Sri Lanka’s Government and all its communities to ensure that this opportunity is taken and that it leads to a sustainable end to the conflict. The continuing focus of this Government’s activity over the coming days and weeks, will be to work with international partners in encouraging the Sri Lankan Government to devote as much energy to winning the peace as it did to winning the war."[270]

Lord Malloch Brown, the Minister of State Foreign and Commonwealth office in UK said, in the House of Lords, "Indeed, in our initial contacts with the president, we congratulated him on finishing of a brutal 26-year war, which was instigated by the Tamil Tigers-a terrorist group" replying to Lord Naseby who raised the matter in the House of Lords. Agreeing with Lord Naseby, Lord Malloch Brown said, "the political solution to this must come from inside Sri Lanka from a process set up and led by President Rajapaksa."

Speaking further, Brown said, "But we also made it extremely clear to him that, whether or not that victory would be seen as the opening of a new and happier chapter in Sri Lanka depended on whether he could now go that next step and show the statesmanship to find a political as well as humanitarian solution to this community's issues."

He further said, "On 17 May, the Prime Minister announced an additional œ5 million in humanitarian aid for Sri Lanka, taking the total to œ12.5 million since September 2008." Speaking before him Lord Naseby said, "My Lords, have Her Majesty's Government congratulated the Sri Lankan Government on defeating the Tamil Tigers and bringing peace to the country? On the international front, is it Her Majesty's Government's policy primarily to tackle the resettlement of the 250,000 Tamils and the 100,000 Muslims who were ethnically cleansed from Jaffna, or is it to continue to lecture that there should be a constitutional settlement, which really rests with the Parliament of Sri Lanka?"[271]

 United States – At a press conference in Washington, D.C., on 18 May 2009, United States Department of State spokesman Ian Kelly said: "The Department of State welcomes the fact that the fighting has ended, and we are relieved that the immense loss of life and killing of innocent civilians appears to be over. This is an opportunity for Sri Lanka to turn the page on its past and build a Sri Lanka rooted in democracy, tolerance, and respect for human rights. Now is the time for the government to engage the Tamils, Sinhalese, and other Sri Lankans to create a political arrangement that promotes and protects the rights of all Sri Lankans.

It is also vital for the government to provide for the needs of the 280,000 civilians now living in relief camps. Providing food, water, shelter, basic health care, and sanitation, as well as expediting their return to their homes should be a top priority for the government."[272]

The Sri Lankan defence ministry said that US Ambassador to Sri Lanka Robert O. Blake, Jr., called Foreign Minister Rohitha Bogollagama on 18 May 2009 regarding humanitarian aid to displaced persons and reconciliation with the Tamil people.[273]

 Vietnam – On 21 May 2009, Foreign Affairs Ministry spokesman Le Dung released the following statement in response to journalist inquiries:

"Vietnam welcomes the recent victory of the Government and people of Sri Lanka. This victory will create favorable conditions for Sri Lanka to concentrate on the cause of national construction and development, contributing to peace, stability and development in the region."[274][275]

Combat after May 18th 2009

  • 19 May 2009 – 3 LTTE cadre killed by the Sri Lankan Army at Kachikudichchiaru, Ampara.[276]
  • 20 May 2009 - 5 LTTE cadre killed by the Sri Lankan Army near Periyapillumalai area.[276]
  • 21 May 2009 - 10 LTTE cadre killed by the Sri Lankan Army in the Kadawana jungle area.[277]
  • 27 May 2009 - 11 LTTE cadre killed by the Sri Lankan Army at Kalavanchchikudi in the Batticaloa area. Five T-56 assault rifles, twenty claymore mines (15 kg each), two hand grenades, three anti-personnel mines and medical items were reported recovered by military sources.[278]
  • 5 June 2009 - Special Task Force (STF) personnel while conducting search and clear operation in Darampalawa area in Ampara confronted with a group of LTTE cadre and recovered two bodies along with numerous military items.[279]
  • 5 August 2009 - Selvarasa Pathmanathan, the new leader of LTTE was arrested by a Sri Lankan military intelligence unit, with the collaboration of local authorities, in the Tune Hotel, Downtown Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia and brought into Sri Lanaka.[280]

Cost of war

Shelter built from tarp and sticks. Pictured are displaced persons from the civil war in Sri Lanka


The Sri Lankan civil war was very costly, killing an estimated 80,000–100,000 people.[14] The deaths include 27,639 Tamil fighters, more than 23,327 Sri Lankan soldiers and policemen, 1,155 Indian soldiers, and tens of thousands of civilians. Secretary of Defence Ministry Gotabhaya Rajapaksa said on an interview with state television that 23,790 Sri Lankan military personnel were killed since 1981 (it was not specified if police or other non-armed forces personnel were included in this particular figure). From the August 2006 recapture of the Mavil Aru reservoir until the formal declaration of the cessation of hostilities (on May 18), 6261 Sri Lankan soldiers were killed and 29,551 were wounded.[281]

The Sri Lankan military estimates that up to 22,000 LTTE militants were killed in the last three years of the conflict.[282]

The final five months of the civil war saw the heaviest civilian casualties. The UN, based on credible witness evidence from aid agencies as well civilians evacuated from the Safe Zone by sea, estimated that 6,500 civilians were killed and another 14,000 injured between mid-January 2009, when the Safe Zone was first declared, and mid-April 2009.[283][284] There are no official casualty figures after this period but estimates of the death toll for the final four months of the civil war (mid-January to mid-May) range from 15,000 to 20,000.[285][286] A US State Department report has suggested that the actual casualty figures were probably much higher than the UN's estimates and that significant numbers of casualties were not recorded.[165] A former UN official has claimed that up to 40,000 civilians may have been killed in the final stages of the civil war.[287]

Economic cost

The total economic cost of the 26 year war is estimated at US$ 200 billion.[288] This is approximately 5 times the GDP of Sri Lanka in 2009. Sri Lanka had spent US$ 5.5 billion only on Eelam War IV, which saw the end of LTTE. Government had spent Rs. 295 billion to develop the Northern Province under the "Uthuru Wasanthaya" program after the end of war.[13]


A political solution

After the complete military defeat of the LTTE, President Mahinda Rajapaksa announced that the government is committed to a political solution, and for this purpose action would be taken based on the 13th Amendment to the Constitution.[289] Pro-LTTE political party Tamil National Alliance (TNA), also the largest political group representing Sri Lankan Tamil community, dropped its demand for a separate state, in favour of a federal solution.[29][30] There are ongoing bilateral talks between President Rajapaksa's UPFA government and the TNA, on a viable political solution and devolution of power.[290]

However, in an interview to Headlines Today, television channel from India Gotabaya Rajapaksa, Defense Secretary of Sri Lanka & brother of President Mahinda Rajapaksa trashed "the political solution talk", asserting, among other things, that it was "simply irrelevant" because "we have ended this terrorism" in Sri Lanka.[291][292]

