Emperor Nakamikado

Emperor Nakamikado
Emperor of Japan
Reign 1709-1735
Born January 14, 1702
Died May 10, 1737 (aged 35)
Buried Tsukinowa no misasagi (Kyoto)
Predecessor Higashiyama
Successor Sakuramachi
Father Higashiyama

Emperor Nakamikado (中御門天皇 Nakamikado-tennō?, January 14, 1702 – May 10, 1737) was the 114th emperor of Japan,[1] according to the traditional order of succession.[2]

Nakamikado's reign spanned the years from 1709 through 1735.[3]



Before Nakamikado's ascension to the Chrysanthemum Throne, his personal name (imina) was Yoshihito (慶仁?)[4] or Yasuhito;[2] and his pre-accession title was Masu-no-miya (長宮).

Nakamikado was the fifth son of Emperor Higashiyama. He was the son of Fujiwara no Yoshiko, but he was brought up as if he were the son of the chief consort, Arisugawa no Yukiko.[2]

Nakamikado's Imperial family lived with him in the Dairi of the Heian Palace. This family included at least 16 children:

  • Court lady: Konoe Hisako (近衛尚子)
  • Lady in waiting: Shimizutani Iwako (清水谷石子)
    • Second son: Prince Kōjyun (公遵法親王) (Buddhist priest)
    • Fourth daughter: Princess Risyū (理秀女王)
    • Sixth daughter: Princess Sonjō (尊乗女王)
    • Eighth daughter: Chika-no-miya (周宮)
  • Lady in waiting: Sono Tsuneko (園常子)
    • Third son: Prince Cyūyo (忠與法親王) (Buddhist priest)
  • Handmaid?: Kuze Natsuko (久世夏子)
    • Second daughter: San-no-miya (三宮)
    • Third daughter: Go-no-miya (五宮)
    • Fifth daughter: Imperial Princess Fusako (成子内親王))
    • Seventh daughter: Princess Eikō (永皎女王)
    • Fifth son: Nobu-no-miya (信宮)
  • Handmaid?: Gojō Hiroko (五条寛子)
    • Sixth son: Prince Jyun'nin (遵仁法親王) (Buddhist priest)
  • Consort: Komori Yorisue's daughter
    • First daughter: Princess Syōsan (聖珊女王)
    • Fifth son: Prince Ji'nin (慈仁法親王) (Buddhist priest)
  • Adopted sons
    • Prince ?? (叡仁法親王) (Son of Imperial Prince Arisugawa-no-miya Yorihito (有栖川宮職仁親王)) (Priest)
    • Prince ?? (公啓法親王) (Son of Imperial Prince Kan'in-no-miya Naohito (閑院宮直仁親王))

Events of Nakamikado's life

In 1708, Nakamikado became Crown Prince.

  • July 27, 1709 (Hōei 6, 21st day of the 6th month): Emperor Higashiyama abdicated and the throne passed to his son.[5]
  • January 16, 1710 (Hōei 6, 17th day of the 12th month): Higashiyama died.[6]

Immediately after the abdication, Prince Yashuhito became the emperor. Because of his youth, first his father, the retired Emperor Higashiyama, and then his grandfather, the retired Emperor Reigen exercised Imperial powers in his name.

Nakamikado reign corresponded to the period from the sixth shōgun, Tokugawa Ienobu, to the eighth shōgun, Tokugawa Yoshimune. During this period, relations with the Bakufu were fairly good. Talk of a marriage between Imperial Princess Yaso-no-miya Yoshiko (八十宮吉子内親王), daughter of Retired Emperor Reigen and the seventh shōgun, Tokugawa Ietsugu were halted by the sudden death of the shogun in Edo.[7]

