Reference ranges for blood tests


Reference ranges for blood tests
Reference
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Reference ranges for blood tests are sets of values used by a health professional to interpret a set of medical test results from blood samples.

Reference ranges for blood tests are studied within the field of clinical chemistry (also known as "clinical biochemistry", "chemical pathology" or "pure blood chemistry"), the area of pathology that is generally concerned with analysis of bodily fluids.

Contents

Interpretation

A reference range is usually defined as the set of values 95 percent of the normal population falls within (that is, 95% prediction interval).[1] It is determined by collecting data from vast numbers of laboratory tests.

Plasma or whole blood

All values (except the exceptions below) denote blood plasma concentration, which is approximately 60-100% larger than the actual blood concentration if the amount inside red blood cells (RBCs) is negligible. The precise factor depends on hematocrit as well as amount inside RBCs. Exceptions are mainly those values that denote total blood concentration, and in this article they are:

  • All values in Hematology - red blood cells (except hemoglobin in plasma)
  • All values in Hematology - white blood cells
  • Platelet count (Plt)

A few values are for inside red blood cells only:

  • Vitamin B9 (Folic acid/Folate) in red blood cells
  • Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC)

Units

  • Mass concentration (g/dL or g/L) is the most common measurement unit in the United States. Is usually given with dL (decilitres) as the denominator in the United States, and usually with L (litres) in, for example, Sweden.
  • Molar concentration (mol/L) is used to a higher degree in most of the rest of the world, including the United Kingdom and other parts of Europe and Australia and New Zealand.[2]
  • International units (IU) are based on measured biological activity or effect, or for some substances, a specified equivalent mass.
  • Enzyme activity (kat) is commonly used for e.g. liver function tests like AST, ALT, LD and γ-GT in Sweden.[3]

Arterial or venous

If not else specified, a reference range for a blood test is generally the venous range, as the standard process of obtaining a sample is by venipuncture. An exception is for acid-base and blood gases, which are generally given for arterial blood.

Still, the blood values are approximately equal between the arterial and venous sides for most substances, with the exception of acid-base, blood gases and drugs (used in therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) assays).[4] Arterial levels for drugs are generally higher than venous levels because of extraction while passing through tissues.[4]

Usual or optimal

Reference ranges are usually given as what are the usual (or normal) values found in the population, more specifically the prediction interval that 95% of the population fall into. This may also be called standard range. In contrast, optimal (health) range or therapeutic target is a reference range or limit that is based on concentrations or levels that are associated with optimal health or minimal risk of related complications and diseases. For most substances presented, the optimal levels are the ones normally found in the population as well. More specifically, optimal levels are generally close to a central tendency of the values found in the population. However, usual and optimal levels may differ substantially, most notably among vitamins and blood lipids, so these tables give limits on both standard and optimal (or target) ranges.

In addition, some values, including troponin I and brain natriuretic peptide, are given as the estimated appropriate cutoffs to distinguish healthy people from specific conditions, which here are myocardial infarction and congestive heart failure, respectively, for the aforementioned substances.

Inaccuracy

References range may vary with age, sex, race, diet, use of prescribed or herbal drugs and stress. Standard reference ranges should theoretically not vary with the instruments and lab techniques used, but practically it may do so when inaccurate methods are used in establishing standard reference ranges. Finally, the test procedure itself may be erroneous or inaccurate.

Sorted by concentration

A separate printable image is available for mass and molarity

Smaller, narrower boxes indicate a more tight homeostatic regulation when measured as standard "usual" reference range.

By mass and molarity

Hormones predominate at the left part of the scale, shown with a red at ng/L or pmol/L, being in very low concentration. There appears to be the greatest cluster of substances in the yellow part (μg/L or nmol/L), becoming sparser in the green part (mg/L or μmol/L). However, there is another cluster containing many metabolic substances like cholesterol and glucose at the limit with the blue part (g/L or mmol/L).