Humanitarian Impact

Towards the end of the war, as Sri Lankan government forces advanced deeper into Tamil Tiger controlled areas, international concern grew for the fate of the 350,000 civilians trapped.[293] On 21 January 2009, the Sri Lankan military declared a 32 square kilometers (12.4 mi) Safe Zone located northwest of Puthukkudiviruppu, between the A35 Highway and the Chalai Lagoon. Sri Lankan Air Force aircraft dropped leaflets urging civilians to relocate to the safe zone and wait until the army could move them into safer locations. The Sri Lankan military promised not to fire into the area.[294] However, only small numbers of civilians actually crossed into the Safe Zone, and the Sri Lankan government, the United Nations, and Human rights organizations accused the LTTE of preventing civilians from leaving. The fighting eventually caused civilians to flee the safe zone to a narrow strip of land between Nanthi Kadal and the Indian Ocean. The Sri Lankan military declared a new 10-square-kilometer (3.9 sq mi) Safe Zone northwest of Mullativu on February 12. Over the next three months, the Sri Lankan military repeatedly attacked the Safe Zone with aircraft and artillery to destroy the last remnants of the Tamil Tigers trapped there. The Sri Lankan government claimed that it was trying to hit Tamil Tiger positions, and claimed that these raids started on February 15 and ended on April 19, the day before the Army breached Tamil Tiger defenses, and civilians started to pour out.[295] However, these attacks caused heavy damage.[296] Thousands of civilians were killed or injured, and the Tamil Tigers reportedly held many as human shields.[297] The final stages of the war created 300,000 internally displaced persons (IDPs) who were transferred to camps in Vavuniya District and detained there against their will.[298] This, together with the conditions inside the camps, has attracted much criticism from inside and outside Sri Lanka. The camps were surrounded by barbed wire, and internees attempting to escape were shot. The government has stated that it will release civilians from the camps once it completes a screening process to weed out Tamil Tigers hiding among civilians in the camps, as well as demining operations.[299] On 7 May 2009 the Sri Lankan government announced plans to resettle 80% of the IDPs by the end of 2009.[300] After the end of the civil war President Rajapaksa gave assurances to foreign diplomats that the bulk of the IDPs would be resettled in accordance with the 180 day plan.[301][302] By 28 April 2011, 96% (372,000) of the IDPs had been released or returned to their places of origin, with 18,000 still living in the camps.[303] The people awaiting resettlement are almost entirely (98%) from areas in Mullaitivu District, which is heavily contaminated with landmines. In June 2011, government claimed that all former female LTTE combatants were released.[304]


The continuous defeats of the LTTE had made its cadres abandon the outfit in large numbers. With the end of the hostilities, 11,664 LTTE members, including over 500 child soldiers surrendered to the Sri Lankan military. Among them were 1,601 females. Government took action to rehabilitate these carders under a "National Action Plan for the Re-integration of Ex-combatants". They were divided into 3 categores; hardcore, non-combatants, and those who were forcefully recruited (including child soldiers). 24 rehabilitation centres were set up in Jaffna, Batticaloa and Vavuniya. Among the apprehended carders, there had been about 700 hardcore members. Some of these cardres were integrated into State Intelligence Services to tackle the internal and external networks of LTTE.[305] By June 2006, government had released more than 7,000 cardres, and 4,301 remained.[13]

Land mines

The end of the war left past conflict zones of 2046sqkms heavily contaminated with approximately 1.6 million land mines. By November 2011, deminers employed by Sri Lankan army and 8 foreign funded agencies had cleared 1,912sqms leaving about 133sqkms yet to be cleared.[306]

Since the end of the war, more than 5,000 Tamil youths have been gathering at selected police stations in Eastern Province for interviews to join the police force as the government has called for interviews. The Sri Lankan government had planned to recruit 2,000 new police officers to the department, especially for the services in the northern region of the country.[307]


Tamil diaspora communities around the world protested the civilian casualties in Northern Province, Sri Lanka and the war in general. Active protests occurred in the major and/or capital cities of India,[308] Britain,[309] Canada,[310] Australia, Norway, Switzerland, Denmark, Germany and the United States. The collective objective of the protests was to persuade world national leaders to stop the civil war and bring a permanent ceasefire with an internationally coordinated diplomatic strategy.

War crimes

There are allegations that war crimes were committed by the Sri Lankan military and the rebel Tamil Tigers during the Sri Lankan Civil War, particularly during the final months of the conflict in 2009. The alleged war crimes include attacks on civilians and civilian buildings by both sides; executions of combatants and prisoners by both sides; enforced disappearances by the Sri Lankan military and paramilitary groups backed by them; acute shortages of food, medicine, and clean water for civilians trapped in the war zone; and child recruitment by the Tamil Tigers.[311][312]

A United Nations expert panel investigating violations of international human rights and humanitarian law during the final stages of the civil war found "credible allegations" which, if proven, indicated that war crimes and crimes against humanity were committed by the Sri Lankan military and the Tamil Tigers.[313][314][315] The panel has called on the UN Secretary General to conduct an independent international inquiry into the alleged violations of international law.[316][317] The Sri Lankan government has denied that its forces committed any war crimes and has strongly opposed any investigation. In a significant announcement in August 2011, the Sri Lankan Government has acknowledged the civilian casualties occurred in the final phase of the war.[318]

During a counter-insurgency seminar conducted by Sri Lanka Army in June 2011, Lawrence Smith - an attaché of the American embassy in Sri Lanka from 2008 revealed "...from what I was privileged to hear and to see, the offers to surrender that I am aware of seemed to come from the mouthpieces of the LTTE -- Nadesan, KP -- people who weren't and never had really demonstrated any control over the leadership or the combat power of the LTTE. So their offers were a bit suspect anyway, and they tended to vary in content hour by hour, day by day. I think we need to examine the credibility of those offers before we leap to conclusions that such offers were in fact real..." However the US State Department characterized the statement as "personal opinion".[319]

