- Baltimore and Ohio Railroad
Infobox SG rail
railroad_name=Baltimore and Ohio Railroad
logo_filename=Baltimore and Ohio Herald.png
map_caption =1876 B&O map
New York City, New Yorkvia Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Baltimore, Maryland, and Washington, D.C.to Chicago, Illinoisand St. Louis, Missouri
Baltimore, MD|The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad (B&O) was one of the oldest railroads in the United Statesand the first common carrierrailroad. At first this railroad was located entirely in the state of Maryland with an original line from the port of Baltimore, Maryland, west to Sandy Hook. At this point to continue westward, it had to cross into Virginia (now West Virginia) over the Potomac River, adjacent to the fork of the Potomac and Shenandoah Rivers. From there it passed through Virginia from Harpers Ferry to a point just west of the junction of Patterson Creekand the North Branch Potomac River where it crossed back into Maryland to reach Cumberland, Maryland. From there it was extended to the Ohio Riverat Wheeling and a few years later also to Parkersburg, West Virginia.
It is now part of the CSX network, and includes the oldest operational railroad bridge in the world. The B&O also included the
Leiper Railroad, the first permanent railroad in the U.S. In later years, B&O advertising carried the motto: "Linking 13 Great States with the Nation." Part of the B&O Railroad's immortality has come from being one of the four featured railroads on the U.S. version of the board game Monopoly, but it is the only railroad on the board which did not serve Atlantic City, New Jersey, directly.
When CSX Corp. established the
B&O Railroad Museumas a separate entity from the corporation, some of the former B&O Mount Clare Shopsin Baltimore, including the Mt. Clare roundhouse, were donated to the Museum while the rest of the property was sold. The B&O warehouseat the Camden Yards rail junction in Baltimore now dominates the view over the right-field wall at the Baltimore Orioles' current home, Oriole Park at Camden Yards.
Two men —
Philip E. Thomasand George Brown — were the pioneers of the railroad. They spent the year 1826 investigating railway enterprises in England, which were at that time being tested in a comprehensive fashion as commercial ventures. Their investigation completed, they held an organizational meeting on February 12, 1827, including about twenty-five citizens, most of whom were Baltimore merchants or bankers. , passed February 28, 1827, and the Commonwealth of Virginiaon March 8, 1827, chartered the Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road Company, with the task of building a railroad from the port of Baltimore, Marylandwest to a suitable point on the Ohio River. The railroad, formally incorporated April 24, was intended to provide not only an alternative to, but also a faster route for Midwestern goods to reach the East Coast than the seven-year-old, hugely successful, but slow Erie Canalacross upstate New York. Thomas was elected as the first president and Brown the treasurer. The capital of the proposed company was fixed at five million dollars. [cite web|url=http://cprr.org/Museum/Railroad_Builders/Railroad_Builders_05.html|title=The Railroad Builders|author=John Moody (1919)|accessdate=April 6|accessyear=2006]
Construction began on
July 4, 1828, when Charles Carroll of Carrolltondid the groundbreaking, and the first section, from Baltimore west to Ellicott's Mills (now known as Ellicott City), opened on May 24, 1830. It was decided to follow the Patapsco Riverto a point near Parr's Ridge (now known as Mount Airy) where the railroad would cross the fall lineand descend into the valley of the Monocacyand Potomac Rivers. Further extensions opened to Frederick (including the short Frederick Branch) December 1, 1831, Point of Rocks April 2, 1832, Sandy Hook December 1, 1834(the connection to the Winchester and Potomac Railroadat Harpers Ferry opening in 1837), Martinsburg May 1842, Hancock June 1842, Cumberland November 5, 1842, Piedmont July 21, 1851, Fairmont June 22, 1852, and its terminus at Wheeling, West Virginia(then part of Virginia) on January 1, 1853. The narrow strip of available land along the Potomac River from Point of Rocks to Harpers Ferry caused a legal battle between the B&O and the Chesapeake and Ohio (C&O) Canal as both sought to exclude the other from its use.Citation|last=Lynch|first=John A.|author-link= |title=Justice Douglas, the Chesapeake & Ohio Canal, and Maryland Legal History|journal=University of Baltimore Law Forum|volume=35|issue=Spring 2005 |pages=104, 112-125|date= |year=|url= |doi= |id = ] A later compromise allowed the two companies to share the right of way.
