- Yorkshire Wolds
name = Yorkshire Wolds
category = Hills
image_caption =A winter view across the Yorkshire Wolds
country = England
state = United Kingdom
region = Northern England
district = East Riding of Yorkshire
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map_caption = The location of the Yorkshire Wolds in Northern England
The Yorkshire Wolds are low hills in the
East Riding of Yorkshirein North-Eastern England. The name also applies to the district in which the hills lie.On the western edge the Wolds rise to an escarpment which then drops sharply to the Vale of York. The highest point on the escarpment is Bishop Wilton Wold(also known as Garrowby Hill), which is 246 metres (807 feet) above sea level. To the north, on the other side of the Vale of Pickering lie the North York Moors, and to the east the hills flatten into the plain of Holderness. The largest town in the Wolds is Driffield, with other places including Pocklington, Thixendaleand Kilham, the original Capital of the Wolds.
Geology and Natural History
The hills are formed from
chalk, and make an arc from the Humberestuary west of Kingston upon Hullup to the North Seacoast between Bridlingtonand Scarborough. Here they rise up to form cliffs, most notably at Flamborough, Bempton Cliffsand Filey; Flamborough Headland is designated a Heritage Coast. On the other side of the Humber, the chalk formations continue as the Lincolnshire Wolds; in fact, one can view the Humber as cutting through a single formation. The Humber Bridgewas built at the point due to its geological stability.
Most of the area takes the form of an elevated, gently rolling plateau, cut by numerous deep, steep-sided, flat-bottomed valleys of glacial origin. The chalk formation of the hills provides exceptionally good drainage, with the result that most of these valleys are dry; indeed, surface water is quite scarce throughout the Wolds. Typically the valleys are hard to see from above, creating the visual impression that the landscape is much flatter than is actually the case. The unusual topography results in an "upside-down" farming system - livestock (mostly sheep and cows) graze the valleys, with the hills above used for crops.
Located in the northern part of the UK, the Yorkshire Wolds have a temperate maritime climate which is dominated by the passage of mid latitude depressions. The weather is very changeable from day to day and the warming influence of the Gulf Stream makes the region mild for its latitude. The higher ground of the Wolds results in their being slightly cooler than the surrounding lowland areas and drifting snow is a problem in winter.The average total annual rainfall is 729mm with rain falling on 128 days of the year. January is usually the coldest month and December the wettest.The warmest month is August and the dryest is February. [cite web
title =UK climate and weather statistics
publisher =Met Office. Crown Copyright
accessdate =2008-01-20 ] [cite web
title =UK climate and weather statistics
publisher =Visit Yorkshire
accessdate =2008-01-20 ]
Areas and notable settlements
The Northern Wolds and Flamborough Head
The Wolds reach the sea at
Flamborough Headwhere the chalk cliffs plunge almost 500ft to the North Sea. To the south of Flamboroughlies the resort town of Bridlingtonand to the north the sheer cliffs at Speetonoverlook FileyBay. Inland the high Wolds scarp overlooks the Vale of Pickering.
The so called
Great Wold Valleytraverses the area. It is occupied by a small stream called the Gypsey Race. This stream empties its waters into Bridlington harbour. The valley of the Gypsey Race turns south and then east in two right angle bends, one at Burton Fleming, the other at Rudston. In dry conditions the stream frequently dries up in parts of its course and re-emerges downstream.
Another notable feature of this area of the Wolds is
Danes Dyke, a great ditch extending across Flamborough Head. The dyke consists of double ramparts, a ditch which is about sixty feet wide and twenty feet deep and a further rampart which rises to eighteen feet above ground level. The origin of this feature is obscure although it is certainly not Danish.Citation | last =Waites | first =Bryan | publication-date =1984 | title =Exploring the Yorkshire Wolds | edition = | volume = | series = | publication-place =Clapham (via Lancaster) | place = | publisher =The Dalesman Publishing Company Ltd. | id = | isbn =0 85206 752 6] Bempton Cliffsis a seabird colony and an R.S.P.B. nature reserve.