See also


  1. ^ a b "LTTE defeated; Sri Lanka liberated from terror". Ministry of Defence. 18 May 2009. Retrieved 18 May 2009. 
  2. ^ a b International Institute for Strategic Studies, Armed Conflicts Database.
  3. ^ Opposition leader rebutts [sic] Sri Lankan government claims.
  4. ^ a b "Humanitarian Operation - Factual Analysis, July 2006 - May 2009". Ministry of Defence (Sri Lanka). 1 August 2011. 
  5. ^ (PDF) Psychological Management of Combat Stress—A Study Based on Sri Lankan Combatants. Archived from the original on December 13, 2006. Retrieved 20 April 2008. 
  6. ^ "Sri Lanka Assessment 2007". Retrieved 17 May 2009. 
  7. ^ "Sri Lankan army deaths revealed". BBC News. May 22, 2009. Retrieved April 9, 2010. 
  8. ^ Finally, Sri Lanka to build memorial for Indian soldiers – Yahoo! India News.
  9. ^ "Sri Lanka Database – Casualties of Terrorist violence in Sri Lanka". Retrieved 30 May 2009. 
  10. ^ Eelam War IV: Imminent End.
  11. ^ Tamils mark 25-years of Tiger sacrifice Tamilnet .
  12. ^ 4073 LTTE cadres killed in ongoing battle.
  13. ^ a b c "Sri Lankan experience proves nothing is impossible". The Sunday Observer. 5 June 2011. Retrieved 5 June 2011. 
  14. ^ a b c "Up to 100,000 killed in Sri Lanka's civil war: UN". ABC Australia. 20 May 2009. 
  15. ^ "Homepage – 680News – ALL NEWS RADIO". 680News. 17 May 2009. Retrieved 30 May 2009. 
  16. ^ "Rebels admit defeat in Sri Lankan civil war | | The Detroit News". Retrieved 30 May 2009. 
  17. ^ See here for related references.
  18. ^ Tough stand taken on Sri Lanka The Sunday Leader, December 9, 2007
  19. ^ "Ceasefire raises Sri Lankan peace hopes". London: Guardian. February 22, 2002.,3604,655451,00.html. Retrieved April 9, 2010. 
  20. ^ "Monitors Say 4,000 Dead in Sri Lanka". Dillip Ganguly (Fox News). February 23, 2007.,4670,SriLanka,00.html. [dead link]
  21. ^ "Sri Lanka's war seen far from over". Amal Jayasinghe (AGENCE FRANCE-PRESSE). July 14, 2007. 
  22. ^ "Sri Lankan Government Finds Support From Buddhist Monks". Somini Sengupta (The New York Times). February 25, 2007. 
  23. ^ "Government takes policy decision to abrogate failed CFA". Ministry of Defence. 2 January 2008. Retrieved 2 January 2008. 
  24. ^ "Sri Lanka Navy destroys the 10th LTTE arms ship 1700 km off Dondra". Sri Lanka Navy. 8 October 2007. Retrieved 19 November 2007. 
  25. ^ Sri Lankan Forces Capture Last Major Rebel Base in Northeast, Bloomberg.
  26. ^ a b From correspondents in Colombo (May 17, 2009). "Tamil Tigers admit defeat in civil war after 37-year battle".,27574,25496902-401,00.html. Retrieved 17 May 2009. 
  27. ^ Sri Lanka News|Ministry of Defence – Sri Lanka. (2010-05-22). Retrieved on 2010-12-03.
  28. ^ [1][dead link]
  29. ^ a b Haviland, Charles (13 March 2010). "Sri Lanka Tamil party drops statehood demand". BBC. Retrieved 18 August 2011. 
  30. ^ a b Burke, Jason (14 March 2010). "Sri Lankan Tamils drop demand for separate independent homeland". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 18 August 2011. 
  31. ^ "Mr.J.R.Jayawardene on 'Sinhala Only and Tamil Also' in the Ceylon State Council". 
  32. ^ ch. 38.
  33. ^ Narayan Swamy, "Inside an Elusive Mind-Prabhakaran" Konark Publishers, New Delhi, 2003.
  34. ^ "Whirlpool of Violence, Sri Lanka: The Untold Story". Asia Times. 2002. 
  35. ^ Harrison, Frances (23 July 2003). "Twenty years on – riots that led to war". BBC News. Retrieved January 4, 2010. 
  36. ^ Jane's Information Group, Suicide terrorism: a global threat.
  37. ^ "Speaking truth to power:the human rights situation in Sri Lanka". Paxchristi. Retrieved 26 March 2006. 
  38. ^ Asia Times Who's behind the LTTE split?.
  39. ^ Weisman, Steven R. (5 June 1987). "India airlifts aid to tamil rebels". STEVEN R. WEISMAN (New York Times). Retrieved April 9, 2010. 
  40. ^ "Tamil rebels abduct 2 rivals, Sri Lankan military says". Associated Press. 12 December 2006. 
  41. ^ Balasingham, Adele. (2003) The Will to Freedom – An Inside View of Tamil Resistance. Fairmax Publishing Ltd, 2nd ed. ISBN 1-903679-03-6.
  42. ^ NorthEast Secretariat report on Human rights 1974–2004 (see Further Reading section).
  43. ^ Dissanayaka, T.D.S.A.: "War or Peace in Sri Lanka, Volume II", p. 332. Swastika (Pvt.) Ltd., 1998.
  44. ^ "Prabhakaran had Rajiv killed for being 'anti-Tamil'". Rediff. 31 August 2006. 
  45. ^ "26 sentenced to death for Rajiv Gandhi's assassination". Rediff. 31 August 2006. 
  46. ^ "LTTE regrets Rajiv assassination: Anton". 28 June 2006. 
  47. ^ "Tiger Apologizes for Rajiv Gandhi's Death". Associated Press via WTOP. 27 June 2006. 
  48. ^ "Tamil Nadu demands Tiger extradition". BBC. 16 April 2006. Retrieved 4 January 2010. 
  49. ^ Impose economic sanctions on Lanka.
  50. ^ [2].[dead link]
  51. ^ Speech by Neelan Tiruchelvam at the Debate on the Emergency.
  52. ^ "Sri Lanka". Human Rights Watch. 1990. Retrieved 7 August 2006. 
  53. ^ oct30_2005html_2.htm Fifteenth Anniversary of Muslim Expulsion From Jaffna, DBS Jeyaraj.
  54. ^ "Sri Lanka". Human Rights Watch. 1992. Retrieved 7 August 2006. 
  55. ^ Human Rights Watch, SRI LANKA Human Rights Developments.
  56. ^ a b "Sri Lanka Says It Has Sealed Rebel Stronghold". New York Times. November 24, 1995. Retrieved 9 March 2007. 
  57. ^ "Sri Lanka: displaced civilians killed in air strike". International Committee of the Red Cross. 11 July 1995. Retrieved 7 August 2006. 
  58. ^ "Sri Lankan army hails capture of Jaffna". CNN. December 5, 1995. Archived from the original on February 6, 2005. Retrieved 9 March 2007. 
  59. ^ a b "Sri Lanka". Human Rights Watch. 1997. Retrieved 7 August 2006. 
  60. ^ "Sixth anniversary of Unceasing Waves-III commemorated". Tamilnet. November 3, 2005. Retrieved 9 February 2009. 
  61. ^ "Chandrikare-elected President". The Tribune. December 23, 1999. Retrieved 7 August 2006. 
  62. ^ "Military debacle at Elephant Pass set to trigger political crisis in Sri Lanka". World Socialist Web Site. 25 April 2000. Retrieved 7 August 2006. 
  63. ^ "Tigers seize Elephant Pass". Sri Lanka Monitor. Retrieved 7 August 2006. 
  64. ^ "Norway role in Sri Lanka peace plan". Susannah Price (BBC News). February 1, 2000. Retrieved January 4, 2010. 
  65. ^ "Another LTTE offensive". Frontline. April 15–28, 2000. Retrieved 7 August 2006. 
  66. ^ a b c "Sri Lanka enters truce with rebels". BBC News. December 21, 2001. Retrieved January 4, 2010. 
  67. ^ "Sri Lanka rebels announce truce". BBC News. December 19, 2001. Retrieved January 4, 2010. 
  68. ^ "Sri Lanka seals truce deal". BBC News. February 22, 2002]. Retrieved January 4, 2010. 
  69. ^ "Colombo lifts ban on Tamil Tigers". BBC News. August 26, 2002. Retrieved January 4, 2010. 
  70. ^ "Upbeat opening for Sri Lanka talks". BBC News. September 16, 2002. Retrieved January 4, 2010. 
  71. ^ "Tamil Tigers call off peace talks". BBC News. April 21, 2003. Retrieved January 4, 2010. 
  72. ^ "Sri Lanka thrown into political crisis". BBC News. November 4, 2003. Retrieved January 4, 2010. 
  73. ^ "Sri Lanka Says Rebels Took Losses in Raids". New York Times. December 31, 2006. 
  74. ^ Sri Lanka peace secretariat report, 2005.
  75. ^ "Senior Sri Lanka minister killed". BBC News. August 13, 2005. Retrieved 13 August 2005. 
  76. ^ "How President decided on retaliation". The Sunday Times. April 30, 2006. 
  77. ^ Harrison, Frances (6 June 2008). "Sri Lanka's war turns on civilians". BBC News. Retrieved January 4, 2010. 
  78. ^ Deadly bus bombings hit Sri Lanka.
  79. ^ Huggler, Justin (January 13, 2006). "Sri Lanka bomb attack fuels fear of return to civil war". Justin Huggle (London: The Independent). Retrieved April 9, 2010. 
  80. ^ "Is the State complacent?". The Nation. Archived from the original on September 30, 2007. Retrieved 30 January 2007. 
  81. ^ "'Murder of five Tamil youths highlights need to end impunity' – Govt must protect witnesses to Trinco killings – HRW". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 30 January 2007. 
  82. ^ "Sri Lanka foes to 'curb violence'". BBC News. February 24, 2006. Retrieved January 4, 2010. 
  83. ^ "Sri Lanka violence leaves 16 dead". BBC News. April 12, 2006. Retrieved January 4, 2010. 
  84. ^ "Tamil Tigers harden talks stance". BBC News. April 17, 2006. Retrieved January 4, 2010. 
  85. ^ "EU ban on LTTE urged". BBC News. April 23, 2006. 
  86. ^ [3][dead link]
  87. ^ "'Eight die' in Sri Lanka violence". BBC News. April 24, 2006. Retrieved January 4, 2010. 
  88. ^ Luthra, Dumeetha (May 20, 2006). "Sri Lanka villagers flee massacre". BBC. Retrieved 16 August 2007. 
  89. ^ "Bomb targets Sri Lanka army chief". BBC News. April 25, 2006. Retrieved January 4, 2010. 
  90. ^ "European Union bans LTTE". Amit Baruah (Chennai, India: The Hindu). May 31, 2006. 
