Petrovaradin


Petrovaradin

Infobox Settlement
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official_name = Petrovaradin
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native_name = Петроварадин
Petrovaradin
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population_total = 13,973 (town)
31,227 (municipality)
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Petrovaradin (Петроварадин), formerly a fortified town, is part of the agglomeration of Novi Sad in Serbia (population 13,917 in 2002). Lying across the river Danube from the main part of Novi Sad, it features a majestic fortress known as the "Gibraltar of the Danube" (See: Petrovaradin fortress).

Name

Petrovaradin is believed to be the Roman "Cusum". In addition, the town received its name from the Byzantines, who called it "Petrikon" (It is assumed that it was named after Saint Peter).

In documents from 1237, the town was first mentioned under the name "Petrovaradin" ("Pétervárad"). Petrovaradin was known under the name "Pétervárad" under Hungarian rule, "Varadin" under Ottoman rule, and "Peterwardein" under Habsburg rule.

Today, the town is known in Serbian as Петроварадин or "Petrovaradin", in Croatian as "Petrovaradin", in Hungarian as "Pétervárad", in German as "Peterwardein", and in Turkish as "Petervaradin".

History

Human settlement in the territory of present-day Petrovaradin has been traced as far back as the Stone Age (about 4500 BC). This region was conquered by Celts (in the 4th century BC) and Romans (in the 1st century BC).

The Celts founded the first fortress at this location, and during the Roman rule, a larger fortress was built (in the 1st century) with the name "Cusum" and was included into Roman Pannonia. In the 5th century, Cusum was devastated by the invasion of the Huns.

By the end of the 5th century, Byzantines had reconstructed the town and called it by the names "Cusum" and "Petrikon". The town was then conquered by Ostrogoths, Gepids, Avars, Franks, Bulgarians, and by Byzantines again.

The town was conquered by the Kingdom of Hungary (in the 12th century), by the Ottoman Empire (in 1526), and by the Habsburg Monarchy (in 1687).

During the Ottoman rule, Petrovaradin had 200 houses, and three mosques. There was also a Christian quarter with 35 houses populated with ethnic Serbs.

Petrovaradin was the site of a major battle on August 5th, 1716 in which Prince Eugene of Savoy defeated the forces of the Ottomans. Eugène later defeated the Ottomans at Belgrade before the Turks sued for peace at Požarevac.

During the Habsburg rule, Petrovaradin was part of the Habsburg Military Frontier (Petrovaradin regiment). In 1848/1849, the town was part of Serbian Vojvodina, but in 1849, it was returned under the administration of the Military Frontier. With the abolishment of the Military Frontier in 1881, the town was included into Croatia-Slavonia, the autonomous kingdom within Austria-Hungary.

In 1918, the town became part of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. Between 1929 and 1941, the town was part of Danube Banovina, a province of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. During World War 2 (1941-1944), the town was occupied by the Axis Powers and it was attached to the Independent State of Croatia. Since the end of the war, the town is part of the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina.

Geography

Petrovaradin is one of the two municipalities of Novi Sad City and it is located in the northern Serbian province of Vojvodina. Approximately 25-30% of total area of City of Novi Sad (699 km²) is an area of Petrovaradin municipality, which is approximately 100-130 km²; of which approximately 30% is a part of urban area of Novi Sad. Much of land outside of urban area is part of National Park of Fruška Gora.

Petrovaradin municipality is located in the Syrmia region, on the Danube river and Fruška Gora, a horst mountain with elevation of 78-220 m (municipality up to 451 m). The northern part of Fruška Gora consists of massive landslide zones, but they are not active, except in Ribnjak neighborhood (between Sremska Kamenica and Petrovaradin fortress).

Politics

The town of Petrovaradin is the seat of Petrovaradin municipality. Since 2002, when the new statute of the City of Novi Sad came into effect, City of Novi Sad is divided into two urban municipalities, Petrovaradin and Novi Sad. Between 1980 and 1989, Petrovaradin also had municipality status within Novi Sad. From 1989 to 2002, Novi Sad's municipalities were abolished and territory of the former Petrovaradin municipality was part of "Novi Sad municipality", which included the whole territory of the present-day City of Novi Sad.

