- Carlo Fontana
Carlo Fontana (1634 or 1638 - 1714) was an Italian architect, who was in part responsible for the classicizing direction taken by Late
There seems to be no proof that he belonged to the family of famous architects of the same name, which included
Domenico Fontana. Born in Brusato, near Como(now part of the town of Novazzanoin Canton Ticino, Switzerland), Fontana went to Romebefore 1655. He became a draghtsman for the architectural plans of Pietro da Cortona, Carlo Rainaldi, and Gian Lorenzo Bernini. Bernini employed him for nearly a decade in diverse projects.
His first independent project may be the church of San Biagio in Campitelli, completed by 1665. His façade at
San Marcello al Corso(1682-3) is described as one of his most successful works. For his patron, Innocent XI, he erected the immense building of the Istituto Apostolico San Michele at Ripa Grande, organized around its church; the baptismal chapel at St. Peter's; and slightly modified and finished Palazzo Montecitorio, which had been begun as Bernini's Palazzo Ludovisi, for Niccolò Ludovisi during the reign of the Ludovisi pope Gregory XV, and which he publicized by a "Discorso" (1694).
At the request of
Clement XIhe built the public granaries ("Olearie Papale") within the ruins of the Baths of Diocletian[http://www.romeartlover.it/Vasi35.htm#The%20Granaries%20of%20the%20Popes] (currently used for temporary exhibitions), the portico of Santa Maria in Trastevere, and the basin of the fountain of San Pietro in Montorio. He designed the Casanate library at Santa Maria sopra Minerva, designed the ribbed hemispherical dome for the duomoof Montefiascone(completed long after his death) and the casino in the Vatican, and collected all the models of the building.
Fontana mainly worked in Rome, assisted by his nephews Girolamo and Francesco Fontana (1668-1708), but he sent a model for the cathedral of
Fulda, and others to Viennafor the royal stables. Among his other foreign works were the designs for a Jesuitmonastery in Azpeitia, Spain, in the village of Loyola where Saint Ignatius of Loyola, the founder of the Jesuit Order was born. This grandiose basilicawas a major influence upon baroque architecture of the New World.
Fontana was an able artist and a good designer, but lacked the innovation that characterized early Baroque architects like Cortona and
Borromini. In addition, he was more successful as an architect than as a writer. By order of Innocent XI he wrote a diffuse historical description of the "Templum Vaticanum" (1694), which included his project for completing St. Peter's. In this work Fontana advised the demolition of that dense nest of medieval houses called "La Spina" which formed a sort of island from Ponte Sant' Angeloto the piazza of St. Peter's; the project was completed under Mussolini, creating the " Via della Conciliazione". Fontana made a calculation of the whole expense of St. Peter's from the beginning to 1694, which amounted to 46,800,052 crowns, without including models. He also published works on the Colosseum; the Aqueducts; the inundation of the Tiber, etc. Furthermore, twenty seven manuscript volumes of his writings and sketches are preserved in the Royal Library at Windsor.
Fontana was "principe" of the
Accademia di San Lucain 1686 and 1692-1700. Fontana's studio was one of the most prolific in Europe; its designs for fountains, tombs, and altars were often imitated or reproduced abroad. Among Fontana's disciples, who spread his fame throughout Europe, were Giovanni Battista Vaccariniin Sicily, Filippo Juvarrain Italyand Spain, James Gibbsin England, Matthaus Daniel Poppelmannin Germany, Johann Lucas von Hildebrandtand Fischer von Erlachin Austria, and Nicola Michettiin Italyand Russia.Other Fontana pupils include Giovan Battista Continiand Carlo Francesco Bizzacheri.
Works in Rome
Palazzo Giustiniani. Rebuilding and refurbishing, with Francesco Borrominiand others
Palazzo Montecitorio(1694–97); the headquarters of the Camera dei Deputatiof the Italian government since 1871.
*Façade of the church of
San Marcello al Corso(1682-1683). The slightly concave façade with the emphatic portico, the masterfully rhythmic use of Corinthian columns and pilasters, the subtle integration of upper and lower storeys and the independent counterpoint of friezes and cornices all exemplify Fontana's youthful manner, working in the organic Baroque that would be replaced by his later restrained academic Baroque. The conventional scrolls that ordinarily flank the upper central section are appropriately replaced with the martyr's palms.