  91. ^ "Collapse of talks". Saroj Pathirana (BBC News). June 9, 2006. 
  92. ^ "Another family wiped out in Vankalai". 
  93. ^ "Details of few extra judicial claims" (PDF). 
  94. ^ "People terrorized after massacre of Tamil family". 
  95. ^ "Statement by women for democracy and human rights". 
  96. ^ "Country of origin information report– Sri Lanka". 
  97. ^ "Sri Lankan Combatants Rape Women to Terrorize". 
  98. ^ United States International Information Programs", United States Condemns Terrorist Attack on Sri Lankan Bus.
  99. ^ a b "Sri Lanka general killed in blast". BBC News. June 26, 2006. Retrieved January 4, 2010. 
  100. ^ "Press releases". Sri Lanka Monitoring Mission. Retrieved 7 August 2006. 
  101. ^ a b c "Sri Lanka forces attack reservoir". BBC News. August 6, 2006. Retrieved January 4, 2010. 
  102. ^ a b "Air Force jets hit LTTE targets". Sunil Jayasiri (The Daily Mirror). July 27, 2006. 
  103. ^ a b "Water war". B. Muralidhar Reddy (The Hindu). August 12, 2006. 
  104. ^ The Sunday Times Situation Report, Eelam war IV rages on several fronts.
  105. ^ Iqbal Athas, Jane's Defence Weekly, Full-scale fighting flares in Sri Lanka.
  106. ^ "Civilians die in Sri Lanka clash". BBC News. August 3, 2006. Retrieved January 4, 2010. 
  107. ^ a b "152 LTTE rebels killed in Sri Lanka". The Times of India. August 4, 2006. 
  108. ^ "34 killed as LTTE `overruns' Muttur town". B. Muralidhar Reddy (Chennai, India: The Hindu). August 4, 2006. 
  109. ^ "15 NGO workers killed". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 8 August 2006. Retrieved 30 January 2007. 
  110. ^ "Military 'killed Lanka aid staff'". BBC. August 30, 2006. Retrieved January 4, 2010. 
  111. ^ "Sri Lanka forces attack reservoir". BBC News. August 6, 2006. Retrieved January 4, 2010. 
  112. ^ Eminent Australian Jurist to Assist Human Rights Inquiry in Sri Lanka.
  113. ^ "At least 127 combatants killed in Lanka fighting: military". Chennai, India: The Hindu. August 12, 2006. [dead link]
  114. ^ "Lanka rebels destroy northern defenses, advance". One India. August 12, 2006. 
  115. ^ a b "Lanka's chilling 2006 timeline". PK Balachandran (Hindustan Times). December 30, 2006.,000500020002.htm. 
  116. ^ "Fighting rages in northern Sri Lanka in fourth week of hostilities". USA Today. August 15, 2006. 
  117. ^ "SLMM counted 19 Bodies". August 13, 2006. 
  118. ^ a b "Unicef: Bombed orphans were not Tamil Tigers". Mail and Guardian Online. August 15, 2006. 
  119. ^ Rica Roy & Anisa Khan (August 14, 2006). "Lanka blast: Pak envoy safe, 7 killed". NDTV. 
  120. ^ a b Sudha Ramachandran (September 22, 2006). "The Pakistani muscle behind Colombo". Asia Times. 
  121. ^ "Sri Lanka army battles rebels in northeast". Peter Apps (Reuters). September 12, 2006. 
  122. ^ a b "Sri Lanka: LTTE's moment of truth at Sampur – Update 101". Col R Hariharan (retd.) (South Asai Analysis Group). September 8, 2006. 
  123. ^ a b c "Sri Lankan army captures Sampur". B. Muralidhar Reddy (Chennai, India: The Hindu). September 5, 2006. 
  124. ^ a b "Fierce battles continue in Jaffna". B. Muralidhar Reddy (Chennai, India: The Hindu). September 12, 2006. 
  125. ^ "Sri Lanka Army captures Sampur". September 4, 2006. 
  126. ^ "LTTE admits defeat in Sampoor". BBC. September 4, 2006. 
  127. ^ "Sri Lankan military captures key rebel territory, Tigers vow to keep fighting". International Herald Tribune. September 3, 2006. 
  128. ^ "No repeat of Muhamalai, President warns; orders full probe into debacle". Poorna Rodrigo and Sunil Jayasiri (The Daily Mirror). October 18, 2006. 
  129. ^ "Bloodbath in Sri Lanka: At Least 100 Unarmed Sailors Dead". October 16, 2006. 
  130. ^ Luthra, Dumeetha (October 16, 2006). "Analysis: Sri Lanka military setbacks". BBC. Retrieved January 4, 2010. 
  131. ^ "Bloody Day in Sri Lanka: 103 Dead". Zaman Daily. October 17, 2006. 
  132. ^ "LTTE attack on Galle repulsed". B. Muralidhar Reddy (Chennai, India: The Hindu). October 19, 2006. 
  133. ^ "Sri Lanka – Tamil Tigers OK Talks With Sri Lanka: Tamil Tigers Agree to Unconditional Talks With Sri Lankan Government". BHARATHA MALLAWARACHI (Conflict and Religion). October 3, 2006. 
  134. ^ "Sri Lankan peace talks end in deadlock over road blockade". International Herald tribune. October 28, 2006. 
  135. ^ "Fear and loathing in south Sri Lanka after bus bombs". Buddhika Weerasinghe (Reuters). January 8, 2007. 
  136. ^ Media Center for National Security, The Government Condemns LTTE Terror Attacks on Civilians.
  137. ^ "Suspected suicide bomber attacks S. Lanka bus". Simon Gardner (Reuters). January 6, 2007. 
  138. ^ "Sri Lanka military vows to drive Tigers from east coast". Reuters. December 14, 2006. 
  139. ^ "Fleeing Tamil refugees describe being held by separatists as Sri Lanka shelled camps". International Herald Tribune. December 18, 2006. 
  140. ^ "Heavy fighting in Sri Lanka's restive east, 13 injured". Chennai, India: The Hindu. December 9, 2006. [dead link]
  141. ^ "3,000 Tamils Flee to Escape Fighting". GEMUNU AMARASINGHE (The Hindu). December 16, 2006. 
  142. ^ "Rebel base hit, says government". Retrieved 7 January 2006. [dead link]
  143. ^ "Press release on 29 April 2006 SUBJECT: Air strikes violate the Ceasefire Agreement" (PDF). SLMM. Retrieved 2 March 2007. 
  144. ^ "Tigers admit fall of Vakarai". Asian Tribune. January 20, 2007. 
  145. ^ "Sri Lanka Security forces captured LTTE controlled Vaharai". Asian Tribune. January 19, 2007. 
  146. ^ "Sri Lanka says rebels killed aid workers". Sydney Morning Herald. April 2, 2007. Retrieved 22 April 2007. 
  147. ^ "Tamil Tigers kill 6 civilian workers in Lanka". Times of India. 2 April 2007. Retrieved 22 April 2007. 
  148. ^ "Sri Lanka blast 'kills civilians'". BBC. 2 April 2007. Retrieved 22 April 2007. 
  149. ^ "Seventeen persons killed, over two dozens injured- Ampara [4th Lead"]. Ministry of Defence. 2 April 2007. Retrieved 22 April 2007. 
  150. ^ a b "Sri Lanka captures key highway in rebel territory". Radio Australia. 12 April 2007. Retrieved 22 April 2007. 
  151. ^ "Kokkadicholai LTTE base falls to SL Army". Ministry of Defence. 28 March 2007. Retrieved 22 April 2007. 
  152. ^ "SL Army Troops gain complete control over the A-5 Main Road". Ministry of Defence. 12 April 2007. Retrieved 22 April 2007. 
  153. ^ Anbarasan, Ethirajan (October 16, 2007). "Sri Lanka on brink of all-out war". BBC News. Retrieved 31 December 2007. 
  154. ^ "LTTE defences in Mannar and Vavuniya fall to army; terrorists on the run with soaring casualties". Ministry of Defence. December 22, 2007. Retrieved 31 December 2007. 
  155. ^ "SLA overruns LTTE stronghold: several LTTE leaders injured- Mannar". Ministry of Defence. 29 December 2007. Retrieved 31 December 2007. 
  156. ^ "33 terrorists killed, 38 wounded: SLA overruns LTTE stronghold- Mannar". Ministry of Defence. 30 December 2007. Retrieved 31 December 2007. 
  157. ^ "Wanni is surrounded on all prongs". Ministry of Defence. December 30, 2007. Retrieved 31 December 2007. 
  158. ^ a b "Forces' Chiefs predict Tiger extinction in 2008". Ministry of Defence. 31 December 2007. Retrieved 31 December 2007. 
  159. ^ "Prabhakaran injured in air attack". Ministry of Defence. December 19, 2007. Retrieved 26 December 2007. 
  160. ^ "Senior Tamil Tiger leader killed". BBC News. November 2, 2007. Retrieved 31 December 2007. 
  161. ^ "Tamil intelligence chief killed". BBC News. January 6, 2008. Retrieved 6 January 2008. 
  162. ^ "LTTE's Head of Military Intelligence killed in Claymore ambush". TamilNet. January 6, 2008. Retrieved 6 January 2008. 
  163. ^ "Ban LTTE, end truce". Daily News. December 29, 2007. 
  164. ^ "Government ends ceasefire with Tamil Tigers". Agence France Presse. January 2, 2008. 
  165. ^ a b "Government of Sri Lanka’s Withdrawal from Ceasefire Agreement". U.S. Department of State. January 3, 2008. 
  166. ^ "Statement on the possible escalation of violence in sri lanka". Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada. January 3, 2008. 
  167. ^ "Norway regrets the Government of Sri Lanka’s decision to terminate the 2002 ceasefire agreement". Ministry of Foreign Affairs. January 2, 2008. 
  168. ^ "In response to questions about Sri Lankan Government’s abrogation of Ceasefire Agreement of 2002, Official Spokesperson said:". Ministry of External Affairs, India. January 4, 2008. 
  169. ^ "Tamil Tigers in ceasefire appeal". BBC. January 10, 2008. Retrieved January 4, 2010. 
  170. ^ "LTTE requests Norway to continue facilitation, urges IC's support for Tamil rights". TamilNet. January 10, 2008. 
  171. ^ "Sources: Tigers' feint kills 100 Sri Lanka troops". CNN. April 23, 2008. 
  172. ^ "Army captures Adampan Town – Mannar front". Ministry of Defence. May 19, 2008. Retrieved 11 May 2008. 