The unit conversions of substance concentrations from the molar to the mass concentration scale above are made as follows:

  • Numerically: molar concentration x molar mass = mass concentration
  • Measured directly in distance on the scales:

\log_{10} \frac{\textit{molar~mass}}{1000} = \textit{distance~to~right~(decades)}

, where distance is the direct (not logarithmic) distance in number of decades or "octaves" to the right the mass concentration is found. To translate from mass to molar concentration, the dividend (molar mass and the divisor (1000) in the division change places, or, alternatively, distance to right is changed to distance to left. Substances with a molar mass around 1000g/mol (e.g. thyroxine) are almost vertically aligned in the mass and molar images. Adrenocorticotropic hormone, on the other hand, with a molar mass of 4540,[5] is 0.7 decades to the right in the mass image. Substances with molar mass below 1000g/mol (e.g. electrolytes and metabolites) would have "negative" distance, that is, masses deviating to the left.

Many substances given in mass concentration are not given in molar amount because they haven't been added to the article.

The diagram above can also be used as an alternative way to convert any substance concentration (not only the normal or optimal ones) from molar to mass units and vice versa for those substances appearing in both scales, by measuring how much they are horizontally displaced from one another (representing the molar mass for that substance), and using the same distance from the concentration to be converted to determine the equivalent concentration in terms of the other unit. For example, on a certain monitor, the horizontal distance between the upper limits for parathyroid hormone in pmol/L and pg/mL may be 7 cm, with the mass concentration to the right. A molar concentration of, for example, 5 pmol/L would therefore correspond to a mass concentration located 7 cm to the right in the mass diagram, that is, approximately 45 pg/mL.

By units

Units don't necessarily tell anything about molarity or mass.

Reference ranges for blood tests - by units.png

A few substances are below this main interval, e.g. thyroid stimulating hormone, being measured in mU/L, or above, like rheumatoid factor and CA19-9, being measured in U/mL.

By enzyme activity

Reference ranges for blood tests - by enzyme activity.png

White blood cells

Reference ranges for blood tests - white blood cells.png

Sorted by category

Ions and trace metals

Included here are also related binding proteins, like ferritin and transferrin for iron, and ceruloplasmin for copper.

Test Lower limit Upper limit Unit Comments
Sodium (Na) 135,[6] 137[7][3] 145,[7][3] 147[6] mmol/L or mEq/L[6]
310,[8] 320[8] 330,[8] 340[8] mg/dl
Potassium (K) 3.5,[6][3] 3.6[7] 5.0,[6][7][3] 5.1 mmol/L or mEq/L[6] See hypokalemia
or hyperkalemia
14[9] 20[9] mg/dl
Chloride (Cl) 95,[6] 98,[10] 100[3] 105,[6] 106,[10] 110[3] mmol/L or mEq/L[6]
340[11] 370[11] mg/dl
Ionized calcium (Ca) 1.03,[12] 1.10[3] 1.23,[12] 1.30[3] mmol/L
4.1,[13] 4.4[13] 4.9,[13] 5.2[13] mg/dL
Total calcium (Ca) 2.1,[6][14] 2.2[3] 2.5,[14][3] 2.6,[14] 2.8[6] mmol/L
8.4,[6] 8.5[15] 10.2,[6] 10.5[15] mg/dL
Total serum iron (TSI) - male 65,[16] 76[7] 176,[16] 198[7] µg/dL
11.6,[17][18] 13.6[18] 30,[17] 32,[18] 35[18] μmol/L
Total serum iron (TSI) - female 26,[7] 50[16] 170[7][16] µg/dL
4.6,[18] 8.9[17] 30.4[17] μmol/L
Total serum iron (TSI) - newborns 100[16] 250[16] µg/dL
18[18] 45[18] µmol/L
Total serum iron (TSI) - children 50[16] 120[16] µg/dL
9[18] 21[18] µmol/L
Total iron-binding capacity (TIBC) 240,[16] 262[7] 450,[16] 474[7] μg/dL
43,[18] 47[18] 81,[18] 85[18] µmol/L
Transferrin 190,[19] 194,[3] 204[7] 326,[3] 330,[19] 360[7] mg/dL
25[20] 45[20] μmol/L
Transferrin saturation 20[16] 50[16]  %
Ferritin - Male 12[21] 300[21] ng/mL
27[22] 670[22] pmol/L
Ferritin - Female 12[21] 150[21] ng/mL
27[22] 330[22] pmol/L
Ammonia 10,[23] 20[24] 35,[23] 65[24] μmol/L
17,[25] 34[25] 60,[25] 110[25] μg/dL
Copper 70[15] 150[15] µg/dL
11[26] 24[26] μmol/L
Ceruloplasmin 15[15] 60[15] mg/dL
1[27] 4[27] μmol/L
Phosphate (HPO42−) 0.8 1.5[28] mmol/L
Inorganic phosphorus (serum) 1.0[6] 1.5[6] mmol/L
3.0[6] 4.5[6] mg/dL
Copper (Cu) 11[29] 24 μmol/L
Zinc (Zn) 60,[30] 72[31] 110,[31] 130[30] μg/dL
9.2,[32] 11[3] 17,[3] 20[32] µmol/L
Magnesium 1.5,[15] 1.7[33] 2.0,[15] 2.3[33] mEq/L or mg/dL
0.6,[34] 0.7[3] 0.82,[34] 0.95[3] mmol/L

