- African American musical theater
Before the late 1890s, the image portrayed of
African Americanson Broadway was a "secondhand vision of black life created by European Americanperformers." [Woll, 1.] Stereotyped " coon songs" were popular, and blackfacewas common. Will Marion Cookand Bob Cole brought black-written musical comedy to Broadway in 1898. Cook's "Clorindy; or, The Origin of the Cakewalk", an hour-long sketch that was the first all-black show to play in a prestigious Broadway house, Casino Theatre's Roof Garden. Cole's " A Trip to Coontown" was the first full-length New York musical comedy written, directed and performed exclusively by blacks. The approach of the two composers were diametrically opposed: Cole believed that African Americans should try to compete with European Americans by proving their ability to act similarly on- and offstage, while Cook that African Americans should not imitate European Americans but instead create their own style.
Bob Cole and brothers
John Rosamond Johnsonand James Weldon Johnsonfocused on elevating the lyrical sophistication of African American songs. Their first collaboration was Louisiana Lize, a love song written in a new lyrical style that left out the watermelons, razors, and "hot mamas" typical of earlier " coon songs." [Woll, 15.]
Cole and the Johnson brothers went on to create musicals such as "The Belle of Bridgeport", "The Red Moon" (with Joe Jordan), "The Shoo-Fly Regiment", "In Newport", "Humpty Dumpty", and "Sally in Our Alley" (featuring Bob Cole's "Under The Bamboo Tree"). Bob Cole's suicide in 1911 ended "one of the promising musical comedy teams yet seen on Broadway". Fact|date=May 2007
Bert Williamsand George Walker, called the "Two Real Coons", found fame in 1896 with a musical farce called "The Gold Bug". The duo's performance of the cakewalkcaptured the audience's attention, and they soon became so closely associated with this dance that many people think of them as its originators. Williams met Walker in San Franciscoin 1893, while they played Dahomeyans in an exhibit of the California Midwinter International Exposition of 1894. They played different venues while putting together their act.
Williams and Walker were dropped from "Isham's Octoroons", one of the first African American companies to break from the minstrel style performance. [Woll, 33-41.] They then put together a number of small productions including "A Lucky Coon", "Sons of Ham", and "The Policy Players", but their ultimate goal was to produce and star in their own Broadway musical. So they thought back to the times in
San Franciscoand produced " In Dahomey" (1903) alongside Paul Lawrence Dunbar, Jesse Shipp, and Will Marion Cook. "Abyssinia" (1906) and "Bandanna Land" (1908) also stood high in the Williams and Walker claim to fame. Their dreams of stardom come to life and they took musicals in a new direction, back to Africa. George Walker died during the run of "Bandanna Land" and his wife Ada Overton Walkersubstituted for him during the final week of the run. [Woll, 48.]
Ernest Hogan, Bob Cole, and George Walker had died. Will Marion Cook and the Johnson brothers, James and J. Rosamond, had pursued new careers and Bert Williams moved to the " Ziegfield Follies" and black musical theater went into a hiatus. [Woll, 50.]
In May 1921, the surprising hit "Shuffle Along" made its way to
New York Citywith almost $18,000 in debt. "One of the most popular black shows of the 1920’s; began to tinker with the pattern of segregation". The creators of the astronomical point in history are The Dixie Duo, Noble Sissleand Eubie Blake, who met at a party in Baltimore, Marylandin 1915. Their career was brief but successful. "Shuffle Along" was a milestone in the development of the black musical, and it became the model by which all black musicals were judged until well into the 1930s." [Woll, 73.] F. E. Millerand Aubrey Lyles, who wrote the book for " Shuffle Along" (1921) had met in 1906, and began performing at the "Pekin Theater Stock Company" near Chicagofrom 1906 to 1909, along with other African American stars such as Harry Lawrence Freeman.
In 1921, Miller and Lyles appeared in a
short filmmade in Photokinema, a sound-on-discprocess, singing their composition "De Ducks", while Sissle and Blake made three films in the Lee De Forest Phonofilm sound-on-filmprocess in 1923. These short films are a record of music similar to the work these four men were doing on stage at the time.
Lew Leslie's "Blackbirds"
In 1926, white producer and director
Lew Lesliestaged a popular series of " Blackbirds" revues, featuring such talents as singers Florence Mills, Ethel Watersand Lena Horne, and dance legend Bill "Bojangles" Robinson. The key to Leslie’s success was the awesome talent he found. “Leslie managed to build his black revues around one or more dynamic performers, who could carry a modest show to success.” [Woll, 98.] Although these productions showcased black talent, they were almost completely created by white writers and composers. In an interview, Leslie made a fascinating claim that “They (white men) understand the colored man better than he does himself. Colored composers excel at spirituals, but their other songs are just 'what' (dialect for 'white') songs with Negro words." [Woll, 97.]
"Porgy and Bess", the WPA, "The Swing Mikado", and "Carmen Jones"
George Gershwin's " Porgy and Bess" (1935) -- starring Will Marion Cook's wife Abbie Mitchellamong many others -- is the most famous black musical of the 1930s. It is called a black musical because of the African American cast, even though neither the music or plot is of the “Negro inspiration” like the creators proclaim. "Porgy and Bess" marked the nadir in the history of black musical comedy, symbolizing the end of tradition and experimentation in black musical theater on Broadway". [Woll, 175.] This also led the Works Progress Administrationto start the Federal Theater Projectthat established the Negro Unit with programs in twenty-two cities. This gave a new break to the struggling artists. The Negro Unit avoided musical comedies, but had a few musicals with black cast including Eubie Blake’s "Swing It", which closed in 1937 and lessened hope for the Federal Theater Project.
However, one black musical comedy succeeded and twisted the new realm of musical theater, "
The Swing Mikado" (1937), a "modernization" of Gilbert and Sullivan’s classic operetta, " The Mikado". [Woll, 178-184.] Another modern version of the classics was Oscar Hammerstein II's Broadway musical " Carmen Jones" (1943), a version of Georges Bizet’s " Carmen" with an all-black cast. [Woll, 189.]
The Frogs (club)
African American music
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