  173. ^ "Vidattaltivu Liberated; terrorists suffer fatal blow". Ministry of Defence. July 16, 2008. Retrieved 16 July 2008. 
  174. ^ "Troops Liberate Illuppaikkadavai". Ministry of Defence. July 20, 2008. Retrieved 20 July 2008. 
  175. ^ Najmuddin, Jamila (July 22, 2008). "LTTE set to declare unilateral ceasefire". Daily Mirror. Archived from the original on July 22, 2008. Retrieved 22 July 2008. 
  176. ^ "LTTE's ceasefire: Public relations or more?". Rediff News. July 25, 2008. Archived from the original on 30 July 2008. Retrieved 4 August 2008. 
  177. ^ "Troops capture LTTE's last stronghold in Mannar District". Ministry of Defence. August 2, 2008. Retrieved 2 August 2008. 
  178. ^ "LTTE's strategic bastion Mallavi falls to security forces". Ministry of Defence. September 2, 2008. Retrieved 2 September 2008. 
  179. ^ "Security Forces crush major terror attack at Vavuniya". Ministry of Defence. September 9, 2008. Retrieved 9 September 2008. 
  180. ^ "Mission on Vanni SF HQ successful, Tiger aircrafts safe – LTTE". TamilNet. September 9, 2008. Retrieved 10 September 2008. 
  181. ^ "Sri Lanka jets attack rebel base". BBC News. September 10, 2008. Retrieved 10 September 2008. 
  182. ^ Gamini Gunaratna, Sri Lanka News Paper by (LLC)- Latest Hot News from Sri Lanka (1 August 2008). "Sri Lankan troops enter Tigers’ final frontier". Retrieved 17 May 2009. 
  183. ^ Natarajan, Swaminathan (October 10, 2008). "Civilians flee Tamil Tiger centre". BBC News. Retrieved 3 October 2008. 
  184. ^ "Suicide blast hits Sri Lanka town". BBC News. October 6, 2008. Retrieved 6 October 2008. 
  185. ^ "Troops encircle Nachchikudha; LTTE on the verge of losing Sea Tiger stronghold". Ministry of Defence. October 17, 2008. Retrieved 17 October 2008. 
  186. ^ "SLA crush LTTE defences: fall of Nachchikuda imminent". Ministry of Defence. October 28, 2008. Retrieved 28 October 2008. 
  187. ^ "Nachchikuda falls to troops – Kilinochchi". Ministry of Defence. October 29, 2008. Retrieved 29 October 2008. 
  188. ^ "Heavy fighting at Wanni fronts; Troops recover 9 LTTE bodies". Ministry of Defence. November 11, 2008. Retrieved 11 November 2008. 
  189. ^ "Tamil Tiger 'strong point taken'". BBC News. November 11, 2008. Retrieved 12 November 2008. 
  190. ^ Buerk, Roland (15 November 2008). "Sri Lanka army 'takes Tiger base'". BBC News. Retrieved 15 November 2008. 
  191. ^ "Mop up operations in progress in Pooneryn salient; Air Force comes to troops assistance". Ministry of Defence. November 15, 2008. Retrieved 16 November 2008. 
  192. ^ "Army Task Force 3 comes into action; pounds LTTE positions in Mankulam". Ministry of Defence. November 3, 2008. Retrieved 3 November 2008. 
  193. ^ "Troops overrun Mankulama: LTTE flee amidst heavy casualties- Mullaittivu". Ministry of Defence. November 17, 2008. Retrieved 22 November 2008. 
  194. ^ Anbarasan, Ethirajan (October 17, 2008). "West urged not to ignore Sri Lanka". BBC News. Retrieved 18 October 2008. 
  195. ^ "S Lanka attack on rebel 'capital'". BBC News. November 24, 2008. Retrieved 24 November 2008. 
  196. ^ "'Many dead' in Sri Lanka battles". BBC News. December 17, 2008. Retrieved 26 December 2008. 
  197. ^ "Paranthan LTTE garrison captured: Troops make headway at Wanni battles". Ministry of Defence. January 1, 2009. Retrieved 6 January 2009. 
  198. ^ "The fall of rebel headquarters: what does it hold for Sri Lanka?". 3 January 2009. Retrieved 17 May 2009. 
  199. ^ A blow to global terror.
  200. ^ "Army 'takes more Tiger territory'". BBC News. January 8, 2009. Retrieved 8 January 2009. 
  201. ^ "Sri Lankan Military Seizes Last Rebel Base on Jaffna Peninsula". 14 January 2009. Retrieved 17 May 2009. 
  202. ^ "Last Tamil Tiger bastion 'taken'". BBC News. January 25, 2009. Retrieved 25 January 2009. 
  203. ^ Somini Sepgupta (January 26, 2009). "Sri Lankan Troops Take Last Rebel Stronghold". New York Times. Retrieved 26 January 2009. 
  204. ^ "Army captures last sea tiger base & clears entire Visuamadu area". Ministry of Defence. February 5, 2009. Retrieved 5 February 2009. 
  205. ^ War on the Displaced: Sri Lankan Army and LTTE Abuses against Civilians in the Vanni, Human Rights Watch. February 19, 2009.
  206. ^ War UN relief chief concerned over physical condition of Sri Lankans trapped by clashes, United Nations. February 27, 2009.
  207. ^ "LTTE air power has collapsed: officials". 23 February 2009. Retrieved 17 May 2009. 
  208. ^ "Tamil Tiger planes raid Colombo". BBC. February 20, 2009. Retrieved 20 February 2009. 
  209. ^ Sri Lanka says final standoff with Tigers approaches.
  210. ^ "Troops unshackle LTTE grip on Puthukkudiyirippu: Over 250 terrorists killed". Ministry of Defence. April 5, 2009. Retrieved 5 April 2009. 
  211. ^ Ethirajan, Anbarasan (April 5, 2009). "Army 'routs Tigers in north-east'". BBC. Retrieved 5 April 2009. 
  212. ^ "World's largest hostage rescue mission becomes success; over 30,000 rescued". Ministry of Defence. April 20, 2009. Retrieved 20 April 2009. 
  213. ^ "Thousands flee Sri Lanka combat". BBC. April 20, 2009. Retrieved 20 April 2009. 
  214. ^ "Final assault begins as LTTE vows to fight on". The Times of India. April 22, 2009. Retrieved 22 April 2009. 
  215. ^ "Mass Tamil exodus from rebel area". BBC. April 21, 2009. Retrieved 22 April 2009. 
  216. ^ Daya Master and George seek refuge with Army.
  217. ^ "Two key Tamil Tigers 'surrender'". BBC news. April 22, 2009. Retrieved 24 April 2009. 
  218. ^ Natarajan, Swaminathan (6 April 2009). "World | South Asia | Sri Lanka civilians tell of war ordeal". BBC News. Retrieved 17 May 2009. 
  219. ^ Hidden Reality, interview with Daya Master and George
  220. ^ "Prabhakaran trapped in 10sqkm area:Lanka army". Times Of India. April 24, 2009. Retrieved 24 April 2009. 
  221. ^ "Sri Lanka rejects rebel ceasefire". BBC news. April 27, 2009. Retrieved 12 May 2009. 
  222. ^ Haviland, Charles (April 25, 2009). "Journey to Sri Lanka's frontline". BBC news. Retrieved 11 May 2009. 
  223. ^ "Urgent international scrutiny needed in Sri Lanka, say UN rights experts". UN. May 8, 2009. Retrieved 11 May 2009. 
  224. ^ "UN mourns Sri Lanka 'bloodbath'". BBC news. May 11, 2009. Retrieved 11 May 2009. 
  225. ^ "UN chief ‘appalled’ by weekend death toll in Sri Lankan conflict". UN. May 11, 2009. Retrieved 12 May 2009. 
  226. ^ "Sri Lanka army 'controls coast'". BBC news. May 16, 2009. Retrieved 16 May 2009. 
  227. ^ "Sri Lanka's coast free of terror; Army 58 Div links up with the 59 Div". Ministry of Defence. May 16, 2009. Retrieved 16 May 2009. 
  228. ^ "LTTE prepares for mass suicide; key terror leaders trapped". Ministry of Defence. May 16, 2009. Retrieved 16 May 2009. 
  229. ^ Chamberlain, Gethin; David Batthy (17 May 2009). "Tamil Tigers announce plan to surrender". The Observer (London). Retrieved 17 May 2009. 
  230. ^ "Slaughter in Sri Lanka". London: The Times. 29 May 2009. Retrieved 29 May 2009. 
  231. ^ "Sri Lanka fighting 'killed 20,000'". Al Jazeera. 29 May 2009. Retrieved 29 May 2009. 
  232. ^ Chamberlain, Gethin (May 29, 2009). "Sri Lanka death toll 'unacceptably high', says UN | World news |". London: Guardian. Retrieved 30 May 2009. 
  233. ^ "Sri Lanka rejects deaths report". BBC News. 29 May 2009. Retrieved 29 May 2009. 
  234. ^ a b Charles Haviland (8 July 2009). "S Lanka medics recant on deaths". BBC News. Retrieved 12 July 2009. 
  235. ^ "Sri Lankan President Declares Military Defeat of Rebels". Voice of America. 16 May 2009. Retrieved 18 August 2011. 
  236. ^ "Death of the Tiger". NewYorker. 17 January 2011. Retrieved 18 August 2011. 
  237. ^ "Sri Lankan troops 'kill' 70 escaping Tamil Tigers". London: Times Online. 17 May 2009. Retrieved 18 August 2011. 
  238. ^ Bosleigh, Robert; Page, Jeremy (18 May 2009). "Tamil Tigers admit defeat after battle reaches 'bitter end'". London: Times Online. Retrieved 18 August 2011. 
  239. ^ Nelson, Dean (18 May 2009). "Sri Lanka: Tamil Tiger leader Velupillai Prabhakaran and his lieutenants 'eliminated'". London: Telegraph. Retrieved 30 May 2009. 
  240. ^ "Security News | – Sri Lanka". 17 May 2009. Retrieved 30 May 2009. 
  241. ^ "South Asia | Sri Lanka's rebel leader 'killed'". BBC News. 19 May 2009. Retrieved 30 May 2009. 
  242. ^ "Sri Lankan TV broadcasts 'video of body of Tamil Tiger leader' as President declares the country liberated from terrorism". London: Daily Mail. 20 May 2009. Retrieved 18 August 2011. 
  243. ^ "Sri Lanka declares end to war with Tamil Tigers". London: The Guardian. 19 May 2009. Retrieved 18 August 2011. 
  244. ^ "No peace offer from Prabhakaran – only war". Lanka Web. 2011-06-11. Retrieved 2011-06-20. 
  245. ^ "Sri Lanka Army – Defenders of the Nation". Retrieved 2009-05-19. 
  246. ^ Bosleigh, Robert (2008-05-09). "DNA tests on body of Prabhakaran, Sri Lankan rebel leader". The Times (London). Retrieved 2010-05-02. 