  • July 7, 1710 – March 22, 1711 (Hōei 7, 11th day of the 6th month – Shōtoku 1, 4th day of the 2nd month): A Ryukyuan diplomatic mission from Shō Eki of the Ryūkyū Kingdom was received by the shogunate. This was the largest delegation—168 people—in the Edo Period.[8]
  • 1711 (Shōtoku 1): A Korean diplomatic mission from Sukjong of Joseon was received by the shogunate;[6] and formal greetings were presented to mark the succession of Shogun Ienobu.[9]
  • November 12, 1712 (Shōtoku 2, 14th day of the 10th month): Shogun Tokugawa Ienobu died.[6]
  • 1714 (Shōtoku 4): The shogunate introduces new gold and silver coins into circulation.[6]
  • April 20, 1715 (Shōtoku 5, 17th day of the 3rd month): The 100th anniversary of the death of Tokugawa Ieyasu (posthumously known as Gongen-sama), which was celebrated throughout the empire.[3]
  • 1716 (Shōoku 6, 30th day of the 4th month): Shogun Ietsugu died of complications of a cold, at the age of six.[10]
  • 1718 (Kyōhō 3): The bakufu repaired the Imperial mausolea.[12]
  • 1718 (Kyōhō 6, 8th month): The bakufu established a petition-box (目安箱 meyasubako?) at the office of the machi-bugyō in Heian-kyō.[12]
  • 1720 (Kyōhō 8): The chronological annals and the biographies which comprised the first completed portions of the Dai Nihonshi were presented to the bakufu.[13]
  • 1721 (Kyōhō 9): Edo population of 1.1 million is world's largest city.[14]
  • 1730 (Kyōhō 15): The Tokugawa shogunate officially recognizes the Dojima Rice Market in Osaka; and bakufu supervisors (nengyoji) are appointed to monitor the market and to collect taxes.[15] The transactions relating to rice exchanges developed into securities exchanges, used primarily for transactions in public securities.[16] The development of improved agriculture production caused the price of rice to fall in mid-Kyohō.[17]
  • August 3, 1730 (Kyōhō 15, 20th day of the 6th month): A fire broke out in Muromachi and 3,790 houses were burnt. Over 30,000 looms in Nishi-jin were destroyed. The bakufu distributed rice.[12]
  • 1732 (Kyōhō 17): The Kyōhō famine was the consequence after swarms of locusts devastated crops in agricultural communities around the inland sea.[18]
  • 1735: Nakamikado abdicated in favor of his son, but he continued to exercise Imperial powers in the same way his predecessors had done.[19]
  • 1736 (Genbun 1): The shogunate published an edict declaring that henceforth, the sole, authorized coinage in the empire would be those copper coins which were marked n the obverse with the character (pronounced bun in Japanese or pronounced wen in Chinese—which is to say, the same character which is found in this era name of Genbun.[20]
  • 1737 (Genbun 2, 11th month): A comet is noticed in the western part of the sky.[20]

In 1737, Nakamikado died.[2] His kami is enshrined in an Imperial mausoleum (misasagi), Tsukinowa no misasagi, at Sennyū-ji in Higashiyama-ku, Kyoto. Also enshrined in this location are his immediate Imperial predecessors since Emperor Go-Mizunoo -- Meishō, Go-Kōmyō, Go-Sai, Reigen, and Higashiyama. Nakamikado's immediate Imperial successors, including Sakuramachi, Momozono, Go-Sakuramachi and Go-Momozono, are enshrined here as well.[21]


Kugyō (公卿?) is a collective term for the very few most powerful men attached to the court of the Emperor of Japan in pre-Meiji eras. Even during those years in which the court's actual influence outside the palace walls was minimal, the hierarchic organization persisted.

In general, this elite group included only three to four men at a time. These were hereditary courtiers whose experience and background would have brought them to the pinnacle of a life's career. During Nakamikado's reign, this apex of the Daijō-kan included:

Eras of Nakamikado's reign

The years of Nakamikado's reign are more specifically identified by more than one era name or nengō.[19]


