Paralysis


Paralysis
Paralysis
MeSH D010243

Paralysis is loss of muscle function for one or more muscles. Paralysis can be accompanied by a loss of feeling (sensory loss) in the affected area if there is sensory damage as well as motor. A study conducted by the Christopher & Dana Reeve Foundation, suggests that about 1 in 50 people have been diagnosed with paralysis. [1] The word comes from the Greek παράλυσις, "disabling of the nerves",[2] itself from παρά (para), "beside, by"[3] + λύσις (lusis), "losing"[4] and that from λύω (luō), "to lose".[5]

Contents

Causes

Paralysis is most often caused by damage in the nervous system, especially the spinal cord. Other major causes are stroke, trauma with nerve injury, poliomyelitis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), botulism, spina bifida, multiple sclerosis, and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Temporary paralysis occurs during REM sleep, and dysregulation of this system can lead to episodes of waking paralysis. Drugs that interfere with nerve function, such as curare, can also cause paralysis. There are many known causes for paralysis, and perhaps more yet to be discovered.

Pseudoparalysis (pseudo- meaning "false, not genuine", from Greek ψεῦδος[6]) is voluntary restriction or inhibition of motion because of pain, incoordination, or other cause, and is not due to actual muscular paralysis.[7] In an infant, it may be a symptom of congenital syphilis.[8]

Variations

Paralysis could be localised, or generalised, or it may follow a certain pattern. Most paralyses caused by nervous system damage (I.e. spinal cord injuries) are constant in nature; however, there are forms of periodic paralysis, including sleep paralysis, which are caused by other factors.

Paralysis in the animal world

Many animal species use paralysing toxins to capture prey, evade predation, or both. A well-known example is the tetrodotoxin of fish species such as Takifugu rubripes, the famously lethal pufferfish of Japanese fugu. This toxin works by binding to sodium channels in nerve cells, preventing the cells' proper function. A non-lethal dose of this toxin results in temporary paralysis. This toxin is also present in many other species ranging from toads to nemerteans. Another interesting use of paralysis in the natural world is the behaviour of some species of wasp. To complete the reproductive cycle, the female wasp paralyses a prey item such as a grasshopper and places it in her nest. She then lays eggs in the paralysed insect, which is devoured by the larvae when they hatch. Many snakes also exhibit powerful neurotoxins that can cause non-permanent paralysis or death.

Paralysis can be seen in breeds of dogs that are chondrodysplastic. These dogs have short legs, and may also have short muzzles. Their intervertebral disc material can calcify and become more brittle. In such cases, the disc may rupture, with disc material ending up in the spinal canal, or rupturing more laterally to press on spinal nerves. A minor rupture may only result in paresis, but a major rupture can cause enough damage to cut off circulation. If no signs of pain can be elicited, surgery should be performed within 24 hours of the incident, to remove the disc material and relieve pressure on the spinal cord. After 24 hours, the chance of recovery declines rapidly, since with continued pressure, the spinal cord tissue deteriorates and dies.

Another type of paralysis is caused by a fibrocartilaginous embolism. This is a microscopic piece of disc material that breaks off and becomes lodged in a spinal artery. Nerves served by the artery will die when deprived of blood.

The German Shepherd is especially prone to developing degenerative myelopathy. This is a deterioration of nerves in the spinal cord, starting in the posterior part of the cord. Dogs so affected will become gradually weaker in the hind legs as nerves die off. Eventually their hind legs become useless. They often also exhibit faecal and urinary incontinence. As the disease progresses, the paresis and paralysis gradually move forward. This disease also affects other large breeds of dogs. It is suspected to be an autoimmune problem.

Cats with a heart murmur may develop blood clots that travel through arteries. If a clot is large enough to block one or both femoral arteries, there may be hind leg paralysis because the major source of blood flow to the hind leg is blocked.

See also

References

  1. ^ http://www.christopherreeve.org/site/c.mtKZKgMWKwG/b.5184189/k.5587/Paralysis_Facts__Figures.htm
  2. ^ παράλυσις, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus
  3. ^ παρά, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus
  4. ^ λύσις, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus
  5. ^ λύω, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus
  6. ^ ψεῦδος, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus
  7. ^ TheFreeDictionary > pseudoparalysis , in turn citing The American Heritage Medical Dictionary 2007, 2004
  8. ^ Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines, 2006 National Centre for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention

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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Paralysis — Pa*ral y*sis, n. [L., fr. Gr. para lysis, fr. paraly ein to loosen, dissolve, or disable at the side; para beside + ly ein to loosen. See {Para }, and {Loose}, and cf. {Palsy}.] (Med.) Abolition of function, whether complete or partial; esp., the …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • paralysis — (n.) 1520s, from Gk. paralysis, lit. loosening, from paralyein disable, enfeeble, from para beside (see PARA (Cf. para )) + lyein loosen, untie, cognate with L. luere to loose, release, atone for, expiate, O.E. for leosan to lose, destroy …   Etymology dictionary

  • paralysis — [pə ral′ə sis] n. pl. paralyses [pə ral′əsēz΄] [L < Gr paralysis < paralyein, to loosen, dissolve, or weaken at the side: see PARA 1 & LYSIS] 1. partial or complete loss, or temporary interruption, of a function, esp. of voluntary motion or …   English World dictionary

  • Paralysis — (gr), Lähmung; daher Paralysiren, lähmen, schwächen, hemmen; Paralytisch, in der Bibel von Luther gichtbrüchig übersetzt, so v.w. gelähmt, s. Lähmung …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Paralysis — Paralysis, griech., Lähmung; paralysiren, lähmen; paralytisch, gelähmt …   Herders Conversations-Lexikon

  • paralysis — index deadlock, inaction, inertia Burton s Legal Thesaurus. William C. Burton. 2006 …   Law dictionary

  • paralysis — ► NOUN (pl. paralyses) 1) the loss of the ability to move part or most of the body. 2) inability to act or function. ORIGIN Greek paralusis, from paraluesthai be disabled at the side …   English terms dictionary

  • paralysis — /peuh ral euh sis/, n., pl. paralyses / seez /. 1. Pathol. a. a loss or impairment of voluntary movement in a body part, caused by injury or disease of the nerves, brain, or spinal cord. b. a disease characterized by this, esp. palsy. 2. a state… …   Universalium

  • Paralysis — Loss of voluntary movement (motor function). Paralysis that affects only one muscle or limb is partial paralysis, also known as palsy; paralysis of all muscles is total paralysis, as may occur in cases of botulism. * * * 1. Loss of power of… …   Medical dictionary

  • paralysis — noun 1 being unable to move your body or a part of it ADJECTIVE ▪ complete ▪ partial ▪ stroke patients who have suffered partial paralysis ▪ permanent, temporary ▪ …   Collocations dictionary