Paul Émile de Puydt

Paul Émile de Puydt

Paul Émile de Puydt (1810–1891), a writer whose contributions included work in botany and economics, was born and died in Mons, Belgium.

As a botanist, he notably wrote on orchids.[1] The standard botanical author abbreviation De Puydt is applied to species he described.

As a political economist, he is known as the inventor of the term panarchy, the concept of people in the same jurisdiction having the freedom to choose which government to join, and governments having to compete for citizens. [2] The term has been borrowed for use by some forms of anarchism. The notion of competitive government can also be found in the writings of the Belgian economist Gustave de Molinari.


  1. ^ Les Orchidées, P.E. de Puydt
  2. ^ P. E. de Puydt, Panarchy, first published in French in the Revue Trimestrielle, Bruxelles, July 1860.