- Syriac Orthodox Church
Infobox Orthodox Church
show_name = Syriac Orthodox Patriarchate of Antioch and All the East
caption = Emblem of the Church
Peter the Apostle
independence = Apostolic Era
primate=Patriarch Ignatius Zakka I Iwas
Catholicos Baselios Thomas I
Antioch, Present time Damascus
Syria, Lebanon, Palestine, Turkey, Jordan, Iraq, Kuwait, Iran, the Gulf States and India
Middle East, United States, Canada, Great Britain, Western Europe, South Americaand Australia
language=Syriac (official), and local languages: Malayalam,Arabic, Turkish, Kurdish, Persian, English, French, German and Swedish
population= 5.6 million
Syrian Malabar Nasrani, [Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life: Vol. 3 - Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 720-721. [http://adherents.com/Na/Na_622.html ] ] 4,000,000 around the World, [ [http://www.adherents.com/Na/Na_622.html Adherents.com ] ] with 100,000 in the Middle East [Bishop, Peter & Michael Darton (editors). The Encyclopedia of World Faiths: An Illustrated Survey of the World's Living Faiths. New York: Facts on File Publications (1987); pg. 85. [http://adherents.com/Na/Na_622.html] ] , plus ca. another 200,000 in diaspora (80,000 in the USA[Spence, Hartzell. The Story of America's Religions; New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston (1960) [1st printing 1957] ; pg. 117. [http://adherents.com/Na/Na_622.html] ] 50,000 in Germany["Religionswissenschaftlicher Medien- und Informationsdienst e.V. " [REMID: Religious Studies Media and Information Service, Marburg, Germany] ; web page: "Informationen und Standpunkte " (viewed 2 Aug. 1999). [http://adherents.com/Na/Na_622.html] ] )
website= [http://sor.cua.edu/ Margonitho: Syriac Orthodox Resources] The Syriac Orthodox Church is an autocephalous
Oriental Orthodoxchurch based in the Middle Eastwith members spread throughout the world. It parted ways with Eastern Orthodoxyand Roman Catholicismover the Council of Chalcedon, which the Syriac Orthodox Church rejects. It is a major inheritor of Syriac Christianityand has Syriac, a dialect of Aramaic, as its official language. The church is led by the Syriac Orthodox Patriarch of Antioch.
The church is often referred to as Jacobite (after
Jacob Baradaeus) or Monophysite, but these terms are rejected by the some of the church today. In 2000, a Holy Synod ruled that the name of the church in English should be the "'Syriac Orthodox Church". Before this, it was, and often still is, known as the "Syrian Orthodox Church". The name was changed to disassociate the church from the polity of Syria. The official name of the church in Syriac is "unicode|ʿIdto Suryoyto Triṣuṯ Šuḇḥo", this name has not changed, nor has the name changed in any other language. [http://syriacchristianity.org/PZakka/Patriarchate.htm Patriarchate of the Syriac Orthodox Church of Antioch ] ]
Place in Christianity
The Syriac Orthodox Church derives its origin from one of the first Christian communities, established in
Antiochby the Apostle St. Peter. It is one of the two autocephalous which claim the title of the Patriarch of Antioch. The current head of the Syriac Orthodox Church is the PatriarchMoran Mor Ignatius Zakka I Iwas, who resides in Damascus, the capital of Syria. The Church has about 26 archdioceses and 11 patriarchal vicarates. Patriarch Zakka was enthroned head of the church on 14 September 1980, on the feast of the Cross. Syriac Orthodox faithful around the world took part in the silver jubileecelebrations of his patriarchate in 2005. [http://sor.cua.edu/ChTod/index.html The Syriac Orthodox Church Today ] ]
Syriac Orthodox Church is one of the ancient churches of the world. According to the New Testament "The disciples were first called Christians in Antioch." (Acts 11:26).