Acid-base and blood gases

If arterial/venous is not specified for a acid-base or blood gas value, then it generally refers to arterial, and not venous which otherwise is standard for other blood tests.

Acid-base and blood gases are among the few blood constituents that exhibit substantial difference between arterial and venous values.[4] Still, pH, bicarbonate and base excess show a high level of inter-method reliability between arterial and venous tests, so arterial and venous values are roughly equivalent for these.[35]

Test Arterial/Venous Lower limit Upper limit Unit Comments
pH Arterial 7.34,[7] 7.35[6] 7.44,[7] 7.45[6]
Venous 7.31[36] 7.41[36]
[H+] Arterial 36[6] 44[6] nmol/L
3.6[37] 4.4[37] ng/dL
Base excess Arterial & venous[36] -3[36] +3[36] mEq/L
oxygen pressure (pO2) Arterial 10,[6] 11[38] 13,[38] 14[6] kPa
75,[6][7] 83[15] 100,[7] 105[6] mmHg or torr
Venous 4.0[38] 5.3[38] kPa
30[36] 40[36] mmHg or torr
Oxygen saturation Arterial 94,[36] 95,[10] 96[15] 100[10][15]  %
Venous Approximately 75[10]
Carbon dioxide (CO2) Arterial 4.4,[6] 4.7[38] 5.9,[6] 6.0[38] kPa Designated pCO2
33,[6] 35[7] 44,[6] 45[7] mmHg or torr
23[36] 30[36] mmol/L
100[39] 132[39] mg/dL
Venous 5.5[38] 6.8[38] kPa
41[36] 51[36] mmHg or torr
Bicarbonate (HCO3, ) Arterial & venous 18[15] 23[15] mmol/L
110[40] 140[40] mg/dL
Standard bicarbonate (SBCe) Arterial & venous 21, 22[6] 27, 28[6] mmol/L or mEq/L[6]
134[40] 170[40] mg/dL

