- List of rulers of Bavaria
The following is a list of rulers during the history of Bavaria. Bavaria was ruled by several dukes and kings, partitioned and reunited, under several dynasties. Since 1949 Bavaria has been a democratic state in Federal Republic of Germany.
Agilolfing dynasty, 548–788
Around 548 the kings of the Franks placed the border region of Bavaria under the administration of a duke — possibly Frankish or possibly chosen from amongst the local leading families — who was supposed to act as a regional governor for the Frankish king. The first duke we know of, and likely the first, was Gariwald, or Garibald I, a member of the powerful Agilolfing family. This was the beginning of a series of Agilolfing dukes that was to last until 788.
Carolingian dynasty, 788–911
The Kings (later Emperors) of the Franks now assumed complete control, placing Bavaria under the rule of non-hereditary governors and civil servants. They were not Dukes but rather Kings of Bavaria. The Emperor Louis the Pious divided control of the Empire among his sons, and the divisions became permanent in the decades following his death in 840. The Frankish rulers controlled Bavaria as part of their possessions.
Luitpolding dynasty, 911–947
Luitpold, founder of the Luitpolding dynasty, was not a Duke of Bavaria but a Margrave of Carinthia under the rule of Louis the Child. Frankish power had waned in the region due to Hungarian attacks, allowing the local rulers greater independence. Luitpold's son, Arnulf, claimed the title of Duke (implying full autonomy) in 911, and was recognized as such by the German King Henry the Fowler in 920.
German kings, 947–1070
From 947 until the 11th century, the kings of Germany repeatedly transferred Bavaria into different hands (including their own), never allowing any one family to establish itself. Bavaria was ruled by a series of short-lasting, mostly unrelated dynasties.
Houses of Welf and Babenberg, 1070–1180
In 1070, Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor deposed duke Otto, granting the duchy instead to Welf I, Duke of Bavaria, a member of the Italo-Bavarian family of Este. Welf I subsequently quarreled with King Henry and was deprived of his duchy for nineteen years, during which it was directly administered by the German crown. Welf I recovered the duchy in 1096, and was succeeded by his sons Welf II and Henry IX — the latter was succeeded by his son Henry X, who also became Duke of Saxony.
Wittelsbach dynasty, 1180–1918
In 1180, Henry XII the Lion and Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor, fell out, and Frederick dispossessed the duke and gave his territory to Otto I Wittelsbach, Duke of Bavaria of the House of Wittelsbach. Bavaria remained in the possession of various branches of the family until the First World War.
First partition, 1253–1340
In 1253, on Otto II's death, Bavaria was divided between his sons. Henry became Duke of Lower Bavaria, and Louis of Upper Bavaria. From this point until the beginning of the 16th century, the territories were frequently divided between brothers, making the Dukes difficult to list.
In Lower Bavaria, Henry XIII was succeeded by his three sons, Otto III, Louis III, and Stephen I ruling jointly. Otto III's successor in the joint dukedom was his son Henry XV. Stephen's successors were his sons Otto IV and Henry XIV. Henry XIV's son was John I.
In Upper Bavaria, Louis II was succeeded by his sons Rudolf I and Louis IV. The latter was elected King of Germany in 1314. After John I's death in 1340, Louis IV unified the Bavarian duchy.
The dukes of Upper Bavaria served also as Counts Palatinate of the Rhine. In 1329 Louis IV released the Palatinate of the Rhine including the Bavarian Upper Palatinate to the sons of Rudolf I. The Upper Palatinate would be reunited with Bavaria in 1623, the Lower Palatinate in 1777.
Second partition 1349–1503
From 1349 until 1503 the second partition of Bavaria took place. In 1349, the six sons of Louis IV partitioned Bavaria into Upper and Lower Bavaria again. In 1353, Lower Bavaria was partitioned into Bavaria-Landshut and Bavaria-Straubing. Upper Bavaria was partitioned between Bavaria-Straubing and Bavaria-Landshut in 1363. After the death of Stephan II in 1392, Bavaria-Landshut was broken into three duchies, John II, Duke of Bavaria gained Bavaria-Munich, Frederick, Duke of Bavaria-Landshut received a smaller Bavaria-Landshut, and in Bavaria-Ingolstadt ruled Stephen III, Duke of Bavaria.
