- Japan Ground Self-Defense Force
- For the Imperial Japanese Army (1871–1947), please see that article.
- For the Ministry of the Military (Ritsuryō) (701–1871), please see that article.
Japan Ground Self-Defense Force
陸上自衛隊 (Rikujō Jieitai)
Command Ground Staff Office Components Northern Army North Eastern Army Eastern Army Central Army Western Army Central Readiness Force JGSDF Reserve JGSDF Reserve Candidate
The Japan Ground Self-Defense Force (陸上自衛隊 Rikujō Jieitai ), or JGSDF, is the army of Japan. The largest of the three services of the Japan Self-Defense Forces, the Ground Self-Defense Force operates under the command of the chief of the ground staff, based in the city of Ichigaya, Tokyo. The present chief of ground staff is General Yoshifumi Hibako. The JGSDF numbers around 148,000 soldiers.
- 1 History
- 2 Organization
- 3 Regional organization
- 4 Training
- 5 Current equipment
- 6 Future equipment
- 7 Aircraft inventory
- 8 Past equipment
- 9 See also
- 10 Notes
- 11 References
- 12 External links
Japan accepted the Potsdam Declaration in 1945, and, based on Potsdam Declaration Article 9, the Imperial Japanese Army and Imperial Japanese Navy were dismantled. Both were replaced by United States Armed Forces occupation force, which assumed responsibility for the defense of Japan.
The National Security Board was created in 1952. The National Security Board oversaw police reserve forces, Maritime Guard and Maritime Safety Agency minesweeping corps, and were reorganized by the National Security Force. These changes were influenced by the Korean War.
The building of the defense ability advanced, and, on July 1, 1954, the National Security Board was reorganized by the Defense Agency, and the National Security Force and the garrison were reorganized afterwards by the Ground Self-Defense Force, the Marine Self Defense Force, the Air Self-Defense Force.
For a long period, the effectiveness of the Japan Ground Self-Defense Force to hold off a Soviet invasion of Hokkaido was in doubt, as Zbigniew Brzezinski observed in 1972 that it seemed optimized to fight ‘a Soviet invasion conducted on American patterns of a quarter of a century ago.’ While the force is now an efficient army of 148,000, its apparent importance has declined with the end of the Cold War, and attempts to reorient the forces as a whole to new post Cold War missions have been tangled in a series of internal political disputes.
The GSDF consists of the following tactical units:
- one armored division (7th),
- eight infantry divisions, each with three or four battalion-sized infantry regiments,
- five infantry brigades,
- one airborne brigade,
- four combined (training) brigades,
- one training brigade,
- one artillery brigade,
- two air defense brigades,
- four engineer brigades,
- one helicopter brigade with twenty-four squadrons and two anti-tank helicopter platoons.
JGSDF divisions and brigades are combined arms units with infantry, armored, and artillery units, combat support units and logistical support units. They are a regionally independent and permanent entities. The divisions strength varies between 7,000 to 9,000 personnel, the brigades are smaller with 3,000 to 4,000 personnel.
Special Forces units consist of the following:
- CRF: Central Readiness Force (中央即応集団 Chūō Sokuō Shūdan): Nerima, Tokyo
- Western Army Infantry Regiment (西部方面普通科連隊 Seibu Hōmen Futsū-ka Rentai)
The JGSDF has two reserve components: rapid-reaction reserve component (即応予備自衛官制度) and main reserve component (一般予備自衛官制度). Members of the rapid-reaction component train 30 days a year. Members of the main reserve train five days a year. As of December 2007, there were 8,425 members of the rapid-reaction reserve component and 22,404 members of the main reserve component.