The state of Maryland granted the B&O a charter to build a line from Baltimore to
Washington, D.C., in 1831, and the Washington Branch was opened in 1835. This line joined to the original mainline at Relay, Maryland, crossing the Patapsco on the Thomas Viaduct, which remains one of the B&O's signature structures. This line was partially funded by the state, and was operated separately until the 1870s, with the state taking a 25% cut of gross passenger receipts. This line was built in stone, much like the original mainline; by this time, however, strap rail was no longer used for new construction. Most of the stone bridges on the Old Main Line did not last long, being washed out by the periodic flooding of the Patapsco Riverand replaced at first by Bollman Truss Bridges. The Annapolis and Elk Ridge Railroad to Annapolis connected to this line at Annapolis Junction, Maryland, in 1840. As an unwritten condition for the charter, it was understood that the state would not charter any competing line between Baltimore and Washington.
First telegraph line
In 1843, Congress appropriated $30,000 for construction of an experimental convert|38|mi|km|0|sing=on
telegraphline between Washington, D.C., and Baltimore along the B&O's right-of-way. The B&O approved the project with the agreement that the railroad would have free use of the line upon its completion.John F. Stover, "History of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad". West Lafayette, Ind.: Purdue University Press, 1987 (ISBN 0-911198-81-4), pp. 59–60.] An impressive demonstration occurred on May 1, 1844, when news of the Whig Party's nomination of Henry Clayfor U.S. President was telegraphed from the party's convention in Baltimore to the Capitol Building in Washington. On May 24, 1844, the line was officially opened as Samuel F. B. Morsesent his famous words "What hath God wrought" from the B&O's Mount Clare station to the Capitol Building along the wire.
Conflicts in the early years
Operation of the railroad was hampered by its partial government ownership. Of the thirty members on its
board of directors, twelve were elected by shareholders while the other eighteen were appointed either by Maryland or the Baltimore City Council.cite book|last=Fee|first=Elizabeth|editor=Fee, Elizabeth; Shopes, Linda; and Zeidman, Linda (eds.)|title=The Baltimore Book: New Views of Local History|publisher=Temple University Press|date=1991|location=Philadelphia|pages=11-27|chapter=Evergreen House and the Garrett Family: A Railroad Fortune|isbn=0-87722-823-X] These had conflicting interests, the directors appointed by the state and city desired low fares and all construction funded from corporate revenues while the directors elected by shareholders desired greater profits and dividends. These conflicts became more intense in the 1850s after the completion of the C&O Canal, which brought additional competition to the B&O for transport services. In 1858, after being nominated by large shareholder and director Johns Hopkins, John W. Garrettbecame president of the B&O, a position he would hold until his death in 1884.cite book|last=Hall|first=C. C.|authorlink= |title=Baltimore: Its History and Its People|publisher=Lewis Historical Publishing Co.|date=1912|location= |volume=2|pages=458-461|url= |doi=|isbn= ] In the first year of his presidency, corporate operating costs were reduced from 65% of revenues to 46%, and the railroad began distributing profits to its shareholders.
Abolitionists stopped a train during
John Brown's raid on the federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Virginia (later part of West Virginia). Garrett telegraphed the Secretary of War, and a B&O train carried federal troops led by Robert E. Leeto capture the abolitionists and John Brown.
Civil War Period
At the outset of the Civil War, the B&O possessed 236 locomotives, 128 passenger coaches, 3,451 rail cars and 513 miles of rail road, all in southern states and south of the Mason-Dixon line. Although many Marylanders had Southern sympathies, Garrett and Hopkins supported the Union. The B&O was instrumental in supporting the Federal government during the Civil War, as it was the main rail connection between Washington, D.C., and the northern states. As a result, 143 raids and battles during the war involved the B&O Railroad, many resulting in substantial loss.