Liver function

Test Patient type Lower limit Upper limit Unit Comments
Total Protein 60,[6] 63[7] 78,[6] 82,[7] 84[15] g/L see hypoproteinemia
Albumin 35[6][41] 48,[7] 55[6] g/L see hypoalbuminemia
3.5[7] 4.8,[7] 5.5[6] U/L
540[42] 740[42] μmol/L
Globulins 23[6] 35[6] g/L
Total Bilirubin 1.7,[43] 2,[6] 3.4,[43] 5[3] 17,[6][43] 22,[43] 25[3] μmol/L
0.1,[6] 0.2,[7] 0.29[44] 1.0,[6][15] 1.3,[7] 1.4[44] mg/dL
Direct/Conjugated Bilirubin 0.0[6] or N/A[3] 5,[6] 7[43][3] μmol/L
0[6][7] 0.3,[6][7] 0.4[15] mg/dL
Alanine transaminase (ALT/ALAT[3]) 5,[45] 7,[7] 8[6] 20,[6] 21,[10] 56[7] U/L Also called serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT)
Female 0.15[3] 0.75[3] µkat/L
Male 0.15[3] 1.1[3]
Aspartate transaminase (AST/ASAT[3]) Female 6[46] 34[46] IU/L Also called
serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT)
0.25[3] 0.60[3] µkat/L
Male 8[46] 40[46] IU/L
0.25[3] 0.75[3] µkat/L
Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) Female 42[45] 98[45] U/L
Male 53[45] 128[45]
(Enzyme activity) 0.6[3] 1.8[3] µkat/L
Gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) 5,[45] 8[7] 40,[45] 78[7] U/L
Women 0.8[47] µkat/L
Men 1.3[47]

Cardiac tests

Test Patient type Lower limit Upper limit Unit Comments
Creatine kinase (CK) male 24,[48] 38,[7] 60[45] 174,[15] 320[45] U/L
or ng/mL
0.42[49] 1.5[49] µkat/L
female 24,[48] 38,[7] 96[15] 140,[15] 200[45] U/L
or ng/mL
0.17[49] 1.17[49] µkat/L
CK-MB 0 3,[7] 3.8,[3] 5[45] ng/mL or μg/L[3]
Myoglobin Female 1[50] 66[50] ng/mL or µg/L
Male 17[50] 106[50]
Cutoffs and ranges for troponin types, 12 hrs after onset of pain
Test Lower limit Upper limit Unit Comments
Troponin-I 0.2[51] ng/mL or μg/L Upper limit of normal
0.2[51] 1.0[51] ng/mL or μg/L Acute Coronary Syndrome
0.4[52] 2.0[52] ng/mL or μg/L Moderately increased[52]
1.0,[51] 1.5[53] n/a[51][53] ng/mL or μg/L Myocardial Infarction likely
Troponin-T 0.02[51] ng/mL or μg/L Upper limit of normal
0.02[51] 0.10[51] ng/mL or μg/L Acute Coronary Syndrome
0.10[51] n/a[51] ng/mL or μg/L Myocardial Infarction likely
Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP)
Interpretation Range / Cutoff
Congestive heart failure unlikely < 100 pg/mL[54][55]
"Gray zone" 100-500 pg/mL[54][55]
Congestive heart failure likely >500 pg/mL[54][55]
NT-proBNP
Interpretation Age Cutoff
Congestive heart failure likely < 75years > 125 pg/mL[49]
>75 years >450pg/mL[49]

Lipids

Test Patient type Lower limit Upper limit Unit Therapeutic target
Triglycerides 10 – 39 years 54[15] 110[15] mg/dL < 100 mg/dL[56]
or 1.1[56] mmol/L
0.61[57] 1.2[57] mmol/L
40 – 59 years 70[15] 150[15] mg/dL
0.77[57] 1.7[57] mmol/L
> 60 years 80[15] 150[15] mg/dL
0.9[57] 1.7[57] mmol/L
Total cholesterol 3.0,[58] 3.6[6][58] 5.0,[3][59] 6.5[6] mmol/L < 3.9[56]
120,[7] 140[6] 200,[7] 250[6] mg/dL < 150[56]
HDL cholesterol female 1.0,[60] 1.2,[3] 1.3[58] 2.2[60] mmol/L > 1.0[60] or 1.6[58]  mmol/L
> 40[61] or 60[62] mg/dL
40,[61] 50[63] 86[61] mg/dL
HDL cholesterol male 0.9[60][3] 2.0[60] mmol/L
35[61] 80[61] mg/dL
LDL cholesterol
(Not valid when
triglycerides >5.0 mmol/L)
2.0,[60] 2.4[59] 3.0,[59][3] 3.4[60] mmol/L < 2.5[60]
80,[61] 94[61] 120,[61] 130[61] mg/dL < 100[61]
LDL/HDL quotient n/a 5[3] (unitless)

