- Transport express régional
TER is an
acronymfor "Transport Express Régional", the brand name used by France’s national railway company, SNCF, to denote medium-distance passenger rail services within an administrative region of France.
SNCF established the TER system in 1984 to provide a framework for the management of regional passenger services. Since the end of the 1990s, it has been closely coordinated with the regional councils, who sign an agreement with SNCF on the designated routes, the number of connections, the fares and the service levels.
TER services are heavily subsidised by French taxpayers. On average, 72% of the cost is borne by the State and the regional councils, with the travellers paying only about 28% of the cost. This cost tends to increase over time because the regional councils have steadily expanded the number of services.
The low profitability of the TER system is primarily due to the way that the services are used by the travelling public, with commuter traffic in the morning and evening but significant under-utilisation during the rest of the day. In addition, passenger numbers are not particularly high; the trains have an average ridership of only about 66 travellers per train.Fact|date=February 2007
TER trains consist of single or multiple-unit diesel, electric or dual-mode rail cars, as well as some Corail carriages previously used on intercity routes.
Transfer of administration
Seven regions have been experimenting with the transfer of administration of the regional rail network since 1997:
Alsace, the Center, Nord-Pas-de-Calais(the North), Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, Rhône-Alpesand the Pays-de-la-Loire(Loire Valley), and, since January 1999, Limousin.
In 1998, the traffic increased to an average of 4.9% in these seven regions compared with 3.2% in other regions.
A few other regions are in turn signing on conventions intermédiaires in order to prepare for the increasing decentralisation of the network: in particular,
Haute-Normandiein September 1997, Midi-Pyrénéesand BurgundyNovember 1997, Picardyin January 1998, and Lorraine in February 1998.
History of the regionalisation of passenger trains
31 March 1994: The publication of the report ‘Régions, SNCF: vers un renouveau du service public’, by the Haenel commission.
4 February 1995: The law of management and development of territory organised the transfer of responsibility of collective transportation in the interest of administrative regions.
19 December 1996: Signing of the first convention with the region of Rhône-Alpes.
Budgets affecting the public rail network
Several figures released by the regions: These figures do not take into account infrastructure expenses.
TER and tourism
The SNCF have designated nine TER services as "trains touristiques" (tourist trains). They are:
* The "Chemins de fer de Corse" (
* The "train des merveilles" (Train of Wonders)
* The "train des gorges de l'Allier" (Allier Gorges train)
* The "Ligne Saint-Gervais-Vallorcine" (Mont-Blanc Express)
* The "Ligne de Cerdagne"/"train jaune" (Yellow Train)
* The "autorail Espérance" (Hope rail car)
* The "Chemin de fer du Blanc-Argent"
* The "train des Alpes" (Alps train)
* The "ligne des hirondelles" (Swallows line)
* [http://www.ter-sncf.com/ TER - official website]
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