name = "Gymnadenia"

image_width = 200px
image_caption = Fragrant Orchid "Gymnadenia conopsea"
regnum = Plantae
divisio = Magnoliophyta
classis = Liliopsida
ordo = Asparagales
familia = Orchidaceae
subfamilia = Orchidoideae
tribus = Orchideae
subtribus = Orchidinae
genus = "Gymnadenia"
genus_authority = R.Br.
subdivision_ranks = Species
subdivision = See text.

"Gymnadenia" is a genus in the orchid family (Orchidaceae) containing 22 terrestrial species.

They can be found in damp meadows, fens and marshes, and on chalk or limestone, often in alpine regions of Europe and Asia up to the Himalayas. The Fragrant Orchid ("Gymnadenia conopsea") has been introduced into the USA.

These hardy terrestrial orchids are deciduous. They survive the winter through their corms, two deep-cut tubers (more like tuberous roots). Long lanceolate green leaves grow at the bottom of the stem. There are some small leaves at the stop of the stem.

They flower during the summer. The inflorescence is a dense cylindrical spike between 5 and 30 cm long. It can consists of up to 150 small pleasant-smelling flowers. Their color can vary from pale purple to pink and white. The lip is wide with three lobes. The marginal petals are horizontal. There is a long, thin, threadlike spur.

Several species were formerly classified under "Nigritella". The nothogeneric name ×"Gymnigritella" was used for hybrids between these two groups.


*"Gymnadenia archiducis-joannis"Formerly in "Nigritella".] (Austria)
*"Gymnadenia austriaca" (C. Europe to Pyrenees).
**"Gymnadenia austriaca" var. "austriaca" (C. Europe) - Tuber geophyte
**"Gymnadenia austriaca" var. "gallica" (Pyrenees, W. Alps) - Tuber geophyte
*"Gymnadenia bicornis" (Tibet)
*"Gymnadenia borealis" (N. & C. Europe)
*"Gymnadenia × breinerorum" ("G. cenisia" × "G. corneliana") (France)
*"Gymnadenia buschmanniae" (Italy)
*"Gymnadenia carpatica" ("E. Carpathians")
*"Gymnadenia cenisia" ("France")
*"Gymnadenia × chanousiana"Formerly in ×"Gymnigritella".] ("G. cenisia" × "G. conopsea") (France)
*"Gymnadenia conopsea" - Fragrant Orchid (Europe to Temp. E. Asia)
*"Gymnadenia corneliana" (Beauverd) Teppner & E.Klein (SW. Alps)
**"Gymnadenia corneliana" var. "bourneriasii" (E.Breiner & R.Breiner) Pellic (2005) - formerly "Nigritella corneliana" subsp. "bourneriasii"
*"Gymnadenia crassinervis" (China)
*"Gymnadenia × delphineae" ("G. corneliana" × "G. rhellicani") (France)
*"Gymnadenia dolomitensis" (S. Alps)
*"Gymnadenia × eggeriana" ("G. austriaca" var. "gallica" × "G. rhellicani") (France)
*"Gymnadenia emeiensis" (China - Sichuan)
*"Gymnadenia frivaldii" (Balkan Pen. to S. Carpathians)
*"Gymnadenia gabasiana" (Pyrenees)
*"Gymnadenia × godferyana" (Alps) ("G. conopsea" × "rubra")
*"Gymnadenia × heufleri" ("G. nigra" × "G. odoratissima") (Alps)
*"Gymnadenia × intermedia" ("G. conopsea" × "G. odoratissima") (Europe)
**"Gymnadenia × intermedia" nothosubsp. "intermedia" (Europe) - Tuber geophyte
**"Gymnadenia × intermedia" nothosubsp. "proxima".("G. conopsea" × "G. odoratissima" subsp. "ongicalcarata") (SW. Europe) - Tuber geophyte
*"Gymnadenia lithopolitanica" (SE. Alps)
*"Gymnadenia microgymnadenia" (NC. China)
*"Gymnadenia neottioides" A.Rich. & Galeotti (Mexico)
*"Gymnadenia nigra" (Europe, Israel)
*"Gymnadenia odoratissima" (Europe)
**"Gymnadenia odoratissima" subsp. "longicalcarata" (Spain) - Tuber geophyte
**"Gymnadenia odoratissima" subsp. "odoratissima" (Europe) - Tuber geophyte
*"Gymnadenia orchidis" (Himalaya to China)
*"Gymnadenia propinqua" A.Rich. & Galeotti (Mexico)
*"Gymnadenia × pyrenaeensis" ("G. conopsea" × "G. gabasiana") (Pyrenees)
*"Gymnadenia rhellicani" (W. Alps)
** "Gymnadenia rhellicani" var. "robusta" - formerly "Nigritella rhellicani" Teppner & E.Klein var. "robusta" (P.Delforge) Kreutz, 2004
*"Gymnadenia × robatschiana" ("G. cenisia" × "G. rhellicani") (France)
*"Gymnadenia rubra" (C. & E. Alps, S. Carpathians)
*"Gymnadenia stiriaca" (Austria)
*"Gymnadenia taquetii" (Korea)
*"Gymnadenia × truongiae" ("G. conopsea" × "G. corneliana") (France)
*"Gymnadenia × turnowskyi" ("G. conopsea" × "G. lithopolitanica") (Austria)
*"Gymnadenia × wettsteiniana" ("G. nigra" × "G. rubra") (Alps)
*"Gymnadenia widderi" (NE. Alps, C. Italy)



Delforge, P. 1998. Contribution taxonomique et nomenclaturale au genre Gymnadenia (Orchidaceae). (Nomenclatural and taxonomical contribution to the genus Gymnadenia (Orchidaceae). Nat. Belg. 79(4): 251-256.

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  • Gymnadenĭa — G. Brown (Nacktdrüse, Gymnadenie), Gattung der Orchidazeen, mit etwa 10 Arten in Europa und Nordasien. G. conopsea R. Brown (Orchis conopsea L.), in Europa und Sibirien, häufig auf Waldwiesen, mit 60 cm hohem Stengel, linien lanzettförmigen… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

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  • Gymnadenia — R. Br. 1813. Es un género con una veintena de especies de orquídeas de la subfamilia Orchidoideae de la familia de las (Orchidaceae). Se distribuyen desde Europa hasta China. Son de hábitos terrestres y tienen tubérculos en vez de pseudobulbos …   Enciclopedia Universal

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  • Gymnadenia — noun small genus of terrestrial orchids of North America and temperate Eurasia • Syn: ↑genus Gymnadenia • Hypernyms: ↑monocot genus, ↑liliopsid genus • Member Holonyms: ↑Orchidaceae, ↑family Orchidaceae, ↑ …   Useful english dictionary

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