  247. ^ "Rebel leader Prabhakaran 'alive and safe' Tigers claim". The Times (London). 19 May 2009. Retrieved 18 August 2011. 
  248. ^ "LTTE admits Prabhakaran is dead, finally". Indian Express. 24 May 2009. Retrieved 18 August 2011. 
  249. ^ Gamini Gunaratna, Sri Lanka News Paper by (LLC)- Latest Hot News from Sri Lanka (18 May 2009). "Sri Lanka: Opposition Leader congratulates Sri Lanka President". Retrieved 30 May 2009. 
  250. ^ "Archbishop congratulates Armed forces on the conclusion of war". 18 May 2009. Retrieved 30 May 2009. 
  251. ^ "Sri Lankan stocks shoot up on war victory". Times Online. 18 May 2009. Retrieved 18 May 2009. 
  252. ^ "Geneva, 19 May 2009 – Joint Press Conference held by UN Secretary-General and World Health Organization Director-General, Margaret Chan". United Nations. 19 May 2009. Retrieved 19 May 2009. 
  253. ^ "Summary: 18 May 2009, Brussels – Council of the European Union, 2942nd GENERAL AFFAIRS Council meeting, Conclusions on Sri Lanka". European Union. 18 May 2009. Retrieved 19 May 2009. 
  254. ^ Britain sold arms to Sri Lanka while civil war raged
  255. ^ "Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade – Media Room – News Releases". 25 March 2009. Retrieved 30 May 2009. 
  256. ^ "Statement by the Official Spokesperson on Sri Lanka". Ministry of External Affairs (India). 18 May 2009. Retrieved 19 May 2009. 
  257. ^ "Iran congratulates Sri Lanka on defeating terrorism". 19 May 2009. Retrieved 30 May 2009. 
  258. ^ "Japan PM welcomes end of Sri Lanka war". Lanka Business Online. 19 May 2009. Retrieved 30 May 2009. 
  259. ^ Miadhu News (19 May 2009). "President congratulates Sri Lankan President on ending civil war". Retrieved 30 May 2009. 
  260. ^ "Maldives News". Minivan News. 19 May 2009. Retrieved 30 May 2009. [dead link]
  261. ^ James Wray and Ulf Stabe (19 May 2009). "Norway urges Sri Lanka to aid refugees". Monsters and Critics. Retrieved 30 May 2009. 
  262. ^ "Pakistan felicitates Sri Lanka on 'great victory over terrorism'". Retrieved 30 May 2009. 
  263. ^ "On the End of Sri Lankan Civil War: Department of Foreign Affairs". 22 May 2009. Retrieved 30 May 2009. 
  264. ^ "Russia, Iran congratulate Sri Lanka on ending civil war_English_Xinhua". 21 May 2009. Retrieved 30 May 2009. 
  265. ^ South African Government calls for Dialogue in Sri Lanka, 21 May 2009
  266. ^ "MFA Press Statement: The Situation in Sri Lanka – Sri Lankan Minister of Foreign Affairs Rohitha Bogollagama calls on Minister for Foreign Affairs George Yeo". Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Singapore. 29 May 2009. Retrieved 5 June 2009. 
  267. ^ Sri Lanka News|Ministry of Defence – Sri Lanka. Retrieved on 2010-12-03.
  268. ^ "Media Release". Retrieved 30 May 2009. 
  269. ^ "Sri Lanka'dan Gül'e Son Durum Bilgisi". TRT World. 19 May 2009. Retrieved 7 September 2009. 
  270. ^ "Written ministerial statement on Sri Lanka (19/05/2009)". Foreign and Commonwealth Office. 19 May 2009. Retrieved 22 May 2009. 
  271. ^ ""British government congratulated President Rajapaksa for finishing off terrorists" – Lord Malloch Brown". 22 May 2009. Retrieved 30 May 2009. 
  272. ^ "Daily Press Briefing May 18, 2009". United States Department of State. 18 May 2009. Retrieved 19 May 2009. 
  273. ^ "'US will continue to support Sri Lanka's humanitarian relief efforts' says US Ambassador". Retrieved 30 May 2009. 
  274. ^ Vietnam welcomes the victory of the Government and people of Sri Lanka. (2009-05-21). Retrieved on 2010-12-03.
  275. ^ "Vietnam welcomes the victory of the Government and people of Sri Lanka". Retrieved 30 May 2009. 
  276. ^ a b "Sri Lanka Army – Defenders of the Nation". 20 May 2009. Retrieved 30 May 2009. 
  277. ^ "Sri Lanka Army – Defenders of the Nation". 21 May 2009. Retrieved 30 May 2009. 
  278. ^ "Commandos kill 11 LTTE infiltrators – Kalavanchchikudi". Retrieved 30 May 2009. 
  279. ^ "Troops recover more military equipments in search and clear operations". 8 June 2009. Retrieved 13 June 2009. 
  280. ^ "LTTE New Leader Kumaran Pathmanathan (KP) arrested in Malaysia and transported to Sri Lanka". Tamil Sydney. 6 August 2009. Retrieved 28 July 2011. 
  281. ^ "Victory's price: 6,200 Sri Lankan troops". 22 May 2009. Retrieved 30 May 2009. 
  282. ^ "/ UK – Sri Lankan army and Tamil Tiger death tolls reveal grim cost of years of civil war". 23 May 2009. Retrieved 30 May 2009. 
  283. ^ David Pallister & Gethin Chamberlain (24 April 2009). "Sri Lanka war toll near 6,500, UN report says". London: The Guardian, UK. 
  284. ^ "Sri Lanka rejects rebel ceasefire". BBC News. 27 April 2009. 
  285. ^ Chamberlain, Gethin (29 May 2009). "Sri Lanka death toll 'unacceptably high', says UN". London: The Guardian, UK. Retrieved 26 October 2009. 
  286. ^ "Slaughter in Sri Lanka". London: The Times, UK. 29 May 2009. Retrieved 26 October 2009. 
  287. ^ Buncombe, Andrew (12 February 2010). "Up to 40,000 civilians 'died in Sri Lanka offensive'". The Independent (London). Retrieved 23 May 2010. 
  288. ^ "Economic Impacts of Sri Lanka's Civil War". Retrieved 5 June 2011. 
  289. ^ "IDPs: Govt. already acting on agreed areas of priority – President to Ban Ki-moon". 23 May 2009. Retrieved 30 May 2009. 
  290. ^ "Next round of Govt.-TNA talks on May 12". AdaDerana. 30 April 2011. Retrieved 5 June 2011. 
  291. ^
  292. ^ "A brother out of control". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 16 August 2011. 
  293. ^ Gentleman, Amelia (January 18, 2009). "Fears grow for trapped civilians as army advances on Tamil Tigers". The Guardian (London). Retrieved May 23, 2010. 
  294. ^ "Military declares civilian safety zone in rebel area". The Guardian (London). January 22, 2009. Retrieved May 23, 2010. 
  295. ^ Sri Lanka admits bombing safe zone – Central & South Asia. Al Jazeera English (2009-05-02). Retrieved on 2010-12-03.
  296. ^ Page, Jeremy (May 1, 2009). "Leaked UN satellite images show haven for Sri Lanka refugees was bombed". The Times (London). Retrieved May 23, 2010. 
  297. ^ Pallister, David (April 24, 2009). "Sri Lanka war toll near 6,500, UN report says". The Guardian (London). Retrieved May 23, 2010. 
  298. ^ "ASA 37/016/2009 Unlock the Camps in Sri Lanka: Safety and Dignity for the Displaced Now". Amnesty International. 10 August 2009. Retrieved 22 October 2009. 
  299. ^ [4][dead link]
  300. ^ "Sri Lanka: Government Breaks Promises That Displaced Can Go Home". Human Rights Watch. 19 October 2009. Retrieved 22 October 2009. 
  301. ^ "Sri Lanka vows to resettle Tamils". BBC News. 21 May 2009. Retrieved 22 October 2009. 
  302. ^ "India and Sri Lanka agree on IDP timetable, political solution". The Official Government News Portal of Sri Lanka. 22 May 2009. Retrieved 22 October 2009. 
  303. ^ "Joint Humanitarian and Early Recovery Update: January‐March 2011 – Report # 30". Joint Humanitarian Update: North East Sri Lanka. UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. Retrieved 30 April 2011. 
  304. ^ "All former female LTTE combatants in Sri Lanka released now". ColomboPage. Retrieved 4 July 2011. 
  305. ^ "Sri Lanka "Taming The Tigers"". March 2011. Retrieved 1 August 2011. 
  306. ^ "Most of Sri Lankan minefields cleared: Military". Zee News (India). 5 Novermber 2011. Retrieved 5 Novermber 2011. 
  307. ^ Sri Lanka : More Tamil youths want to join Sri Lanka Police. (2009-05-21). Retrieved on 2010-12-03.
  308. ^ Malaysian Tamils protest against "Indian assistance" to Lanka Indopia, 21 April 2009.
  309. ^ Tamil protesters take to streets BBC 11 May 2009.
  310. ^ "Misguided Tamil protesters". Martin Collacott (The National Post). 13 May 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2009. [dead link]
  311. ^ "Sri Lanka: US War Crimes Report Details Extensive Abuses". Human Rights Watch. 22 October 2009. Retrieved 17 January 2010. 
  312. ^ "Govt.: LTTE Executed Soldiers". The Sunday Leader. 8 December 2010. Retrieved 17 January 2010. 
  313. ^ "Report of the UNSG’s panel of experts on accountability in SL". The Island, Sri Lanka. 16 April 2011. 
  314. ^ "UN panel admits international failure in Vanni war, calls for investigations". TamilNet. 16 April 2011. 
  315. ^ "Summary of UN Panel report". Daily Mirror (Sri Lanka). 16 April 2011. 
  316. ^ "Sri Lankan military committed war crimes: U.N. panel". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 16 April 2011. 
  317. ^ "Leaked UN report urges Sri Lanka war crimes probe". France24. 16 April 2011. 
  318. ^ "Sri Lanka admits to civilian deaths in Eelam war". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 1 August 2011. 
  319. ^ "Surrender of top LTTE leadership: US records show Defense Attaché was correct". Asian Tribune. 5 June 2011. 