1349–1363 Duchy of Lower Bavaria
In 1353, Lower Bavaria was partitioned into Bavaria-Landshut and Bavaria-Straubing.
Duchy of Upper Bavaria
In 1363, Upper Bavaria was annexed by Bavaria-Landshut.
Duchy of Bavaria-Landshut Duchy of Bavaria-Straubing
Also Counts of Holland, Zeeland and Hainaut
Duchy of Bavaria-Landshut Duchy of Bavaria-Straubing 1363–1425/29 Duchy of Bavaria-Landshut
In 1392, Bavaria-Landshut was broken into three duchies, Bavaria-Munich, a smaller Bavaria-Landshut, and Bavaria-Ingolstadt.
Duchy of Bavaria-Straubing
In 1429, Bavaria-Straubing was partitioned among the other Bavarian duchies.
Duchy of Bavaria-Munich Duchy of Bavaria-Landshut Duchy of Bavaria-Ingolstadt Duchy of Bavaria-Munich Duchy of Bavaria-Landshut Duchy of Bavaria-Ingolstadt 1429–1503 Duchy of Bavaria-Munich
Bavaria-Munich was partitioned into a smaller Bavaria-Munich and Bavaria-Dachau in 1467.
Duchy of Bavaria-Landshut Duchy of Bavaria-Ingolstadt
Bavaria-Ingolstadt was annexed by Bavaria-Landshut in 1447.
Duchy of Bavaria-Munich Duchy of Bavaria-Dachau
Bavaria-Dachau was reunited with Bavaria-Munich in 1501.
Duchy of Bavaria-Landshut
Bavaria-Landshut was annexed by Bavaria-Munich in 1503.
Duchy of Bavaria-Munich
Following the Landshut War (1503–1505), the Duke of Bavaria-Munich Albert IV the Wise became ruler of Bavaria. In 1506 Albert decreed that the duchy should pass according to the rules of primogeniture.
Kings of Bavaria, 1806–1918
In 1805 under the Peace of Pressburg between the Napoleonic France and the Holy Roman Empire several duchies were elevated to kingdoms. The Wittelsbach rulers of Bavaria held the title King of Bavaria from 1806 until 1918. The prince-elector of Bavaria, Maximilian IV Joseph formally assumed the title King Maximilian I of Bavaria on 1 January 1806. The well-known so called Märchenkönig (Fairy tale king) Ludwig II constructed Neuschwanstein Castle, Herrenchiemsee or Linderhof Palace during his reign (1864–1886). In 1918 Ludwig III lost his throne in the German Revolution of 1918–1919.
In 1918 — at the end of the First World War in the German Revolution of 1918–1919 Bavaria became a democratic republic in the Weimar Republic; the name for the period of Germany from 1919 to 1933. Since then the rulers of Bavaria are minister presidents.