- Northern Army, headquartered in Sapporo, Hokkaidō
- North Eastern Army, headquartered in Sendai, Miyagi
- Eastern Army, headquartered in Nerima, Tokyo
- Central Army, headquartered in Itami, Hyōgo
- Western Army, headquartered at Kumamoto, Kumamoto
- Other Units and Organizations
- Material Control Command
- Ground Research & Development Command
- Signal Brigade
- Military Police
- Military Intelligence Command
- Intelligence Security Command
- Ground Staff College
- Ground Officer Candidate School
In 1989, basic training for lower-secondary and upper-secondary academy graduates began in the training brigade and lasted approximately three months. Specialized enlisted and non-commissioned officer (NCO) candidate courses were available in branch schools and qualified NCOs could enter an eight-to-twelve-week officer candidate program. Senior NCOs and graduates of an eighty-week NCO pilot course were eligible to enter officer candidate schools, as were graduates of the National Defense Academy at Yokosuka and graduates of four-year all universities. Advanced technical, flight, medical and command and staff officer courses were also run by the JGSDF. Like the maritime and air forces, the JGSDF ran a youth cadet program offering technical training to lower-secondary school graduates below military age in return for a promise of enlistment.
Because of population density and urbanization on the Japanese islands, only limited areas are available for large-scale training, and, even in these areas, noise restrictions are restrictive. The JGSDF has adapted to these conditions by conducting command post exercises, map maneuvers, investing in simulators and other training programs, as well as conducting live fire exercises overseas at locations such as the Yakima Training Center in the United States.
- Type 75 155 mm self-propelled howitzer (140) Japan
- M110 howitzer (90) United States
- M270 MLRS (90) United States
- Type 99 155 mm self-propelled howitzer (87) Japan
- M2 107mm Mortar United States
- Type 64 81mm Mortar Japan
- L16 81mm Mortar United Kingdom
- RT 120mm Mortar France
- Type 96 120mm Self-Propelled Mortar Japan
- Type 82 Command and Communication Vehicle (250) Japan
- Type 87 Reconnaissance and Warning Vehicle (100) Japan
- Chemical Reconnaissance Vehicle Japan
- Komatsu Light Armored Vehicle (1,580) Japan
Armored personnel carriers
- Type 73 Armored Personnel Carrier (340) Japan
- Type 96 Wheeled Armored Personnel Carrier (322) Japan 
- Type 01 Light Anti-Tank Missile (1,073) Japan
- Type 79 Anti-Landing craft and Anti-Tank Missile Japan
- Type 87 Anti-Tank Missile Japan
- Type 88 Surface-to-Ship Missile Japan
- Type 96 Multi-Purpose Missile System Japan
- Improved-HAWK United States
- FIM-92A Stinger (80) United States
- Type 81 Short-Range Surface-to-Air Missile (57) Japan
- Type 91 Portable Surface-to-Air Missile (210) Japan
- Type 93 Short-Range Surface-to-Air Missile (90) Japan
- Type 03 Medium-Range Surface-to-Air Missile Japan
- Hitachi Type 73 Japan
- Mitsubishi Type 73 Light Truck Japan
- Toyota Type 73 Medium Truck Japan
- Isuzu Type 73 Heavy Truck Japan
- Toyota High Mobility Vehicle Japan
- SCK/Minebea 9mm Pistol Switzerland
- Howa Type 89 (100000) Japan
- Howa Type 64 (230000) Japan
- Type 06 rifle grenade Japan
- Minebea 9mm Machine Pistol Japan
- Sumitomo MINIMI 5.56mm Machine Gun (4244) Belgium
- Anti-Human Sniper Rifle United States
- NTK/Sumitomo Type 62 machine gun Japan
- Sumitomo M2 12.7mm Heavy Machine Gun United States
- Howa Type 96 Japan
- M4 carbine United States (Only Japanese Special Forces Group.)
- Howa 84RR Sweden
- Nissan/IHI Aerospace 110mm LAM Germany
- Flamethrower(携帯放射器) Japan
- NBC Reconnaissance Vehicle - Successor to the Chemical Reconnaissance Vehicle and the Biological Reconnaissance Vehicle.
The JGSDF operates 469 aircraft, including 458 helicopters.