  • Balasingham, Adele: The Will to Freedom – An Inside View of Tamil Resistance. Fairmax Publishing Ltd, 2nd ed. 2003, ISBN 1-903679-03-6.
  • Dissanayaka, T.D.S.A.: War or Peace in Sri Lanka, Volume II. Swastika (Pvt.) Ltd., Colombo 1998.
  • Dixit, J.N.: Assignment Colombo, ISBN 81-220-0499-7. (Dixit was the Indian High Commissioner during the 1980s negotiations that led to the IPKF presence.)
  • Gamage, S. and Watson, I.B.: Conflict and Community in Contemporary Sri Lanka. Sage, New Delhi 1999.
  • Gamage, S.: Ethnic Conflict, State Reform and Nation Building in Sri Lanka: Analysis of the Context and Suggestions for a Settlement, in: Neelsen, John P. and Malik, Dipak: "Crises of State and Nation: South Asian States between Nation Building and Fragmentation", Manohar, New Delhi (forthcoming).
  • Hoole, R., Somasundaram, D., Sritharan K., and Thiranagama, R. The Broken Palmyra – The Tamil Crisis in Sri Lanka: An Inside Account. The Sri Lanka Studies Institute, Claremont 1990. (Also available online.)The Broken Palmyra – The Tamil Crisis in Sri Lanka: An Inside Account.
  • Johnson, Robert: A Region in Turmoil. Reaktion, New York and London 2005. (Covers Sri Lanka and its regional context.)
  • Narayan Swamy, M. R.: Tigers of Lanka: from Boys to Guerrillas. Konark Publishers; 3rd ed. 2002, ISBN 81-220-0631-0.
  • Rajasinghan, K.T.: Sri Lanka: The Untold Story. 2001–2002. (Serialised in Asia Times Online).Sri Lanka: The Untold Story.
  • War and Peace in Sri Lanka: With a Post-Accord Report From Jaffna. ISBN 955-26-0001-4 /ISBN 978-955-26-0001-2, Institute of Fundamental Studies, Sri Lanka; 1 edition (October 1, 1987), By Rohan Gunaratna.
  • Indian intervention in Sri Lanka: The role of India's intelligence agencies. ISBN 955-95199-0-5/ ISBN 978-955-95199-0-4, South Asian Network on Conflict Research (1993), By Rohan Gunaratna.
  • Bansal, Alok, Mayilvaganan. M and Podder,Sukanya, Sri Lanka: Search for Peace. Manas Publications, New Delhi, 2007. ISBN 81-7049-340-4