The opening move of the Civil War as a massive series of raids conducted by
Stonewall Jackson. By the end of 1861, 23 B&O railroad bridges had been burned, 102 miles of telegraph line were cut down, 36.5 miles of track was torn up or destroyed, 42 locomotives were burned, 14 locomotives were captured and 386 rail cars stolen and destroyed. Through these actions operations on B&O Railroad were completely shut down for ten months. It wasn't until the end of March, 1862 that service on the B&O Railroad was restored, and even then train movements were sporadic, and subject to frequent stoppages, derailments, capture and attack. Prominent raids on the B&O railroad during this period were:
Great Train Raid of 1861, May 1861
Martinsburg Train Raid, June 20-23, 1861
Romney Expedition, January 1 through January 24, 1862
** Operations during The
Maryland Campaign, September 8, 1862
** Various Raids of Brigadier General A. G. Jenkins, Fall, 1862
The second half of the Civil War was characterized by near continuous raiding, which severely hampered the Union defense of
Washington, D.C.. Incompetent Union forces and leaders often failed to properly secure the region, despite the vital importance of the rail company to the Union cause. This military strategy, or lack of it, allowed Confederate commanders to contribute significantly to the length of the war, by conducting free ranging military operations against the region and railroad.
The B&O and Garrett are particularly remembered for their part in the
Battle of Monocacy. Agents of the railroad began reporting Confederate troop movements eleven days prior to the battle, and Garrett had their intelligence passed to authorities in the War Department and to Major General Lew Wallace, who commanded the department that would be responsible for defense of the area. As preparations for the battle progressed, the B&O provided transport for federal troops and munitions, and on two occasions Garrett was contacted directly by President Abraham Lincolnfor further information. Though Union forces lost this battle, the delay allowed Ulysses S. Grantto successfully repel the Confederate attack on Washington at the Battle of Fort Stevenstwo days later. After the battle, Lincoln paid tribute to Garrett as:
Jones-Imboden Raid, April 24 through May 22, 1863
Catoctin Station Raid, June 17, 1863
First Calico Raid, June 19, 1863
B&O Raid on Duffield Station, January, 1864
** The McNeill Raid, May 5, 1864
Second Calico Raid, July 3, 1864
Battle of Monocacy, July 9, 1864
Gilmor's Raid, July 11, 1864
Greenback Raid, by Mosby's Rangers on October 14, 1864
B&O Raid on Duffield Station II, January, 1865
Gilmor's B&O Raid, February, 1865
B&O Derailment Raid, March, 1865
The Confederate leaders who led these operations and specifically targeted the railroad included:
** Lieutenant General Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson and many units under his command
** Lieutenant General
Jubal Anderson Earlyand many units under his command
** Brigadier General
Turner Ashbyand his "Black Horse" cavalry
** Brigadier General
John D. Imbodenand the 62nd Virginia Mounted Infantry (1st Partisan Rangers)
** Brigadier General
Albert G. Jenkins' and the 8th Virginia Cavalry
** Brigadier General William E. "Grumble" Jones and the "Laurel Brigade"
** Colonel John S. Mosby's "Mosby's Raiders"
Harry Gilmor's "Gilmor's Raiders"
** Captain John H. McNeill's "
Bases of operation involved in raiding the B&O Railroad
Winchester in the Civil War
Harpers Ferry, West Virginia
Westward by merger
A steel and stone bridge was built across the
Ohio Riverbetween Bellaire and Wheeling in 1871, connecting the B&O to the Central Ohio Railroad, which the B&O had leased starting in 1866. This provided a direct rail connection to Columbus, Ohio, and the lease marked the beginning of a series of expansions to the west and north.
