Mimid

Mimid
Mimids
Gray Catbird
Dumetella carolinensis
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Passeriformes
Suborder: Passeri
Infraorder: Muscicapoidea
Family: Mimidae
Bonaparte, 1853
Genera

Allenia
Cinclocerthia
Dumetella
Margarops
Melanoptila
Melanotis
Mimus
Nesomimus
Oreoscoptes
Ramphocinclus
Toxostoma

The mimids are the New World family of passerine birds, Mimidae, that includes thrashers, mockingbirds, tremblers, and the New World catbirds. As their name (Latin for "mimic") suggests, these birds are notable for their vocalization, especially some species' remarkable ability to mimic a wide variety of birds and other sounds heard outdoors.

Description

There are over 30 species of mimids in two larger and some 10 small or monotypic genera. They tend towards dull grays and browns in their appearance, though a few are black or blue-gray, and many have red, yellow, or white irises. They range from 20 to 33 centimetres in length, and 36 to 56 grams in weight.[1] Many mimids have a rather thrush-like pattern: brown above, pale with dark streaks or spots below. They tend to have longer tails than thrushes (or the bigger wrens, which they also resemble) and longer bills that in many species curve downward (Clement & Perrins 2003).

They have long, strong legs (for passerines) with which many species hop through undergrowth searching for arthropods and fruits to eat. Their habitat varies from forest undergrowth to scrub, high-altitude grasslands, and deserts. The two tremblers live in the atypical habitat of rain forests in the Lesser Antilles, and the Brown Trembler has the particularly atypical behavior of foraging while clinging to tree trunks (Clement & Perrins 2003).

All known species build somewhat messy, bulky twig nests in dense growth, in most species on the ground or no more than 2 meters up. They usually lay 2 to 5 eggs that hatch in 12 or 13 days, which is also the length of time the chicks stay in the nest. Breeding usually starts in the spring or early in the rainy season, and many species can have two or even three broods per year. Most failures to fledge young are due to predation. Pairs often stay together for more than one breeding season (Clement & Perrins 2003).

In the history of science

Contrary to often-held belief, the Nesomimus mockingbirds may have played at least as great a role as Darwin's finches in inspiring Darwin's work on his theory of evolution (Curry 2003).

Systematics

Outside the family

Phylogenetic analyses have shown that mimids are most closely related to starlings (Sibley & Monroe 1990, Zuccon et al. 2006). These and oxpeckers (and the Philippine creepers if they are not outright but highly apomorphic starlings) form a group of Muscicapoidea which originated probably in the Early Miocene - very roughly 25-20 mya[2] - somewhere in East Asia (Zuccon et al. 2006). This is evidenced by the Asian-SW Pacific distribution of the most basal starlings (and Philippine creepers) and the North American range of the basal mimids.

They are sometimes united with the starlings in the Sturnidae as a tribe Mimini as proposed by Sibley & Monroe (1990). This makes the expanded Stunidae a rather noninformative group and is probably due to the methodological drawbacks of their DNA-DNA hybridization technique.

Within the family

The mockingbirds with some thrashers seem to form one major clade, while the two other groups and the remaining thrashers seem to form the another, but the basal branching pattern is not well resolved. The tremblers, again, are a monophyletic lineage. The latter, however, are embedded in a paraphyletic catbird-Caribbean thrasher assemblage which consists of many rather basal lineages.(Hunt et al. 2001, Barber et al. 2004)

For detailed information on the evolutionary relationships of the different mimid lineages, see their articles.

Mockingbirds:

  • Genus Mimus - typical mockingbirds (some 10 species, includes Mimodes)
  • The former genus Nesomimus, now part of Mimus[3] - mockingbirds of the Galápagos Islands (4 species)
  • Genus Melanotis - blue mockingbirds (2 species)

New World catbirds:

  • Genus Dumetella - Gray Catbird
  • Genus Melanoptila - Black Catbird

Thrashers:

  • Genus Oreoscoptes - Sage Thrasher
  • Genus Toxostoma - typical thrashers (11 species)
  • Genus Ramphocinclus - White-breasted Thrasher
  • Genus Allenia - Scaly-breasted Thrasher (formerly in Margarops)
  • Genus Margarops - Pearly-eyed Thrasher

Tremblers

  • Genus Cinclocerthia (2 species)