Notable settlements include Flamborough village, North Landing and South Landing on Flamborough Headland. The village of
Reightonwhich extends down the steep scarp face of the Wolds has many buildings made of the local chalk. Hunmanbywas once a large market town and its buildings are centered on the old triangular market place.A series of villages lies at the foot of the northern scarp of the Wolds each having a parish which contains an area of chalk hillside, fertile benches and marshy land on the Vale of Pickering. Fordon is one of the smallest villages in England consisting of only a few farms and a small church some parts of which are of Norman construction. Wold Newton and Burton Fleming lie in the Great Wold Valley. A gigantic round barrow called Willy Howelies between Wold Newton and Thwing and at RudstonBritain's tallest standing stone can be seen in the church yard. Boynton Hall was the home of William Strickland who is reputed to have brought turkey to England.cite book |title=The Kings England. Yorkshire-East Riding. |last=Mee |first=Arthur |authorlink= |coauthors= |year=1964 |publisher=Hodder and Stoughton |location=London |isbn= ] On the Wold top there are many traces of pre-historic peoples such as the barrows at Willerby Wold and Sharpe Howes above Folkton.
The Capital Wolds
On the seaward dip slope of the Wolds there is a series of villages extending from Bridington to Driffield. These mark the spring line and the natural boundary between the chalk Wolds and the clay of
Holderness. Driffieldlies central to the crescentic shape of the Wolds area and since all of the Wolds are within easy reach it has become an important market town and is known as the Capital of the Wolds.Villages of note include: Nafferton, which lies just off the A166 road and boasts a pretty mill pond fed by springs, Wansford to the south, lies on the Driffield canal and it has a church built by Sir Tatton Sykesin 1868. Close to Ruston Parvais Danes Graves, an archaeological site consisting of some 500 small round barrows marking Iron Age burials at least one of which yielded a corpse buried with a chariot and harness. Burton Agnesboasts the ruins of a manor house dating from 1170 A.D. and a fine Hall and gatehouse of the Elizabethan period. Kilham was a prosperous market town in the Medieval period but was replaced by Driffield in the 19th century as the Capital of the Wolds. In this area there is a long continuity of settlement with an Iron Age cemetery, two Roman roads and an Anglian cemetery all in close proximity. Sledmerevillage has a uniformity of aspect which reveals its history as an 'estate' village. Close by is Sledmere House, the home of the Sykes family since the 18th century.
The Southern Wolds
In the south the Wolds are at their narrowest. Here they lie between the plain of
Holdernessto the east and the Vale of Yorkto the west. The Humber Estuary cuts through the chalk formation leaving the Yorkshire Wolds to the north and the Lincolnshire Woldsto the south. In Roman times the estuary was crossed by a ford. The Humber Bridgenow spans the estuary. This area has fine agricultural land and many attractive villages, notable amongst which are: Walkingtonwith its village pond and church of All Hallows: Bishop Burtonwhich lies in a green hollow and has 19th century whitewashed cottages close to a village green with a large pond: Cherry Burtonsits in a shallow valley and has the beautiful St Michael's and All Angels Church: Skidbywhich has an intact working windmill dating from 1821 which is now an agricultural museum. North Newbaldis sited in a narrow valley on the western scarp of the Wolds and has a famous cruciform Norman church dedicated to St Nicholas.
The western scarp of the Wolds reaches is highest point at
Garrowby Hill. It is well dissected and attractive wooded dales occur along the scarp with small becks flowing down to the Vale of York below. The market towns of Pocklingtonand Market Weightonare sited between the wolds and the vale. Large parks and houses lie along the scarp from Garrowby Hall to Kilnwick Percy, Warter Priory and Londesborough Hall. Millington has a beautiful situation within Millington Dale and the road leading along the brow of the dale is particularly scenic. The village of Kiplingcotesis the location for the annual Kiplingcotes Derbyhorse race, said to be the oldest horse race in England. [ cite web|url=http://www.wicstun.com/derby.html# |title=A Brief History |accessdate=2008-03-31 |last=Westley |first=Colin |date=2004-2008 ] The 489th event took place on 20 March 2008. [cite web
url = http://www.wicstun.com/derby2008.html
title = The 'Local' Race - The Kiplingcotes Derby
accessdate = 2008-03-31
work = Wicstun]
The Western Wolds
From Garrowby Hill northwards to Ganton the high scarp of the Wolds swings in a crescent to overlook the Vales of York and Pickering. Villages tend to be clustered along the scarp foot or in the upper part of the Great Wold Valley.