Aircraft Origin Type Versions In service Notes Beechcraft Super King Air United States Utility transport LR-2 6 Bell UH-1 United States Utility helicopter UH-1H
146 Built by Fuji(118 UH-1J in service by April 2010) Bell AH-1 Cobra United States Attack helicopter AH-1S 84 Built by Fuji Boeing AH-64 Apache United States Attack helicopter AH-64DJP 10 Built by Fuji, 62 planned, further procurement cancelled Boeing CH-47 Chinook United States Transport helicopter CH-47J
54 Built by Kawasaki Enstrom 480 United States Trainer helicopter TH-480B 1 30 planned, Under delivery Eurocopter EC 225 France VIP helicopter EC 225LP 3 Replacing the AS332L Fuji FFOS Japan Unmanned observation helicopter  Kawasaki OH-1 Japan Scout/Attack helicopter OH-1 34 Under delivery MD Helicopters MD 500 Japan Scout helicopter OH-6D 111 Built by Kawasaki. Being slowly phased out Mitsubishi MU-2 Japan Liaison LR-1 5 UH-60 Black Hawk United States Transport helicopter UH-60JA 29 Built by Mitsubishi Yamaha RMAX Japan Unmanned observation helicopter 
- M1 Garand semi automatic rifle United States
- M1 Carbine United States only M2 has Selective fire
- M3 submachine gun United States
- M1903 Springfield rifle United States
- M1919 Browning machine gun United States
- SCK New Nambu M66 submachine gun Japan
- Colt M1911 Pistol United States
- M1 155 mm Howitzer United States
- M2A1 105 mm Howitzer United States
- M2 203 mm Howitzer United States
- M59 155 mm Cannon United States
- Type 74 105 mm Self-propelled howitzer Japan
- Type 75 130 mm Multiple Surface-to-Surface Rocket Japan
Anti-tank guided missiles
- M51 75 mm Anti-Aircraft Gun United States
- M42 40 mm Self-Propelled Anti-Aircraft Gun United States
- L-90 35mm Anti-Aircraft Twin Cannon Switzerland
- Bofors 40 mm gun Sweden
Other armored fighting vehicles
- Japan Self-Defense Forces
- Japanese Iraq Reconstruction and Support Group
- Military ranks and insignia of the Japan Self-Defense Forces
- ^ a b IISS Military Balance 2008, Routledge, London, 2008, p.384
- ^ Zbigniew Brzezinski, The Fragile Blossom (Harper, 1972) p.95, in James H. Buck, ‘The Japanese Military in the 1980s,’ in James H. Buck (ed.), The Modern Japanese Military System, Sage Publications, Beverly Hills/London, 1975, p.220
- ^ [dead link]
- ^ ARG. "Type 96 Armored Personnel Carrier". Military-Today.com. http://www.military-today.com/apc/type_96_apc.htm. Retrieved 2011-05-11.
- ^ "TRDI Department of Guided Weapon Systems Development". Mod.go.jp. http://www.mod.go.jp/trdi/en/programs/ground/ground.html. Retrieved 2011-05-11.
- ^ "資料17 主要航空機の保有数・性能諸元". Clearing.mod.go.jp. http://www.clearing.mod.go.jp/hakusho_data/2009/2009/html/ls229000.html. Retrieved 2011-05-11.
- ^ "Enstrom delivers first helicopter to JGSDF". Shephard Group. http://www.shephard.co.uk/news/rotorhub/enstrom-delivers-first-helicopter-to-jgsdf/8562/. Retrieved 2011-08-10.
- ^ "Eurocopter Canada - News 04/07/06". Eurocopter.ca. http://www.eurocopter.ca/asp/cmNews060407-2.asp. Retrieved 2011-05-11.
- ^ EADS Press Release - Japan Defense Agency Received First EC225 In VIP Configuration For The Japanese Emperor’s Royal Flight Service[dead link]
- ^ "Fuji FFOS (Japan), Unmanned helicopters - Rotary-wing - Military". Jane's Information Group. http://articles.janes.com/articles/Janes-Helicopter-Markets-and-Systems/Fuji-FFOS-Japan.html. Retrieved 2011-08-10.
- ^ "Yamaha RMAX (Japan), Unmanned helicopters - Rotary-wing - Civil". Jane's Information Group. http://articles.janes.com/articles/Janes-Helicopter-Markets-and-Systems/Yamaha-RMAX-Japan.html. Retrieved 2011-08-10.
- ^ a b Licensed by Howa.
- ^ Small number of M3s are held in reserve by various JGSDF special forces units.
- Globalsecurity.org JGSDF section
- Number of Tanks and Major Artillery and Performance Specifications
- Number of Major Aircraft and Performance Specifications
- Guided Missile Specifications
- Japan Ground Self-Defense Force (Japanese)
Japan Self-Defense Forces
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