Table of rulers
Name Image Title Start term End term House Part Note Garibald I Duke of Bavaria 555 (c.) 591 Agilolfings Some sources call him "King of the Bavarians". Tassilo I Duke of Bavaria 591 (c.) 610 Agilolfings Named rex (king) at his ascension. Garibald II Duke of Bavaria 610 (c.) 630 Agilolfings Theodo Duke of Bavaria 680 (c.) 716 (?) Agilolfings By the time of Theodo, who died in 716 or 717, the Bavarian duchy had achieved complete independence from the Frankish kings. Theodo's sons divided the duchy, but by 719 the rule had returned to Grimoald. Theodbert Duke 702 (c.) 719 Agilolfings Salzburg Son of Theodo. Theobald Duke 711 (c.) 719 Agilolfings Parts of Bavaria Son of Theodo. Tassilo II Duke 716 (c.) 719 Agilolfings Passau Son of Theodo. Grimoald Duke 716 (c.) 725 Agilolfings Freising Son of Theodo, later ruling all of Bavaria. Hugbert Duke 725 737 Agilolfings Son of Theudbert. In 725(?), Charles Martel, ruler in fact though not in name of the Frankish realm, reasserted royal supremacy over Bavaria, defeating and killing Grimoald and annexing portions of Bavaria during the rule of Hugbert. Odilo 737 748 Agilolfings Son of Gotfrid. Grifo 748 748 Agilolfings Usurper Tassilo III Duke of Bavaria 748 788 Agilolfings In 757 Tassilo III recognized the suzerainty of the Frankish kings Pippin III and did homage to Charlemagne in 781, and again in 787, while pursued an independent policy. In 788, Charlemagne had Tassilo sentenced to death on a charge of treason. Tassilo, granted pardon, entered a monastery and formally renounced his duchy at Frankfurt am Main in 794. Charlemagne Emperor 788 814 Carolingian Gerold of Vinzgouw Prefect of Bavaria 794 799 Udalriching Appointed Baioariæ præfectus by Charlemagne. Died in battle. Louis the Pious Emperor 814 817 Carolingian In 817, Louis bestowed Bavaria upon his then-youngest son, Louis the German. Louis the German King of Bavaria 817 865 Carolingian Louis was to rule as King of Bavaria, subordinate to his father, until the latter's death in 840. From 843, Bavaria was merged in Louis the German's Kingdom of East Francia. In 864, Louis the German gave control of Bavaria to his son Carloman, and died in 876. Louis' two younger sons, Louis and Charles — the latter of whom briefly recovered control of all the Frankish possessions — ruled Bavaria in succession after Carloman. Carloman King of Bavaria 864 880 Carolingian Eldest son of Louis the German. Louis the Younger King of Bavaria 880 882 Carolingian Son of Louis the German. Charles the Fat King of Bavaria 882 887 Carolingian Youngest son of Louis the German. Arnulf of Carinthia King of Bavaria 887 899 Carolingian Son of Carloman. Louis the Child King of Bavaria 899 911 Carolingian Son of Arnulf of Carinthia. Engeldeo Margrave of Bavaria 890 895 Deprived of his title marchio Baioariorum and replaced by Luitpold. Luitpold Margrave of Bavaria 895 907 Luitpolding Arnulf the Bad Duke of Bavaria 907 937 Luitpolding Son of Luitpold.
Arnulf the Bad claimed the title of Duke — implying full autonomy — in 911, and was recognized as such by the German King Henry the Fowler, in 920.
Eberhard Duke of Bavaria 937 938 Luitpolding Berthold Duke of Bavaria 938 947 Luitpolding Younger son of Luitpold.
The German King Otto I reasserted central authority, banishing Arnulf's son Eberhard and re-granting the title to Berthold, a younger son of Luitpold.
Henry I, Duke of Bavaria Duke of Bavaria 947 955 Ottonian Son of Henry the Fowler.
On Berthold's death, Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor, gave the duchy to his own brother Henry (I), who was also Arnulf the Bad's son-in-law.
Henry II the Quarrelsome Duke of Bavaria 955 976 Ottonian Henry II made war upon his cousin, Emperor Otto II, and was deprived of his duchy in 976 in favor of his cousin Otto, Duke of Swabia (who now acquired two dukedoms). Otto I Duke of Bavaria 976 982 Ottonian Henry III the Younger Duke of Bavaria 983 985 Luitpolding Bavaria was given to Berthold's son Henry III, briefly restoring the Luitpolding dynasty. Henry III exchanged Bavaria for Carinthia, and Henry II received Bavaria again. Henry II the Quarrelsome Duke of Bavaria 985 995 Ottonian Restored Henry IV Duke of Bavaria 995 1004 Ottonian Son of Henry II the Quarrelsome. Henry V Duke of Bavaria 1004 1009 Luxemburg Son of Siegfried of Luxembourg. Henry IV Duke of Bavaria 1009 1017 Ottonian Henry IV reasserted direct control. Henry V Duke of Bavaria 1017 1026 Luxemburg Son of Siegfried of Luxembourg.