Santa Maria dei Miracoli, in collaboration with Gian Lorenzo Bernini(1662-1679).
San Biagio in Campitelli(1655).
Basilica di San Clemente, 1713–19. Restorations.
Basilica dei Santi Apostoli(1702-1708).
*The fountain in the left of the
Piazza San Pietro(1675).
*The fountain in front of
Santa Maria in Trastevere, one of the oldest fountains of Rome, was restored by Fontana
*The cupola of the Cibo Chapel in
Santa Maria del Popolo(1683-1687).
*Sistine Chapel in Santa Maria Maggiore (1671).
*Ginetti Chapel in
Sant'Andrea della Valle(1671).
*Albani Chapel in
San Sebastiano fuori le mura(1705).
*Biblioteca Casanatense at
Santa Maria sopra Minerva(1708). Fontana's magnificent "salone" houses the library that was donated by Cardinal Casanate in 1698. The library was opened in 1725 [http://www.romaspqr.it/ROMA/Chiese%20Medievali/S-Maria-sopra-minerva.htm] .
*The great complex of
San Michele a Ripa, with Mattia de' Rossi. The "Chiesa Grande" dates from 1706.
St. Peter's Basilica(1692-1698).
*The tombs of Popes
Clement XIand Innocent XII.
*The tomb of Queen
Christina of Swedenin St. Peter's Basilica(1702).
Villa Cetinalein Tuscany.
*"This article incorporates text from the 1913 "
Catholic Encyclopedia" article " [http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/06126b.htm Carlo Fontana] " by Thomas H. Poole, a publication now in the public domain."
* [http://diamante.uniroma3.it/hipparcos/carlo_fontana.htm Carlo, Fontana, "Discorso... sopra il Monte Citatorio... (Rome 1694); facsimile] (in Italian)
*cite book | first= Rudolf|last= Wittkower| year=1993| title= Art and Architecture Italy, 1600-1750| chapter= | editor= Pelican History of Art | others=1980 | pages= pp373-6 | publisher= Penguin Books Ltd| id= | url= | authorlink=
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Carlo Fontana — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Carlo Fontana (Novazzano, 1634/1638 1714) fue un arquitecto y escultor italiano, en parte responsable por la dirección clasicista que tomó el barroco tardío en la arquitectura de Roma. Biografía No aparece claro que… … Wikipedia Español
Carlo Fontana — Carlo Fontana † Catholic Encyclopedia ► Carlo Fontana An architect and writer; b. at Bruciato, near Como, 1634; d. at Rome, 1714. There seems to be no proof that he belonged to the family of famous architects of the same name. Fontana … Catholic encyclopedia
Carlo Fontana — auf einem Stich um 1774. Carlo Fontana (* 22. April 1638 in Brusata im Tessin; † 5. Februar 1714 in Rom) war ein italienischer Architekt, Bildhauer und Ingenieur. Leb … Deutsch Wikipedia
Carlo Fontana — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Fontana. San Marcello al Corso, par Carlo Fontana, 1682–83 Carlo Fontana (Bruciato, près de Côme en 1634 … Wikipédia en Français
Fontana — (italienisch für Brunnen) ist der Name folgender Orte: Fontana Liri, eine Gemeinde in der Provinz Frosinone in Italien Fontana (Chaco), eine Gemeinde in der Provinz Chaco in Argentinien Comandante Fontana, einen Ort im Departamento Patiño der… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Carlo Maderno — (1556 January 30 1629) was an Italian Swiss architect, born in Ticino, who is remembered as one of the fathers of Baroque architecture. His façades of Santa Susanna, St. Peter s Basilica and Sant Andrea della Valle were of key importance in the… … Wikipedia
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Fontana — Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom. Le nom de Fontana est porté par plusieurs personnalités (par ordre alphabétique) : Alfio Fontana (1932 ), footballeur italien ; Benedikt Fontana … Wikipédia en Français
Fontana — (Del lat. vulgar fontana < lat. fontana aqua, agua de fuente.) ► sustantivo femenino culto, literario Fuente, manantial de agua. * * * fontana (del lat. «fontāna»; lit.) f. *Fuente. * * * fontana. (Del lat. fontāna). f. poét. Manantial que… … Enciclopedia Universal
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