- Appeal to fear
An appeal to fear (also called argumentum ad metum or argumentum in terrorem) is a
fallacyin which a person attempts to create support for his or her idea by increasing fear and prejudice toward a competitor. The appeal to fear is extremely common in marketingand politics.
This fallacy has the following
argument form::Either P or Q:Q is fearsome:Therefore, P is true.
The argument is invalid. The
appeal to emotionis used in exploiting existing fears to create support for the speaker's proposal, namely P. Also, often the false dilemmafallacy is involved, suggesting Q is the proposed idea's sole alternative.
Fear, uncertainty and doubt
Fear, uncertainty, and doubt ("or "FUD) is the appeal to fear in
salesor marketing; in which a company disseminates negative (and vague) information on a competitor's product. The term originated to describe misinformation tactics in the computer hardwareindustry and has since been used more broadly.fact|date=July 2008 FUD is "implicit coercion" by "any kind of disinformationused as a competitive weapon." [cite web |author=Raymond, Eric S |authorlink=Eric S. Raymond |url=http://www.catb.org/~esr/jargon/html/F/FUD.html |work=The Jargon File |title=FUD] FUD creates a situation in which buyers are encouraged to purchase by brand, regardless of the relative technical merits. Opponents of certain large computer corporations state that the spreading of fear, uncertainty, and doubt is an unethicalmarketing technique that these corporations consciously employ.
Although FUD was originally attributed to IBM, the 1990s saw the term become often associated with industry giant
Microsoft. The Halloween documents(leaked internal Microsoft documents whose authenticity was verified by the company) use the term FUD explicitly to describe a potential tactic against Open sourcesoftware. [Open Source Initiative. " [http://www.catb.org/~esr/halloween/ Halloween I: Open Source Software (New?) Development Methodology] "] More recently, Microsoft has issued statements about the "viral nature" of the GNU General Public License(GPL), which Open Source proponents purport to be FUD.Fact|date=February 2007
Fear appeals are often used in
marketingand social policy, as a method of persuasion. Fear is an effective attitude changer, especially fears of social exclusion, and getting laid-off from one's job.Solomon. Zaichkowsky, Polegato. Consumer Behaviour Pearson, Toronto. 2005] Fear appeals are "nonmonotonic", meaning that the level of persuasion does not increase in proportion to the amount of fear that is used. A study of public service messages on AIDS found that if the messages were too aggressive or fearful, they were rejected by the subject; a moderate amount of fear is the most effective attitudechanger. Noam Chomsky, among others, has suggested that the appeal to fear plays a role in social oppressionon a large scale.Fact|date=February 2007 According to this belief, political institutions and the mass mediause the appeal to fear to foster conformityand maintain the status quo.
appeal to emotion
*appeal to force
Embrace, extend and extinguish
The terrorists have won
* [http://www.propagandacritic.com/articles/ct.sa.fear.html Propaganda critic: Fear appeal]
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