Conrad II, Holy Roman Emperor, King of Germany, gave Bavaria to his son Henry VI after the death of Henry V in 1026.
Henry VI the Black Duke of Bavaria 1026 1042 Salian Son of Conrad II, Holy Roman Emperor.
Later Henry was elected as Holy Roman Emperor Henry III, and became King of Germany in 1039.
Henry VII Duke of Bavaria 1042 1047 Luxemburg Son of Frederick, Duke of Lower Lorraine.
In 1042, Henry III, Holy Roman Emperor, granted the duchy to Henry VII, Count of Luxemburg, nephew of Henry V.
Conrad I (Kuno) Duke of Bavaria 1049 1053 Ezzonen Son of Liudolf of Lotharingia.
After Henry VII's death, the dukedom was vacant for a couple of years. Henry III, Holy Roman Emperor, then gave the duchy to Kuno, Count of Zütphen, in 1049. Kuno was deposed in 1053.
Henry VIII Duke of Bavaria 1053 1054 Salian Son of Henry III, Holy Roman Emperor.
During his reign in Bavaria Henry VIII was a minor (born 1050). In 1056 he became King of Germany and Holy Roman Emperor as Henry IV in 1084.
Conrad II Duke of Bavaria 1054 1055 Salian (minor, born 1052, died 1055) Son of Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor Henry VIII Duke of Bavaria 1055 1061 Salian (minor: born 1050) Son of Henry III, Holy Roman Emperor. Henry VIII became King of Germany (1056) and Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor in 1084. Otto II Duke of Bavaria 1061 1070 Northeim In 1061 Empress Agnes — the 11-year-old King Henry IV's mother and regent — entrusted the duchy to Otto of Nordheim. Welf I Duke of Bavaria 1070 1077 Welf Welf I subsequently quarreled with Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor and was deprived of his duchy for nineteen years, during which it was directly administered by the German crown. Henry VIII Duke of Bavaria 1077 1096 Salian (minor: born 1050) Son of Henry III, Holy Roman Emperor. Henry VIII became King of Germany (1056) and Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor in 1084. Welf I Duke of Bavaria 1096 1101 Welf Welf I recovered the duchy in 1096. Welf II Duke of Bavaria 1101 1120 Welf Son of Welf I Henry IX the Black Duke of Bavaria 1120 1126 Welf Son of Welf I.
Henry X the Proud Duke of Bavaria 1126 1138 Welf Son of Henry IX the Black.
In a power struggle with King Conrad III of Germany, Henry X lost his duchy to the King, who granted it to his follower Leopold Margrave of Austria.
Leopold I Duke of Bavaria 1139 1141 Babenberg When Leopold died, Conrad III of Germany resumed the duchy and granted it to Leopold's brother Henry XI. Henry XI Jasomirgott Duke of Bavaria 1143 1156 Babenberg Brother of Leopold. Henry XII the Lion Duke of Bavaria 1156 1180 Welf When Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor, became king of Germany, he restored Bavaria to the Welf line in the person of Henry X's son, Henry XII the Lion, Duke of Saxony. Otto I Duke of Bavaria 1180 1183 Wittelsbach In 1180 Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor gave Bavaria to Otto I Wittelsbach, Duke of Bavaria of the House of Wittelsbach. Louis I Duke of Bavaria 1183 1231 Wittelsbach Son of Otto I.
Louis obtained the Palatinate of the Rhine in 1214. So Louis I served also as Count Palatine of the Rhine. He was assassinated 1231.