References

  • Barber, Brian R.; Martínez-Gómez, Juan E. & Peterson, A. Townsend (2004): Systematic position of the Socorro mockingbird Mimodes graysoni. J. Avian Biol. 35: 195-198. doi:10.1111/j.0908-8857.2004.03233.x (HTML abstract)
  • Clement; Peter; Perrins, Christopher (2003): Mockingbirds. In: Perrins, Christopher (ed.): The Firefly Encyclopedia of Birds: 534–535. Firefly Books. ISBN 1-55297-777-3
  • Curry, Robert L. (2003): Darwin and the mockingbirds of Galápagos.
  • Hunt, Jeffrey S.; Bermingham, Eldredge; & Ricklefs, Robert E. (2001): Molecular systematics and biogeography of Antillean thrashers, tremblers, and mockingbirds (Aves: Mimidae). Auk 118(1): 35–55. DOI:10.1642/0004-8038(2001)118[0035:MSABOA]2.0.CO;2 HTML fulltext without images
  • Sibley, Charles Gald & Monroe, Burt L. Jr. (1990): Distribution and taxonomy of the birds of the world: A Study in Molecular Evolution. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT. ISBN 0-300-04969-2
  • Zuccon, Dario; Cibois, Anne; Pasquet, Eric & Ericson, Per G.P. (2006): Nuclear and mitochondrial sequence data reveal the major lineages of starlings, mynas and related taxa. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 41(2): 333-344. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2006.05.007 (HTML abstract)

Footnotes

  1. ^ McClure, H. Elliott (1991). Forshaw, Joseph. ed. Encyclopaedia of Animals: Birds. London: Merehurst Press. pp. 183–184. ISBN 1-85391-186-0. 
  2. ^ The seemingly precise dates of Zuccon et al. are not based on material evidence but on a crude estimate; a general Early Miocene age agrees with the phylogeny of other Passeri however.
  3. ^ American Ornithologists' Union, "Changes since 1 March 2005"

External links


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См. также в других словарях:

  • mimid — or·nitho·mimid; …   English syllables

  • Starling — Taxobox name = Starlings image width = 250px image caption = European Starling, Sturnus vulgaris regnum = Animalia phylum = Chordata classis = Aves ordo = Passeriformes subordo = Passeri familia = Sturnidae familia authority = Rafinesque, 1815… …   Wikipedia

  • Brown Thrasher — Taxobox name = Brown Thrasher status = LC | status system = IUCN3.1 image width = 230px regnum = Animalia phylum = Chordata classis = Aves ordo = Passeriformes familia = Mimidae genus = Toxostoma species = T. rufum binomial = Toxostoma rufum… …   Wikipedia

  • Trembler — Trem bler, n. One who trembles. [1913 Webster] 2. Any of certain West Indian birds of the genera {Cinclocerthia} and {Rhamphocinclus}, of the family {Mimid[ae]}. [Webster 1913 Suppl.] 3. (Elec.) The vibrating hammer, or spring contact piece of a… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Gray Catbird — Adult in Brendan T. Byrne State Forest New Jersey, USA Conservation status …   Wikipedia

  • List of birds in Canada and the United States — This list of birds in Canada and the United States is a comprehensive listing of all the bird species known from the North American continent north of Mexico as of July 2008.North American birds most closely resemble those of Eurasia, which was… …   Wikipedia

  • Catbird — For other uses, see Catbird (disambiguation). White eared Catbird …   Wikipedia

  • List of Minnesota birds — This is a list of all birds ever seen in Minnesota, based on the list published by the Minnesota Ornithologists Union. The following markings are used:*(C) = Casual: seen fewer than nine times in the past ten years but more than twice. *(A) =… …   Wikipedia

  • California Thrasher — Taxobox name = California Thrasher status = LC | status system = IUCN3.1 image width = 220px regnum = Animalia phylum = Chordata classis = Aves ordo = Passeriformes familia = Mimidae genus = Toxostoma species = T. redivivum binomial = Toxostoma… …   Wikipedia

  • List of Iowa birds — This is a list of all birds ever seen in Iowa, based on the list published by the Iowa Ornithologists Union. The following markings are used:*(C) = Casual: seen fewer than nine times in the past ten years but more than twice. *(A) = Accidental:… …   Wikipedia


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