Rillingtonis an attractive village with a stream passing through and a nearby park at Scampston. At Knaptonvillage there is a hall and park and above the village in Knapton Plantation is "Staple Howe", an Iron Agesite. The twin villages of East and West Heslertonlie further along the A64 road.West Heslerton is a well known archaeological site, with artefacts from several eras having been recovered. [cite web
first =Dominic J
title =The West Heslerton Assessment
publisher =The Landscape Research Centre
accessdate =2008-01-20 ]
Wharram Percyis one of the most notable deserted village sites in the U.K. [cite web
title =Wharram Percy Deserted Medieval Village
publisher =English Heritage
accessdate = 2008-01-20 ]
History and archaeology
The Wolds area is rich in archaeological remains. There is a profusion of Neolithic, Bronze Age and Romano-British sites extending across the entire Yorkshire Wolds area.The availability of fertile chalk soils, good grazing and the light tree cover along with stone suitable for making tools made this area attractive to early Neolithic settlers. [http://www.driffield.co.uk/wolds_arch_intro.htm The History and Archaeology of The Yorkshire Wolds ] ] Along with Wessex and Orkney, the Yorkshire Wolds is a key area for studying the development of the
Neolithicperiod in the British Isles as it became a major focus for settlement in this era. Isolated farms rather than settlements of any size appear to have been the normal dwelling types however few have been located with any certainty and most evidence is of funerary sites and ritual monuments. Recently excavated long barrows at Fordon on Willerby Wold and at Kilham have been carbon dated to around 3700 B.C. A well-known round barrow of this period is the monumental Duggleby Howe, at the western end of the Great Wolds Valley, partially excavated in 1890 by J.R. Mortimer. A henge monument of the Neolithic has been identified at Maidens Grave Rudston and the Rudston Monolith has also been assigned to this period. An extensive Neolithic ritual complex, the main elements of which are four large cursusmonuments and a henge, is situated near the eastern end of the Great Wold Valley.
More than 1,400
Bronze Ageround barrows, comprising one or more burials and accompanied by items of grave goods, are known to exist on the Yorkshire Wolds. They occur either in isolation or, more commonly, grouped together to form cemeteries. Many of these sites, although they have been reduced in size by repeated ploughing, still form upstanding and, in some cases, prominent features in the present-day landscape.
last = Hayton
first = Richard
coauthors = Andre Brannan
title = Iron Age Cart/Chariot Burials
publisher = Yorkshire History.com
accessdate = 2008-01-20 ]
The Romans arrived in this area around A.D.71. From a base at Brough on the north bank of the Humber they established a road network with one branch towards
Yorkand another to Malton, both crossing the Wolds area. The settlements of the native Parisii were little disturbed by the Roman occupiers at first, but in later years they became Romanised, adopting the Roman material culture. There are villa sites on the Wolds at Rudston, Harpham, Brantingham, Welton and Wharram-le-Street. Walkington Wold, near the village of Walkingtonin the southern area of the Wolds, is the site of an Anglo-Saxon execution cemetery, the only known example from northern England. [ cite web|url=http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/bpl/ojoa/2007/00000026/00000003/art00006 |title= AN ANGLO-SAXON EXECUTION CEMETERY AT WALKINGTON WOLD, YORKSHIRE |accessdate=2008-04-21 |date=2008 |publisher=IngentaConnect ]
Culture and media
Winifred Holtbywho was born at Rudstonlived in the area cite book |title=Yorkshire. The East Riding. |last=Wright |first=Geoffrey N. |authorlink= |coauthors= |year=1976 |publisher=Batsford Ltd |location=London |isbn=0 7134 3102 4 ] and described the Wolds as "fold upon fold of the encircling hills, piled rich and golden."
The Yorkshire Wolds were a subject of BBC TV's Inside Out (North) programme on
2 February 2007.
One of nine National Trails in England, the
Yorkshire Wolds Wayis a long-distance footpathwhich runs the length of the wolds from the Humber Bridgeat Hessleto Fileyon the coast.Citation
title =Wolds Way
series =National Trail Guides
publisher =Aurum Press Ltd in association with Ordnance Survey and Countryside Commission
isbn =1 85410 189 7
accessdate =] It is managed by the
* The Weald
* [http://www.nationaltrail.co.uk/yorkshirewoldsway/index.asp?PageId=1 Yorkshire Wolds]
* [http://www.driffield.co.uk/wolds.htm The Villages of The Yorkshire Wolds]
* [http://www.ba-education.demon.co.uk/for/travel/guide/wold1a.html The Countryside Agency - Countryside Character Initiative - Yorkshire and the Humber - Yorkshire Wolds]
* [http://www.york.ac.uk/depts/arch/Wolds/ The Wolds Archaeological Research Project]
* "Walking The Wolds Way", David Clensy, 2007. ISBN 978-1-4303-1019-8
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