Otto II Duke of Bavaria 1231 1253 Wittelsbach Otto II served also as Count Palatine of the Rhine. On Otto II's death, Bavaria was divided between his sons. Henry became duke of Lower Bavaria, and Louis of Upper Bavaria. From this point until the beginning of the 16th century, the territories were frequently divided between brothers. Henry XIII Duke of Bavaria 1253 1290 Wittelsbach Lower Bavaria Son of Otto II (co-ruler) Louis II Duke of Bavaria 1253 1294 Wittelsbach Upper Bavaria Son of Otto II (co-ruler) Louis III Duke of Bavaria 1290 1296 Wittelsbach Lower Bavaria Son of Henry XIII (co-ruler) Stephen I Duke of Bavaria 1290 1309 Wittelsbach Lower Bavaria Son of Henry XIII (co-ruler) Otto III Duke of Bavaria 1290 1312 Wittelsbach Lower Bavaria Son of Henry XIII (co-ruler). King of Hungary 1306–08 Rudolf I Duke of Bavaria 1294 1317 Wittelsbach Upper Bavaria Son of Louis II (co-ruler) Louis IV Duke of Bavaria 1294 1347 Wittelsbach Upper Bavaria
Son of Louis II.
Co-ruled with his brother Rudolf I until 1317 — then alone. Louis IV was elected King of Germany in 1314. In the Treaty of Pavia (1329) Louis IV released the Palatinate of the Rhine including the Bavarian Upper Palatinate to the sons of Rudolf I. After John I the Child's death in 1340, Louis IV unified the Bavarian duchy.
Otto IV Duke of Bavaria 1309 1334 Wittelsbach Lower Bavaria Son of Stephen I (co-ruler) Henry XIV the Elder Duke of Bavaria 1309 1339 Wittelsbach Lower Bavaria Son of Stephen I (co-ruler) Henry XV the Natterberger Duke of Bavaria 1312 1333 Wittelsbach Lower Bavaria Son of Otto III (co-ruler) John I the Child Duke of Bavaria 1339 1340 Wittelsbach Lower Bavaria Son of Henry XIV the Elder (co-ruler). After John I's death in 1340, Louis IV unified the Bavarian duchy (1340–1349). Louis V the Brandenburger Duke of Bavaria 1347 1361 Wittelsbach Bavaria and 2nd partition Son of Louis IV. Stephan II Duke of Bavaria 1347 1375 Wittelsbach Bavaria and 2nd partition Son of Louis IV. Louis VI the Roman Duke of Bavaria 1347 1351 Wittelsbach Bavaria and 2nd partition Son of Louis IV. William I Duke of Bavaria 1347 1388 Wittelsbach Bavaria and 2nd partition Son of Louis IV. Albert I Duke of Bavaria 1347 1404 Wittelsbach Bavaria and 2nd partition Son of Louis IV. Otto V Duke of Bavaria 1347 1351 Wittelsbach Bavaria and 2nd partition Son of Louis IV. Meinhard 1361 1363 Wittelsbach Upper Bavaria Son of Louis V the Brandenburger. Margrave of Tyrol. After his death in 1363, Upper Bavaria was partitioned between Bavaria-Straubing and Bavaria-Landshut. John II Duke of Bavaria 1375 1397 Wittelsbach Bavaria-Landshut Bavaria-Munich Son of Stephan II Frederick Duke of Bavaria-Landshut 1375 1393 Wittelsbach Bavaria-Landshut Son of Stephan II Stephen III 1375 1413 Wittelsbach Bavaria-Landshut Bavaria-Ingolstadt Son of Stephan II Albert II Duke of Bavaria-Straubing 1389 1397 Wittelsbach Bavaria-Straubing Son of Albert I. Co-ruler with Albert I. Henry XVI the Rich Duke of Bavaria-Landshut 1392 1450 Wittelsbach Bavaria-Landshut Son of Frederick, annexed Bavaria-Ingolstadt in 1447. William III Duke of Bavaria-Munich 1397 1435 Wittelsbach Bavaria-Munich Son of John II. Co-ruler with Ernest Ernest Duke of Bavaria-Munich 1397 1438 Wittelsbach Bavaria-Munich Son of John II. Co-ruler with William III (Alone from 1435) William II Duke of Bavaria-Straubing 