St. Peter is considered as the first bishop of the Patriarchate of Antioch. When he left Antioch,
Evodiosand Ignatiustook over the charge of the Patriarchate. Both Evodios and Ignatius have died as martyrs under Roman Persecution (Due to the standing of St. Ignatius, almost all of the Syriac Orthodox Patriarchs since 1293 were named Ignatius). Chaillot, Christine. The Syrian Orthodox Church of Antioch and All the East. Geneva: Inter-Orthodox Dialogue, 1988. ]
The Church of Antioch played a significant role in the early history of Christianity. It played a prominent role in the first three Synods held at Nicea (325) , Constantinople (381), and Ephesus (431), shaping the formulation and early interpretation of Christian doctrines.
Council of Nicea
In the 4th century, an Alexandrian
presbyternamed Ariusbegan a theological dispute about the nature of Christ that spread throughout the Christian world and is now known as Arianism(not to be confused with the racist Nazi ideology Aryanism). The Ecumenical Council of NiceaAD 325 was convened by Constantine under the presidency of Saint Hosius of Cordovaand Saint Alexander of Alexandriato resolve the dispute and eventually led to the formulation of the Symbol of Faith, also known as the Nicene Creed. The Creed, which is now recited throughout the Christian world, was based largely on the teaching put forth by a man who eventually would become Saint Athanasius of Alexandria, the chief opponent of Arius.
Council of Constantinople
In the year AD 381, Saint
Timothy I of Alexandriapresided over the second ecumenical council known as the Ecumenical Council of Constantinople, which completed the Nicene Creedwith this confirmation of the divinity of the Holy Spirit:
:"We believe in the Holy Spirit, the Lord, the Giver of Life, who proceeds from the Father, who with the Father and the Son is worshipped and glorified who spoke by the Prophets and in One, Holy, Universal, and Apostolic church. We confess one Baptism for the remission of sins and we look for the resurrection of the dead and the life of the coming age, Amen."
Council of Ephesus
Another theological dispute in the
5th centuryoccurred over the teachings of Nestorius, the Patriarch of Constantinople who taught that God the Word was not hypostaticallyjoined with human nature, but rather dwelt in the man Jesus. As a consequence of this, he denied the title "Mother of God" "( Theotokos)" to the Virgin Mary, declaring her instead to be "Mother of Christ" " Christotokos".
When reports of this reached the Apostolic Throne of Saint Mark, Pope Saint Cyril I of Alexandria acted quickly to correct this breach with orthodoxy, requesting that Nestorius repent. When he would not, the Synod of Alexandria met in an emergency session and a unanimous agreement was reached. Pope Cyril I of Alexandria, supported by the entire See, sent a letter to Nestorius known as "The Third Epistle of Saint Cyril to
Nestorius." This epistle drew heavily on the established Patristic Constitutions and contained the most famous article of Alexandrian Orthodoxy: "The Twelve Anathemas of Saint Cyril." In these anathemas, Cyril excommunicated anyone who followed the teachings of Nestorius. For example, "Anyone who dares to deny the Holy Virgin the title " Theotokos" is Anathema!" Nestorius however, still would not repent and so this led to the convening of the First Ecumenical Council of Ephesus( 431), over which Cyril I of Alexandria presided.
First Ecumenical Council of Ephesusconfirmed the teachings of Saint Athanasius and confirmed the title of Mary as " Mother of God". It also clearly stated that anyone who separated Christinto two hypostases was anathema, as Athanasius had said that there is "One Nature and One Hypostasis for God the Word Incarnate" (Mia Physis tou Theou Loghou Sesarkomeni). Also, the introduction to the creed was formulated as follows:
:"We magnify you O Mother of the True Light and we glorify you O saint and Mother of God "(Theotokos)" for you have borne unto us the Saviour of the world. Glory to you O our Master and King: Christ, the pride of the Apostles, the crown of the martyrs, the rejoicing of the righteous, firmness of the churches and the forgiveness of sins. We proclaim the Holy Trinity in One Godhead: we worship Him, we glorify Him, Lord have mercy, Lord have mercy, Lord bless us, Amen."