Japanese Imperial kamon — a stylized chrysanthemum blossom
  1. ^ Imperial Household Agency (Kunaichō): 中御門天皇 (114)
  2. ^ a b c d e Ponsonby-Fane, Richard. (1959). The Imperial House of Japan, p. 118.
  3. ^ a b Titsingh, Issac. (1834). Annales des empereurs du japon, pp. 416-417.
  4. ^ Ponsonby-Fane, p. 10.
  5. ^ Meyer, Eva-Maria. (1999). Japans Kaiserhof in der Edo-Zeit, pp. 45-46.
  6. ^ a b c d e Titsingh, p. 416; Meyer, p. 46.
  7. ^ Titsingh, p. 415; Ponsonby-Fane, p. 118.
  8. ^ National Archives of Japan: Ryūkyū Chuzano ryoshisha tojogyoretsu, scroll illustrating procession of Ryūkyū emissary to Edo, 1710 (Hōei 7)
  9. ^ Northeast Asia History Foundation: Korea-Japan relations citing Dongsarok by Jo Tae-eok et al.
  10. ^ Screech, Timon. (2006). Secret Memoirs of the Shoguns, p. 98.
  11. ^ Bowman, John Stewart. (2000). Columbia Chronologies of Asian History and Culture, p. 142.
  12. ^ a b c Ponsonby-Fane, Richard. (1956). Kyoto: the Old Capital, 794-1869, p. 320.
  13. ^ Brownlee, John S. (1999). Japanese Historians and the National Myths, p. 29.
  14. ^ Foreign Press Center. (1997). Japan: Eyes on the Country, Views of the 47 Prefectures, p. 127.
  15. ^ Adams, Thomas. (1953). Japanese Securities Markets: A Historical Survey, p. 11.
  16. ^ Adams, p. 12.
  17. ^ Hayami, Akira et al. (2004) The Economic History of Japan: 1600-1990, p. 67.
  18. ^ Hall, John. (1988). The Cambridge History of Japan, p. 456.
  19. ^ a b Titsingh, p. 417.
  20. ^ a b Titsingh, p. 418.
  21. ^ Ponsonby-Fane, p. 423.


See also

Regnal titles
Preceded by
Emperor Higashiyama
Emperor of Japan:

Succeeded by
Emperor Sakuramachi

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Emperor Sakuramachi — (桜町天皇 Sakuramachi tennō ) (February 8, 1720 ndash; May 28, 1750) was the 115th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. He reigned from April 13, 1735 to June 9, 1747. His personal name was Teruhito (昭仁) and his pre… …   Wikipedia

  • Emperor Higashiyama — Higashiyama also refers to a ward of Kyoto City. Emperor Higashiyama (東山天皇 Higashiyama tennō ) (October 21, 1675 January 16, 1710) was the 113th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession.Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Annales… …   Wikipedia

  • Emperor Ninkō — Ninkō Emperor of Japan Ninkō Reign 31 October 1817 21 February 1846 ( 1000000000000002800000028 years, 100000000000001 …   Wikipedia

  • Emperor Momozono — Momozono Emperor of Japan Momozono Reign 1747 1762 Born 14 April 1741( …   Wikipedia

  • Emperor Meiji — Mingzhi redirects here. For other uses, see Meiji. Emperor Meiji 明治天皇 Emperor of Japan Reign 3 February 1867 – 30 July 1912 ( …   Wikipedia

  • Emperor Tenji — Tenji Emperor of Japan (From Ogura Hyakunin Isshu) Reign 661–668 (regency) 668–672 Born …   Wikipedia

  • Emperor Bidatsu — Bidatsu Emperor of Japan Reign 572 – 14 September 585 Born 538 Died 14 September 585 (aged 47) Buried Kawachi no Shinaga no naka no o no misasagi (Osaka) …   Wikipedia

  • Emperor Nintoku — Nintoku Emperor of Japan Reign legendary Born legendary Died legendary …   Wikipedia

  • Emperor Ninken — Ninken redirects here. For the fictional summoned dogs in Naruto, see Ninken (Naruto). Ninken Emperor of Japan Reign legendary Born legendary Died legendary Buried …   Wikipedia

  • Emperor Ninmyō — Ninmyō Emperor of Japan Crown Prince (親王, Shinnō?) Reign 823 833 …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.