Other railroads included in the B&O were:
Winchester and Potomac Railroadand Winchester and Strasburg Railroadfrom 1867. This pair of lines connected with the B&O at Harper's Ferry, West Virginia, and constituted the only significant B&O trackage in present day Virginia.
Sandusky, Mansfield and Newark Railroadleased through the Central Ohio in 1869
Pittsburgh and Connellsville Railroadfrom 1871. This was the B&O entry into Pittsburgh, thwarting the denial of a Pennsylvania charter to the B&O.
Somerset and Cambria Railroadfrom 1879.
Buffalo Railroadfrom 1880.
West Virginia and Pittsburgh Railroadfrom 1890.
Columbus and Cincinnati Midland Railroadleased through Central Ohio in 1890.
Monongahela River Railroadfrom 1900.
Marietta and Cincinnati Railroadfrom 1882. This was initially renamed as the Cincinnati, Washington and Baltimore Railroadin and then again to the Baltimore and Ohio Southwestern Railroadin 1889. The B&OSW absorbed the Ohio and Mississippi Railroadin 1893, giving the B&O a connection to St. Louis, Missouri, and finally the B&OSW disappeared into the rest of the system in 1900.
Ohio River Railroadfrom 1901.
Pittsburgh Junction Railroadfrom 1902.
Pittsburgh and Western Railroadfrom 1902. This was originally a narrow gauge system which was standard gauged from 1883 to 1911. It formed the main B&O line west from Pittsburgh. The line passed the Mars Train Stationin Mars, Pennsylvania, northwest of Pittsburgh.
Cleveland Terminal and Vally Railroadfrom 1909. This was the B&O's entry into Cleveland, Ohio.
Cleveland, Lorain and Wheeling Railroadfrom 1909.
Chicago Terminal Transfer Company, reorganized in 1910 as the Baltimore and Ohio Chicago Terminal Railroad. This switching line was always operated as a separate company.
Salisbury Railroadnear Pittsburgh, operated from 1912.
Cincinnati, Hamilton and Dayton Railroadfrom 1912.
Morgan and Kingwood Railroadfrom 1922.
Coal and Coke Railroadfrom 1920.
Cincinnati, Indianapolis and Western Railroadfrom 1927. This was originally part of the Cincinnati, Hamilton and Dayton, and gave the B&O a connection to Springfield, Illinois.
Buffalo, Rochester and Pittsburgh Railwayin 1932. This gave the B&O a line into New Yorkstate.
Buffalo and Susquehanna Railroadfrom 1932. Part of the line was severed from the rest of the system by flooding, and became part of the Wellsville, Addison and Galeton Railroadin 1955.
(This list omits certain short lines.)
Chicago and Alton Railroadwas purchased by the B&O in 1931 and renamed the Alton Railroad. It was always operated separately and was eventually bought by the Gulf, Mobile and Ohio Railroadafter receivership in 1942.
As a result of poor national economic conditions in the mid-1870s following the
Panic of 1873, the B&O attempted to reduce its worker's wages. After a second reduction in wages was announced in the same year, workers began the Great Railroad Strike of 1877on July 14 in Martinsburg, West Virginia. The strike spread to Cumberland, and when the governor of Maryland on July 20 attempted to put down the strike by sending the state militia from Baltimore, riots broke out resulting in 11 deaths, the burning of parts of Camden station, and damage to several engines and cars. [Scharf, J. Thomas, "History of Maryland From the Earliest Period to the Present Day", vol. 3 pages 733-42, Heritage Press: Hatboro, Pa., 1967 (reissue of 1879 edition)] The next day workers in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, staged a sympathy strikethat was also met with an assault by the state militia; Pittsburgh then erupted into widespread rioting. The strike ended after federal troops and state militias restored order.