Today, Petrovaradin municipality has its own offices. Municipalities of Novi Sad were established for the sole reason that Novi Sad can get city status in Serbia. Future of these municipalities is questionable because the ruling party in Novi Sad (Serbian Radical Party) opposes municipalities. Keeping in mind that under the new constitution of Serbia (from November 2006), cities don't have to be divided into municipalities to get "city status".

Novi Sad and Petrovaradin municipalities don't have any real authority on their territory, since Novi Sad's city government runs the whole city.

ettlements and neighborhoods

Municipality of Petrovaradin includes 5 settlements:
* town of Petrovaradin
* town of Sremska Kamenica
* village of Bukovac
* village of Ledinci
* village of Stari Ledinci

Neighborhoods and parts of the Petrovaradin town are: Petrovaradin Fortress, Podgrađe Tvrđave (which is a fortified part of Petrovaradin and part of Petrovaradin Fortress complex), Stari Majur (which is part of Petrovaradin where offices of Petrovaradin municipality and local community are located), Novi Majur, Bukovački Plato (Bukovački Put), Sadovi, Široka Dolina, Širine, Vezirac, Trandžament, Ribnjak, Mišeluk, Alibegovac, Radna Zona Istok, Marija Snežna (Radna Zona Istok), and Petrovaradinska Ada (Ribarska Ada).

Demographics

Ethnic groups in the municipality

According to the 2002 census, the total population of the territory of present-day Petrovaradin municipality was 31,227, of whom 24,026 (76.94%) were ethnic Serbs. All settlements in the municipality have an ethnic Serb majority.

Ethnic groups in the town

During the Ottoman rule, Petrovaradin was mostly populated by Muslims, while some Serbs lived there as well in the Christian quarter. During the Habsburg rule and in the first half of the 20th century, the largest ethnic group in the Petrovaradin town were ethnic Croats. Today, there are a couple of Croat-inhabited neighborhoods in Petrovaradin, like Stari Majur and Podgrađe Tvrđave.

Historical population of the town

In 1961 Petrovaradin had 8,408 inhabitants; in 1971 10,477; in 1981 10,338; in 1991 11,285; and in 2002 13,973. By city's registry estimation, from mid-2005, Petrovaradin town had 15,266 inhabitants. [City's police registry data, published by: [http://www.nsinfo.co.yu/Statistika/NovaStatistika.htm Informatika] ]

Culture

EXIT (also known as State of EXIT) is an annual summer music festival in Petrovaradin fortress. It is staged annually since 2000 and usually lasts for 4 days.

References

* Petrovaradin, Enciklopedija Novog Sada, knjiga 20, Novi Sad, 2002
* Radenko Gajić, Petrovaradinska tvrđava - Gibraltar na Dunavu, Sremski Karlovci, 1993
* mr Agneš Ozer, Petrovaradinska tvrđava - vodič kroz vreme i prostor, Novi Sad, 2002
* mr Agneš Ozer, Petrovaradin Fortress - A Guide through time and space, Novi Sad, 2002
* Veljko Milković, Petrovaradin kroz legendu i stvarnost, Novi Sad, 2001
* Veljko Milković, Petrovaradin i Srem - misterija prošlosti, Novi Sad, 2003
* Veljko Milković, Petrovaradinska tvrđava - podzemlje i nadzemlje, Novi Sad, 2005
* Military Heritage did a feature about the Muslim Turks versus Christian Nobility 1716 battle and crusade at Peterwardein, and the success of Prince Eugene of Savoy (Ludwig Heinrich Dyck, Military Heritage, August 2005, Volume 7, No. 1, pp 48 to 53, and p. 78), ISSN 1524-8666.
* Henderson, Nicholas. "Prince Eugene of Savoy". London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. 1964
* Mckay, Derek. "Prince Eugene of Savoy". London: Thames and Hudson. 1977
* Nicolle, David and Hook, Christa. "The Janissaries". Botley: Osprey Publishing. 2000
* Setton, Kenneth M. "Venice, Austria, and the Turks in the Seventeenth Century". Philadelphia: The American Philosophical Society. 1991

Notes

ee also

*List of places in Serbia
*List of cities, towns and villages in Vojvodina

External links

* [http://www.fallingrain.com/world/YI/2/Petrovaradin.html Petrovaradin]
* [http://www.peterwardein.com All about Petrovaradin fortress]
* [http://www.veljkomilkovic.com/Tvrdjava.htm Petrovaradin fortress]
* [http://www.sremskioglasi.com/ Srem Classified Ads]

Gallery


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