External links

Official websites

Government reports


Independent reports, documentaries and texts


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Alleged war crimes during the Sri Lankan Civil War — Sri Lankan Civil War (1983–2009) Background Sri Lanka · History of Sri Lanka Origins of the Civil War Origins of the Civil War · Sri Lankan Tamil nationalism  …   Wikipedia

  • List of assassinations of the Sri Lankan Civil War — Sri Lankan Civil War (1983–2009) Background Sri Lanka · History of Sri Lanka Origins of the Civil War Origins of the Civil War · Sri Lankan Tamil nationalism  …   Wikipedia

  • Origins of the Sri Lankan civil war — Sri Lankan Civil War (1983–2009) Background Sri Lanka · History of Sri Lanka Origins of the Civil War Origins of the Civil War · Sri Lankan Tamil nationalism …   Wikipedia

  • List of military operations of the Sri Lankan Civil War — v · Kokkila …   Wikipedia

  • Notable assassinations of the Sri Lankan Civil War — Since the onset of the Sri Lankan Civil War in 1983, militant and paramilitary groups have assassinated many public figures on suspicion of being sympathizers or informants, in retaliation for killings and attacks, to eliminate competition from… …   Wikipedia

  • Military operations of the Sri Lankan Civil War — After successfully defeating the insurgency led by the Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna (JVP) in 1971, the army was confronted with a new conflict, this time with the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) and other Tamil militant groups. The war… …   Wikipedia

  • Sri Lankan Tamil people — Sri Lankan Tamils ஈழத் தமிழர் …   Wikipedia

  • Sri Lanka Civil Security Force — Active January 1, 2007 Present Country Sri Lanka Type Militia Role Civil Defence Size …   Wikipedia

  • Sri Lankan Moors — Group of early 20th century Sri Lankan Moors. Total population 2 million (2005) Regions with significant populations …   Wikipedia

  • Sri Lankan state sponsored colonisation schemes — refers to government backed establishment of Sinhalese communities in regions traditionally considered to be Sri Lankan Tamil lands in the northern or eastern parts of the Sri Lanka. It has been perhaps the most immediate cause of inter communal… …   Wikipedia