New lines in Maryland
In 1866 the B&O began constructing the Metropolitan Branch west out of Washington, and was completed in 1873 after years of erratic effort. Before this line was laid, rail traffic west of Washington had to travel first to Relay or Baltimore before joining the main line. The line cut a more or less straight line from Washington to
Point of Rocks, Maryland, with many grades and large bridges. Upon the opening of this line, through passenger traffic was rerouted through Washington, and the old main line from Point of Rocks to Relay was reduced to secondary status as far as passenger service was concerned. Rebuilding in the early 1900s and double tracking in 1928 increased capacity; the "branches" became the "de facto" mainline, though the Old Main Line was retained as relief route.
Pennsylvania Railroad(PRR) outmaneuvered the B&O to acquire the B&O's northern connection, the Philadelphia, Wilmington and Baltimore Railroadin the early 1880s, cutting off the B&O's access to Philadelphia, Pennsylvaniaand New York. The state of Maryland had stayed true to its implicit promise not to grant competing charters for the Baltimore/Washington line, but when a charter was granted in 1860 to build a line from Baltimore to Pope's Creek in southern Maryland, lawyers for the Pennsylvania RR picked up on a clause in the unfulfilled charter allowing branches up to twenty miles long, from any point and in any direction. The projected route, passing through what is now Bowie, Maryland, could have a "branch" constructed that would allow service into Washington. The Pennsylvania picked up the charter through the agency of the Baltimore and Potomac Railroadand in 1872 service between Baltimore and Washington began. At the same time the PRR outmaneuvered the B&O and took control of the Long Bridge, B&O's connections to southern lines. In response, the B&O chartered the Philadelphia Branchin Maryland and the Baltimore and Philadelphia Railroadin Delaware and Pennsylvania and built a parallel route, finished in 1886. The Baltimore Belt Line, opened in 1895, connected the main line to the Philadelphia Branch without the need for a car ferry across the Patapsco River, but the cost of constructing the Howard Street Tunneldrove the B&O to bankruptcy in 1896. Two other lines were built in attempts to reconnect to the south. The Alexandria Branch was built in 1874, starting from Hyattsville, Maryland, and ending at a ferry operation at Shepherd's Landing. The Ferry operation continued until 1901 when the trackage rights agreement concluded as part of the construction of Washington Union Stationsaw the south end of the branch realigned to link to the PRR trackage in Anacostia, across the Anacostia River, into the Capitol Hill Tunnel, through Southwest Washington, D.C. to Potomac Yardin Alexandria, Virginia. The Alexandria Branch trackage to Shepherd's Landing was heavily used during World War IIwhen traffic congestion on the Long Bridgecaused the U.S. Army Corps of Engineersto construct a bridge along the original plan of the B&O: Alexandria to Shepherd's Landing, Washington. Trains of empty freight cars were routed north and south over the structure, which was demolished after the end of World War II.
Before either connection was made, however, another branch was built around the west side of Washington. During the 1880s the B&O had organised a group of bankrupt railroads in
Virginiainto the Virginia Midland Railroad. The VM track rack from Alexandria, Virginia, to Danville, Virginia. The line projected west across the Potomac River was intended to cross the Potomac just north of the D.C. line, to continue southwest to a connection with the B&O-controlled Virginia Midland (VM) in Fairfax, Virginia(now Fairfax Station, Virginia, to distinguish it from what was Fairfax Court House, Virginia, and is now the City of Fairfax, Virginia), and if possible to a connection with the Richmond, Fredericksburg, and Potomac Railroadin Quantico, Virginia. The branch was started in 1892 and reached Chevy Chase, Maryland, the same year. Financial problems in both the VM and B&O forced a halt to construction and led to the B&O's loss of control of the VM. Following bankruptcy, and control by the Pennsylvania Railroad, by the time the line was completed in 1910 there was no longer any point to the river crossing. Thus, the renamed Georgetown Branch came to serve a wide range of customers in Maryland and in Georgetown, such as the Potomac Electric Power Company, the Washington Milling Company, and the U.S. Government. The line cut directly across the various creeks, and as a result required a short tunnel ( Dalecarlia Tunnel) and what was said to be the longest wood trestleon the railroad over Rock Creek. The line was almost completely abandoned in 1986 by CSX and is presently used in part as the right-of-way for the Capital Crescent Trail.