Council of Chalcedon
When in AD
451, Emperor Marcianusattempted to heal divisions in the Church, the response of Pope Dioscorus – the Pope of Alexandria who was later exiled – was that the emperor should not intervene in the affairs of the Church. It was at Chalcedonthat the emperor, through the Imperial delegates, enforced harsh disciplinary measures against Pope Dioscorus in response to his boldness.
Council of Chalcedon, from the perspective of the Alexandrine Christology, has deviated from the approved Cyrillian terminology and declared that Christ was one hypostasis in two natures. However, in the Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed, "Christ was conceived of the Holy Spirit and of the Virgin Mary," thus the foundation of the definition according to the Non-Chalcedonian adherents, according to the Christology of Cyril of Alexandriais valid.
In terms of Christology, the Oriental Orthodox (Non-Chalcedonians) understanding is that Christ is "One Nature--the Logos Incarnate," "of" the full humanity and full divinity. The Chalcedonians understanding is that Christ is "in" two natures, full humanity and full divinity. Just as humans are of their mothers and fathers and not in their mothers and fathers, so too is the nature of Christ according to
Oriental Orthodoxy. If Christ is in full humanity and in full divinity, then He is separate in two persons as the Nestorians teach. [ [http://www.geocities.com/mfignatius/others/byzantine01.html Split of the Byzantine and Oriental Churches.] ] This is the doctrinal perception that makes the apparent difference which separated the Oriental Orthodox from the Eastern Orthodox.
The Council's findings were rejected by many of the Christians on the fringes of the
Byzantine Empire, including Syriac Orthodox Church, Copitic Orthodox Church, Armenian Apostolic Church, and others.
Patriarchate of Antioch
The spiritual care of the Church of
Antiochwas vested in the Bishop of Antioch from the earliest years of Christianity. The first among the Bishops of Antioch was St. Peterwho is believed to have established a church at Antioch in AD 33. Given the antiquity of the bishopric of Antioch and the importance of the Church in the city of Antioch which was a commercially significant city in the eastern parts of the Roman Empire, the First Council of Nicaea(AD 325) recognized the bishopric as a Patriarchate along with the bishoprics of Rome, Alexandria, and Jerusalem, bestowing authority for the Church in Antioch and All of the East on the Patriarch. (The Synod of Constantinople in AD 381 recognized the See of Constantinople also as a Patriarchate).
Even though the Synod of Nicaea was convened by the Roman Emperor Constantine, the authority of the ecumenical synod was also accepted by the Church in the Persian Empire which was politically isolated from the Churches in the Roman Empire. Until AD 498, this Church accepted the spiritual authority of the Patriarch of Antioch.
The Christological controversies that followed the
Council of Chalcedonin AD 451 resulted in a long struggle for the Patriarchate between those who accepted and those who rejected the Council. In AD 518, Patriarch Mor Severius was exiled from the city of Antioch and took refuge in Alexandria. On account of many historical upheavals and consequent hardships which the church had to undergo, the Patriarchate was transferred to different monasteries in Mesopotamia for centuries. In the 13th century it was transferred in the Mor Hananyo Monastery(Deir al-Za`faran), in southeastern Turkeynear Mardin, where it remained until 1933. Due to an adverse political situation, it was transferred to Homs, Syriaand in 1959 was transferred again to Damascus.
The Patriarchate office is now in
Bab Tuma, in Damascus, capital of Syria; but the Patriarch resides at the Mor Aphrem Monastery in Ma`arat Sayyidnayalocated about twenty five kilometers north of Damascus.
Primacy of Saint Peter
The Fathers of the Syriac Orthodox Church tried to give a theological interpretation to the primacy of
Saint Peter. They were fully convinced of the unique office of Peter in the primitive Christian community. Ephrem, Aphrahatand Maruthawho were supposed to be the best exponents of the early Syriac tradition unequivocally acknowledge the office of Peter.