1404 1417 Wittelsbach Bavaria-Straubing Son of Albert I Louis VII the Bearded Duke of Bavaria-Ingolstadt 1413 1443 Wittelsbach Bavaria-Ingolstadt Son of Stephen III Jacqueline Duchess of Bavaria-Straubing 1417 1432 Wittelsbach Bavaria-Straubing Daughter of William II, Duke of Bavaria-Straubing. Until 1425 contested by John III the Pitiless. In 1432 Bavaria-Straubing was partitioned among the other Bavarian duchies. John III the Pitiless Duke of Bavaria-Straubing 1418 1425 Wittelsbach Bavaria-Straubing Son of Albert I. Contested Jacqueline until his death 1425. Albert III Duke of Bavaria-Munich 1438 1460 Wittelsbach Bavaria-Munich Son of Ernest Louis VIII the Younger Duke of Bavaria-Ingolstadt 1443 1445 Wittelsbach Bavaria-Ingolstadt Son Louis VII the Bearded. Bavaria-Ingolstadt was annexed by Bavaria-Landshut in 1447. Louis IX the Rich Duke of Bavaria-Landshut 1450 1479 Wittelsbach Bavaria-Landshut Son of Henry XVI the Rich John IV Duke of Bavaria 1460 1463 Wittelsbach Bavaria-Munich Son of Albert III. Co-ruler with Sigismund and Albert IV the Wise Sigismund 1460 1501 Wittelsbach Bavaria-Munich Bavaria-Dachau Son of Albert III
Bavaria-Dachau was reunited with Bavaria-Munich in 1501.
George the Rich Duke of Bavaria-Landshut 1479 1503 Wittelsbach Bavaria-Landshut Son of Louis IX the Rich.
Bavaria-Landshut was annexed by Bavaria-Munich.
Ducal Bavaria (indivisible)
Name Image Title Start term End term House Part Note Albert IV
Duke of Bavaria 1463 18 March 1508 Wittelsbach Bavaria-Munich Son of Albert III, he became ruler of the greater part of Bavaria following the Landshut War (1503–1505). In 1506 Albert decreed that the duchy should pass according to the rules of primogeniture. Called "the Wise."
Bavaria-Munich was partitioned into a smaller Bavaria-Munich and Bavaria-Dachau in 1467.
Duke of Bavaria 18 March 1508 6 March 1550 Wittelsbach Son of Albert IV the Wise. Co-ruler with Louis X Louis X
Duke of Bavaria 1516 22 April 1545 Wittelsbach Son of Albert IV the Wise. Co-ruler with William IV Albert V
Duke of Bavaria 6 March 1550 24 October 1579 Wittelsbach Son of William IV William V
Duke of Bavaria 24 October 1579 15 October 1597 Wittelsbach Son of Albert V, abdicated, died 1626. Maximilian I Prince-elector of Bavaria 23 December 1597 25 February 1623 Wittelsbach Son of William V. Maximilian I, was an ally of Emperor Ferdinand II in the Thirty Years' War. When the Elector Palatine, Frederick V, head of a senior branch of the Wittelsbachs, became involved in the war against the Emperor, he was stripped of his Imperial offices and Electoral title. Maximilian I was granted the Electorate of the Rhenish Palatinate in 1623.
Name Image Title Start term End term House Note Maximilian I Prince-elector of Bavaria 25 February 1623 27 September 1651 Wittelsbach In 1648, Frederick of the Palatinate's heir was restored to his Rhenish territory — but not to the Oberpfalz ceded to Bavaria — together with a new Electorate; Maximilian retained the Electorate granted him in 1623. Ferdinand Maria Prince-elector of Bavaria 27 September 1651 26 May 1679 Wittelsbach Son of Maximilian I. 1651-1654 under regency of his uncle Albert VI of Bavaria. Maximilian II Emanuel Prince-elector of Bavaria 26 May 1679 26 February 1726 Wittelsbach Son of Ferdinand Maria and Princess Henriette Adelaide of Savoy.