After a flood damaged the C&O Canal in 1877, the B&O acquired a majority interest in the canal mainly to keep its property and right of way from potential use by the
Western Maryland Railroad. The canal was operated by the B&O until 1924 when it was damaged in another flood. The canal's property was later transferred to the U.S. government in 1938 in consideration for obtaining a loan from the federal Reconstruction Finance Corporation.
The 20th century
Following its emergence from bankruptcy, control of the B&O was acquired by the
Pennsylvania Railroadin 1901. A rising young PRR Vice President, Leonor F. Loree, was appointed President. Loree shared the Pennsy management's belief in infrastructure and the B&O at that time needed some of that. New classes of engines were built to haul longer, heavier trains faster. The Old Main Line was reworked, sections of the original right-of-way cut off by the straightening of curves and replacement of old, weight-restricted bridges with newer, heavier bridges. Most of Loree's work on the B&O physical plant remains evident today. Many iron and steel bridges on the railroad were replaced with stone (Pennsy preferred stone to the preference of the Reading and Lackawanna Railroadfor concrete).
Chesapeake and Ohio Railwaytook financial control of the B&O in 1963. The B&O already had a controlling interest in the Western Maryland Railway. In 1973 the three railroads were brought together under one corporate identity, the Chessie System, although they continued to operate as separate railroads. The Western Maryland was merged into the B&O in 1976. In 1980, the Chessie System and Seaboard Coast Line Industries, a holding company that owned the Seaboard Coast Line, the Louisville & Nashville, the Clinchfield, and the Georgia Railroad, agreed to form CSX Corporation. SCL Industries was renamed the Seaboard System Railroadin 1983. SBD was renamed CSX in 1986. In April, 1987, the B&O finally went out of corporate existence when it formally merged with the C&O, which itself was then merged into CSX in August of the same year.
At the height of railroading's golden age, the B&O was one of several trunk lines uniting the northeast quadrant of the United States into an industrial zone. It marked the southern border and corresponded to the New York Central's marking of the northern border. The Pennsylvania Railroad controlled the center and smaller roads like the
Lackawanna, Lehigh Valley, and the Eriesurvived largely through the Interstate Commerce Commission. The corners of this map are Baltimore in the southeast, Boston in the northeast, Chicago in the northwest, and St. Louis in the southwest.
Wide image|Columbian at Thomas Viaduct.jpg|600px|
The "Columbian" on
Thomas Viaduct, Relay, Maryland, in 1949
When construction began on the B&O in the 1820s, railroad engineering was in its infancy. Unsure exactly which materials would suffice, the B&O erred on the side of sturdiness and built many of its early structures of
granite. Even the track bed to which ironstrap rail was affixed consisted of the stone.
Though the granite soon proved too unforgiving and expensive for track, most of the B&O's bridges have survived until the present, and many are still in active railroad use by CSX. Baltimore's
Carrollton Viaduct, named in honor of Charles Carroll of Carrollton(who laid the cornerstone), was the B&O's first bridge, and is the world's oldest railroad bridge still in use. The Thomas Viaductin Relay, Maryland, was the longest bridge in the United States upon its completion in 1835, and remains in use as well. The B&O made extensive use of the Bollman iron truss bridge in the mid-1800s; its durability and ease of assembly aided faster railroad construction.
As the B&O built west from Baltimore in 1830, it followed the banks of the
Patapsco Riverupstream to the water's source at Parrs Spring near present-day Mount Airy, Maryland. At the time little data about the operation of steam locomotives was available, and consequently the B&O was uncertain if metal wheels would grip the metal rails sufficiently to pull a train up to the top of Parrs Ridge. The railroad decided to construct two inclined planes on each side of the ridge along which teams of horses, and perhaps steam-powered winches, would assist pulling the trains uphill. The planes, about a mile long on each side of the ridge, quickly proved an operational bottleneck, and before the decade of the 1830s ended the B&O built a 5.5 mile long alternate route that became known as the Mount Airy Loop. The planes were quickly abandoned and forgotten, though some artifacts survive to the present.