The Syriac Fathers following the rabbinic tradition call Jesus “
Kepha” for they see “rock” in the Old Testament as a messianic Symbol. When Christ gave his own name “Kepha” to Simon he was giving him participation in the person and office of Christ. Christ who is the Kepha and shepherd made Simon the chief shepherd in his place and gave him the very name Kepha and said that on Kepha he would build the Church. Aphrahatshared the common Syriac tradition. For him Kepha is in fact another name of Jesus, and Simon was given the right to share the name. The person who receives somebody else’s name also obtains the rights of the person who bestows the name. Aphrahat makes the stone taken from Jordan a type of Peter. He says Jesus son of Nun set up the stones for a witness in Israel; Jesus our Saviour called Simon Kepha Sarirto and set him as the faithful witness among nations.
Again he says in his commentary on
Deuteronomythat Mosesbrought forth water from “rock” (Kepha) for the people and Jesus sent Simon Kepha to carry his teachings among nations. Our Lord accepted him and made him the foundation of the Church and called him Kepha. When he speaks about transfiguration of Christ he calls him Simon Peter, the foundation of the Church. Ephrem also shared the same view. In Armenian version of De Virginitaterecords Peter the Rock shunned honour Who was the head of the Apostles. In a "mimro" of Efrem found in Holy Week Liturgy points to the importance of Peter.Both Aphrahatand Ephremrepresent the authentic tradition of the Syrian Church. The different orders of liturgies used for sanctification of Church building, marriage, ordination etc. reveal that the primacy of Peter is a part of living faith of the Church. [ [Primacy of St. Peter by Mor Athanasius of Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church http://www.syrianchurch.org/Articles/PrimacyofStPeter.htm] ]
As Psalm 119 says [http://bible.cc/psalms/119-164.htm] , a Syriac Orthodox Faithful have to pray seven times a day. They are:
*Evening or "Ramsho" prayer (Vespers)
*Compline prayer or "Sootoro" prayer
*Midnight or "Lilyo" prayer
*Morning or "Saphro" prayer (Matins)
*Third Hour or "tloth sho`"in prayer (Prime, 9 a.m.)
*Sixth Hour or "sheth sho`"in prayer (Sext, noon)
*Ninth Hour or "tsha` sho`"in prayer (Nones, 3 p.m.)
According to the
SyriacTradition, a ecclesiastical day starts at sunset. Also the worshiper has to face the east while worshiping. ("For as the lightning comes from the east and shines as far as the west, so will be the coming of the Son of man" - Matthew 24:27.)
Holy Qurbono (Mass)
Holy Qurbono, i.e. Eucharist, is celebrated every Sunday, Wednesday and Friday. Presently, Holy Eucharist is celebrated only on Sundays and special occasions. The Holy Eucharist consists of Gospel Reading, Bible Readings, Prayers, and Songs. During the celebration of the Eucharist, priests and deacons put on elaborate vestments which are unique to the Syriac Orthodox Church. Whether in the Middle East, India, Europe, the Americas or Australia, the same vestments are worn by all clergy.
Apart from certain readings, all prayers are sung in the form of chants and melodies. Hundreds of melodies remain and these are preserved in the book known as "Beth Gazo". It is the key reference to Syriac Orthodox church music. Anyone who wishes to sing Syriac Orthodox music well must master the "Beth Gazo" [Beth Gazo D-ne`motho http://sor.cua.edu/bethgazo ]
Bible in Syriac Tradition
For all the churches of Syriac Tradition
Peshitta(Syriac: simple, common) bible is the official version of Bible. The Old Testamentbooks of this bible were translated from Greek to Syriacduring period between late first century A.D. to the early third century A.D.. [ Brock, Sebastian P. The Bible in Syriac Bible. Kottayam: SEERI. ] The Old Testament of the Peshittawas translated from the Hebrew, probably in the second century. The New Testamentof the Peshitta, which originally excluded certain disputed books, had become the standard by the early 5th century, replacing two early Syriac versions of the gospels.
The clergy of the Syriac Orthodox Church have unique vestments that are quite different from other Christian denominations. The vestments worn by the clergy vary with their order in the priesthood. The
deacons, the priests, the bishops, and the patriarcheach have different vestments.