Maximilian II took part in the War of the Spanish Succession on the side of France, against the Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I. He was accordingly forced to flee Bavaria following the Battle of Blenheim and deprived of his Electorate on 29 April 1706. He regained his Electorate in 1714 by the Peace of Baden and ruled until 1726.
Prince-elector of Bavaria 26 February 1726 20 January 1745 Wittelsbach Son of Maximilian II Emanuel.
Charles Albert once again took on the House of Habsburg in the War of the Austrian Succession, again in combination with France, succeeding so far as to be elected Holy Roman Emperor in 1742 (as Charles VII). However, the Austrians occupied Bavaria (1742–1744), and the Emperor died shortly after returning to Munich.
Maximilian III Joseph Prince-elector of Bavaria 20 January 1745 30 December 1777 Wittelsbach Son of Charles Albert.
Maximilian III, who had no children, was the last of the direct Bavarian Wittelsbach line descended from Louis IV. He was succeeded by the Elector Palatine, Charles Theodore, who thereby regained their old titles for the senior Wittelsbach line — descended from Louis IV's older brother Rudolf I.
Elector Palatine 30 December 1777 16 February 1799 Wittelsbach Son of John Christian, Count of Palatinate-Sulzbach and Marie Anne Henriëtte Leopoldine de La Tour d'Auvergne.
Distant cousin of Maximilian III; Elector Palatine from 1743.
Charles Theodore was also childless, and was succeeded by a distant cousin, the Count Palatine of Zweibrücken, Maximilian IV Joseph — later King Maximilian I.
Maximilian IV Joseph Elector Palatine 16 February 1799 6 August 1806 Wittelsbach Son of Count Palatine Frederick Michael of Zweibrücken.
Distant cousin of Charles Theodore; Count Palatine of Zweibrücken from 1795.
In the chaos of the wars of the French Revolution, the old order of the Holy Roman Empire collapsed. In the course of these events, Bavaria became once again the ally of France, and Maximilian IV Joseph became King Maximilian I of Bavaria — whilst remaining Prince-Elector and Arch-steward of the Holy Roman Empire until 6 August 1806, when the Holy Roman Empire was abolished.
Members of the Electoral College of the Holy Roman Empire following the Golden Bull of 1356
Name Image Title Start term End term House Note Maximilian I King of Bavaria 26 December 1805 13 October 1825 Wittelsbach see above Ludwig I King of Bavaria 13 October 1825 20 March 1848 Wittelsbach Son of Maximilian IV Joseph.
Abdicated in the Revolutions of 1848
Maximilian II King of Bavaria 20 March 1848 10 March 1864 Wittelsbach Son of Ludwig I Ludwig II King of Bavaria 10 March 1864 13 June 1886 Wittelsbach Son of Maximilian II Otto I King of Bavaria 13 June 1886 5 November 1913 Wittelsbach Son of Maximilian II.
Otto was mentally ill throughout his reign, and his functions were carried out by the following prince regents:
Ludwig III King of Bavaria 5 November 1913 13 November 1918 Wittelsbach Son of Prince Luitpold.
Prince regent from 1912 until 1913, Then King of Bavaria, he lost his throne in the German Revolution of 1918–1919 at the end of World War I.
For later rulers, see List of Ministers-President of Bavaria.
- ^ Paul the Deacon (1907), History of the Langobards (Historia Langobardorum), William Dudley Foulke, trans. (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania), III, x, calls him "king of the Bavarians". The mid-thirteenth-century Series Ducum Bavariæ calls him Garibaldus rex, see FMG.[dead link]
- ^ King, Greg (1996.), The Mad King: The Life and Times of Ludwig II of Bavaria., ISBN 978-1-55972-362-6
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