Old Main Line Subdivision"
;Mount AiryThe Mount Airy Branch is the surviving, in-use portion of the 1839-opened Mount Airy Loop. The Loop had been mainline track until superseded by the Mount Airy Cutoff and Tunnel in 1902.
;FrederickThe Frederick Branch was built because the city of Frederick would not pay the B&O the cost of routing the railroad through the rougher terrain into downtown Frederick. The branch opened on
December 1, 1831. The continuation of the main line from Frederick Junction opened April 2, 1832.
;Patuxent BranchThe Patuxent Branch was constructed in the 1880s and split off from the Washington Branch at
Savage, Marylandto serve a mill, a quarry, and other small industry. After 1925, the line was gradually cut back, and disconnected completely in 2005.
;Georgetown BranchOriginally intended as an extension of the railroad to a crossing of the
Potomac Rivernear the Chain Bridge, the agreement between the Pennsylvania Railroadand the B&O resulting from the rerouting of track for the Washington Union Stationproject put an end to the crossing and the branch settled down to being just a country railroad until the Washington, D.C.suburbs grew around it (Silver Spring, Chevy Chase, Bethesda).
;Washington County BranchThe B&O had decided against a direct line to Hagerstown, though the city had petitioned the Directors. Several north-south routes like the
Cumberland Valleybuilt through Hagerstown and the construction of the Western Maryland Railwayto that city persuaded the B&O management to build a branch. It was decided that the branch would leave the mainline at Wevertonand wind its way through the hills of Western Maryland to Hagerstown. A station was constructed at the stub end of the line in downtown Hagerstown.
;Baltimore & New York RailroadConstructed from Cranford Junction on the
Central Railroad of New Jersey, in Union County, New Jersey, New Jerseyeast to St. George, Staten Island, New Yorkto give the B&O access to its own deepwater port and ferry terminal. See entry on Staten Island Railway. More history is at [http://jcrhs.org/B&O.html this page] .
* [http://www.earlpleasants.com/search_1.asp Railroad History Database]
* [http://www.geocities.com/scott_w_dunlap/BORRTIME.htm The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Timeline]
*Mileposts from [http://web.archive.org/web/20040718192935/www.trainweb.org/csxtimetables/Contents.html CSX Transportation Timetables]
* Dilts, James D. (1996), " [http://books.google.com/books?id=JjrCWPwvHzIC The Great Road: The Building of the Baltimore and Ohio, the Nation's First Railroad, 1828-1853] ," Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press, ISBN 978-0804726290
last = Harwood, Jr.
first = Herbert H.
title = Impossible Challenge II
place = Baltimore
publisher = Barnard, Roberts
year = 1994
isbn = 978-0934118224
* Ramage, James A., "Gray Ghost: The Life of Colonel John Singleton Mosby". University Press of Kentucky, 1999.
*Sagle, Lawrence, and Alvin Staufer. "B&O Power", Alvin F. Staufer, 1964.
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad locomotives
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Martinsburg Shops, a National Historic Landmark
Baltimore Belt Line
Aeolus Railroad Car
* Camden Station
Mount Royal Station
Mount Clare Shops
* "La Paz"
* [http://www.borhs.org/ B&O Railroad Historical Society]
* [http://www.trainweb.org/oldmainline/ B&O Railroad Photo Tours in and around Maryland]
* [http://baltoco.org/borailroad B&O Railroad page on the Baltimore Collective]
* [http://www.borail.org/ Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Museum]
* [http://americanhistory.si.edu/archives/d8171.htm John W. Garrett Collection, 1850-1880] Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
* [http://www.geocities.com/scott_w_dunlap/BORRNET.htm The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Network]
* [http://oldrailhistory.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=31&Itemid=59 Maryland Railroads as of 1850]
* [http://oldrailhistory.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=44&Itemid=72 Virginia (and West Virginia) Railroads as of 1850]
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