The priest's usual dress is a black
robe, but in India, due to the harsh weather, priests usually wear a white robe. Bishops usually wear a black or a red robe with a red belt. They do not, however, wear a red robe in the presence of the Patriarch who wears a red robe. Bishops visiting a diocese outside their jurisdiction also wear black robes in deference to the bishop of the diocese, who alone wears red robes. Priests also wear "phiro", or a cap, which he must wear for all the public prayers. Monks also wear "eskimo", a hood. Priests also have ceremonial shoes which are called "msone". Then there is a white robe called "kutino" symbolizing purity. "Hamniko" or Stole is wore over this white robe. Then he wears girdle called "zenoro" and "zende" meaning sleeves. If the celebrant is a bishop, he wears a "masnapto", or turban (Very different from turban worn by Sikhmen). A cope called "phayno" is worn over these vestments. "Batrashil", or Pallium, is worn over "Phayno" by Bishops.(Very similar to "Hamnikho" worn by priests) [ Detailed explanation of vestments of Syriac Orthodox Church http://sor.cua.edu/Vestments/index.html ]
Ranks of Priesthood
In the Syriac Orthodox Tradition, different ranks among the deacons are specifically assigned with particular duties. The six ranks of deaconate are:
#Maudyono (Confessor of Faith)
#Msamsono( Full Deacon)Only a full deacon or "Masamsono" can take the censer during the
Holy Massto assist the priest. However in Malankara Church, because of the lack of deacons, altar assistants who do not have any rank of deaconhood assist the priest. The deacons in Malankara Church is allowed to wear a "phiro", or a cap.
The priest is the seventh rank and is the duly one appointed to administer the sacraments. Unlike the Latin Rite of the
Catholic church, a married man can be ordained to the priesthood of the Syriac Orthodox Church. There is another honorary rank among the priests that is Corepiscopos who has the privileges of 'first among the priests' and are give a chain with cross and specific vestment decorations. Corepiscopos is the highest rank a married man can be elevated in the Syriac Orthodox Church.
Episcopos is a word that means 'the one who oversees'. In the Syriac Orthodox Church, an episcopos is a spiritual ruler of the church. In episcopos too there are different ranks. The highest and the supreme is the
Patriarch, who is the 'father of fathers'. Next to him is the Maphriyonoor Catholicos of India who is the head of a division of the Church. Then there are Metropolitans or Archbishopsand under them there are Episcopos or Bishops. [Corepiscopos, Kuriakose M. A Guide to the Altar Assistants. Changanacherry: Mor Adai Study Center, 2005.]
Some estimate that the church has about 2,250,000 members globally including 1,200,000 adherents in India. There are 680,000 Syriac Orthodox in Syria and 5,000 in Turkey (numbers in Iraq, and Israel are unknown).In Lebanon they number up to 50,000 adherents. In diaspora, there are 70,000 adherents in Germany, 60,000 in Sweden, 15,000 in the Netherlands and a large number in North and South America and Australia. [ [http://adherents.com/Na/Na_622.html Adherents.com ] ]
This Ancient church today has two seminaries, and numerous colleges and other institutions. Among those there are several religious institutions which are noteworthy. Patriarch Aphrem I Barsoum (†1957) established St. Aphrem's Clerical School in 1934 in
Zahle, Lebanon. In 1946 it was moved to Mosul, Iraq, where it provided the Church with a good selection of graduates, the first among them being Patriarch Mor Ignatius Zakka I Iwasand many other of the Church's eminences. Also the church has an international christian education centre which is a centre for religious education, knowing that youth play a vital role in the Church's future. In the year 1990 he established the Order of St. Jacob Baradaeus for nuns and renovated St. Aphrem's Clerical building in Atshanneh, Lebanon for the new order.
Monastic life was vigorous in the Syriac Orthodox Church and many scholars and poets were monks in these Monasteries.
