Proboscidea


Proboscidea

Taxobox
name = Proboscidea
fossil_range = Late Paleocene - Recent



image_width = 250px
image_caption = African Elephant
regnum = Animalia
phylum = Chordata
classis = Mammalia
infraclassis = Eutheria
superordo = Afrotheria
ordo = Proboscidea
ordo_authority = Illiger, 1811
subdivision_ranks = Groups
subdivision = †Jozaria
Anthracobunidae
Moeritheriidae
Euproboscidea:†Numidotheriidae:†Barytheriidae:†Deinotheriidae:Elephantiformes::†Palaeomastodontidae::†Hemimastodontidae::Euelephantoidea:::†Choerolophodontidae:::†Amebelodontidae:::†Gnathabelodontidae:::†Gomphotheriidae:::Elephantidae:::†Mammutidae:::†Stegodontidae

Proboscidea is an order containing only one family of living animals, Elephantidae, the elephants, with three living species (African Bush Elephant, African Forest Elephant, and Asian Elephant).MSW3 Shoshani|pages=90-91]

During the period of the last ice age there were more, now extinct species, including the genus of elephants Mammuthus (mammoths) and the elephant-like species the mastodons. Further back in time, in the late Tertiary, there were many more different types, including the "shovel tuskers" like "Platybelodon" and "Amebelodon". The earliest known proboscidean is "Phosphatherium" dating from paleocene deposits of Morocco. From the Eocene, several very primitive proboscideans are known, including the African "Numidotherium", "Barytherium", "Moeritherium" and the Anthracobunidae from the Indian subcontinent.

Origins

Paleontologists know of about 170 fossil species which they classify as belonging to the Proboscidea (Gr. "proboskis," elephant's trunk, from "pro," before, + "boskein," to feed) group. The oldest dates from the early Tertiary period, over 56 million years ago. A discovery in December, 2003 has forced a new estimate of the age of elephant-like species to around 27 million years. Most of these early elephants had four short tusks; two on the upper jaw and two on the lower. "Primelephas", the ancestor of mammoths and modern elephants, appeared in the late Miocene epoch, about 7 million years ago. The evolution of the elephant-like animals mainly concerned the proportions of the cranium and jaw and the shape of the tusks and molar teeth.

References


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Proboscidea — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda ? Proboscidea Elefante africano de arbusto …   Wikipedia Español

  • Proboscidea — bezeichnet: eine Pflanzengattung, siehe Proboscidea (Gattung) die Ordnung der Rüsseltiere Diese Seite ist eine Begriffsklärung zur Unterscheidung mehrerer mit demselben Wort bezeichneter Begriffe …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Proboscidea — Pro bos*cid e*a, n. pl. [NL. See {Proboscis}.] (Zo[ o]l.) An order of large mammals including the elephants and mastodons. [1913 Webster] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Proboscidea — Proboscidea, so v.w. Rüsselthiere …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Proboscidea — Proboscidea, Ordnung der Säugetiere, s. Rüsseltiere …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Proboscidea — Proboscidĕa, s. Rüsseltiere …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • Proboscidea —   [griechisch], die Rüsseltiere.   …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Proboscidea — Proboscidea, Elefanten, zu den ⇒ Ungulata gehörende Ordnung der ⇒ Eutheria. Großes Darmbein; säulenartige Gliedmaßen; Luftkammern in den Schädelknochen; Kinnbildung; zweite Incisivi zu Stoßzähnen umgeformt. Im Tertiär waren die P. unter der… …   Deutsch wörterbuch der biologie

  • Proboscidea — Proboscidiens …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Proboscidea — noun 1. in some classifications included in the genus Martynia and hence the two taxonomic names for some of the unicorn plants • Syn: ↑genus Proboscidea • Hypernyms: ↑plant genus • Member Holonyms: ↑Pedaliaceae, ↑family Pedaliaceae, ↑ …   Useful english dictionary