The Syriac Orthodox Church is very active in ecumenical dialogues. It is a member church of
World Council of Churchessince 1960 and the Patriarch, Mor ignatius Zakka I Iwasis one of the presidents of World council of churches. The Syriac Orthodox Church is also actively involved in ecumenical dialogues with the Roman Catholic Churchand Eastern orthodoxchurches. There are common christological and pastoral agreements with Catholic Church. It is also involved in the Middle East Council of Churches since 1974.
From 1998 onwards, the heads of the 3 Oriental Churches in Middle East i.e. the Syrian Orthodox Church, the
Coptic Orthodox Churchand the Armenian Apostolic Church(Catholicate of Cilicia, Antelias, Lebanon) meet regularly per annum.
Jurisdiction of the Patriarchate outside Middle East
Church in India
The church in Malankara, Malankara Syriac Orthodox Church is an integral part of the Syriac Orthodox Church with the
Patriarch of Antiochas its supreme head. The local head of the church in Malankara is the Catholicos of India, currently His Beatitude Baselios Thomas I, ordained by the Patriarchin 2002 and accountable to the Patriarch of Antioch. The church in India was under the Syriac Orthodox church of Antioch since apostolic times. The church in India is a intergral part of St. Thomas Christians. The KnanayaChristians in India are also under the leadership of Syriac Orhtodox Patriarch of Antioch.The Syriac Orthodox Divine Liturgyin India is done partly in Syriac and partly in Malayalam.
Even though the
Malankara Orthodox Syrian Churchclaims to be under the spiritual leadership of the Patriarch of Antioch, such a claim is not recognized by the Patriarch.
The Syriac Orthodox Church has arch dioceses and diocese all over the globe. In
USAthere are to arch dioceses namely Patriarchal Vicarate for Eastern United States and Patriarchal Vicarate for Western United States excluding the Malankara Archdiocese of USA. In Canada Also there is a vicarate namely Patriarchal-Vicarate of Canada. In South America there are two vicarates namely Patriarchal-Vicarate of Argentina and Patriarchal-Vicarate of Brazil.
The Church in Europe has Archdiocese of Central Europe and Benelux Countries, and Archdiocese of Sweden and Scandinavia: Mor Julius Abdulahad G. Shabo in Sodertalje and a few more Patriarchal vicarates namely Patriarchal Vicarate of Germany, Patriarchal-Vicarate of Sweden, Patriarchal-Vicarate of Sweden. Also the church in India has a archdiocese in Europe named Malankara Archdiocese of Europe
Other churches connected with Antioch
Both it and the
Chalcedonian Antiochian Orthodox Churchclaim to be the sole legitimate church of Antiochand successor of the Apostle St. Peter. There are also three Eastern CatholicChurches headed by "Patriarchs of Antioch" — the Syriac Catholic Church, the Maronite Churchand the Melkite Greek Catholic Church. There is also a related (" Nestorian Assyrians") Assyrian Church of the East.
List of Patriarchs of Antioch— to 518
List of Syriac Orthodox Patriarchs of Antioch— list from 518
Malankara Jacobite Syriac Orthodox Church(Church in India)
Saint Thomas Christians( Syrian Malabar Nasrani)
Ignatius Zakka I Iwas
Baselios Thomas I
Ignatius Afram I Barsoum
Ignatius Jacob III
Ignatius Elias III
* [http://sor.cua.edu/ Margonitho: Syriac Orthodox Resources]
* [http://www.jacobitesyrianchurch.org/ Jacobite Syrian Church]
* [http://www.radiomalankara.com/ Radio Malankara : Radio Of Jacobite Syrian Church]
* [http://syrianchurch.org/ Malankara Syriac Christian Resources]
* [http://www.suryoyo-online.org/ Suryoyo Online: Online journal of the Syriac Orthodox Church, Syriac Studies and Aramaeans]
* [http://www.socdigest.org Shroro: The Syriac Christian Digest]
* [http://www.syriacmusic.com/ Syriac Music Online]
* [http://www.epilgrim.org/syrian_liturgy.htm Syrian Liturgy] description and photos
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SLaYp-G5_wI Video of a Syriac Orthodox Funeral]
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