Tumour markers

Test Cutoff Unit Comments
Alpha fetoprotein (AFP) 44[7] ng/mL or µg/L
Beta Human chorionic gonadotrophin (bHCG) 5[7] IU/l or mU/ml in male and non-pregnant female
CA19-9 40[7] U/ml
CA-125 30,[64] 35[65] kU/L or U/mL
Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)
non-smokers at 50 years
3.4,[3] 3.6[66] μg/l
Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)
non-smokers at 70 years
4.1[66] μg/l
Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) - smokers 5[67] μg/l
Prostate specific antigen (PSA) 2.5,[3] 4[7] μg/L[7][3] or ng/mL[15] below age 45 <2.5 μg/L
PAP 3[15] units/dL (Bodansky units)
Calcitonin
5,[68] 15[68] ng/L or pg/mL Cutoff against medullary thyroid cancer[68]

Endocrinology

Thyroid hormones

Test Patient type Lower limit Upper limit Unit
Thyroid stimulating hormone
(TSH or thyrotropin)
Adults -
standard range
0.3,[3] 0.4,[7] 0.5,[15] 0.6[69] 4.0,[3] 4.5,[7] 6.0[15] mIU/L or μIU/mL
Adults -
optimal range
0.3,[70] 0.5[71] 2.0,[71] 3.0[70] mIU/L or μIU/mL
Infants 1.3[72] 19[72] mIU/L or μIU/mL
Free thyroxine (FT4)
Normal adult 0.7,[73] 0.8[7] 1.4,[73] 1.5,[7] 1.8[74] ng/dL
9,[75][3] 10,[76] 12[77] 18,[3][75] 23[77] pmol/L
Child/Adolescent
31 d - 18 y
0.8[73] 2.0[73] ng/dL
10[75] 26[75] pmol/L
Pregnant 0.5[73] 1.0[73] ng/dL
6.5[75] 13[75] pmol/L
Total thyroxine 4,[76] 5.5[7] 11,[76] 12.3[7] μg/dL
60[76][77] 140,[76] 160[77] nmol/L
Free triiodothyronine (FT3) Normal adult 0.2[76] 0.5[76] ng/dL
3.1[78] 7.7[78] pmol/L
Children 2-16 y 0.1[79] 0.6[79] ng/dL
1.5[78] 9.2[78] pmol/L
Total triiodothyronine 60,[7] 75[76] 175,[76] 181[7] ng/dL
0.9,[3] 1.1[76] 2.5,[3] 2.7[76] nmol/L
Thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) 12[7] 30[7] mg/L
Thyroglobulin (Tg) 1.5[76] 30[76] pmol/L
1[76] 20[76] μg/L

Sex hormones

Levels of estradiol (the main estrogen), progesterone, luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone during the menstrual cycle.[80]

The diagrams at right take inter-cycle and inter-woman variability into account in displaying reference ranges for estradiol, progesterone, FSH and LH.[80]

Test Patient type Lower limit Upper limit Unit
Dihydrotestosterone adult male 30[81] 85[81] ng/dL
Testosterone Male, overall 8,[82] 10[83] 27,[82] 35[83] nmol/L
230,[84] 300[85] 780[84] - 1000[85] ng/dL
Male < 50 years 10[3] 45[3] nmol/L
290[84] 1300[84] ng/dL
Male > 50 years 6.2[3] 26[3] nmol/L
180[84] 740[84] ng/dL
Female 0.7[83] 2.8[83] - 3.0[3] nmol/L
20[85] 80[85] - 85[84] ng/dL
17-Hydroxyprogesterone male 0.06[15] 3.0[15] mg/L
0.18[86] 9.1[86] µmol/l
Female (Follicular phase) 0.2[15] 1.0[15] mg/L
0.6[86] 3.0[86] µmol/l
Follicle-stimulating
hormone
(FSH)
Prepubertal <1[87] 3[87] IU/L
Adult male 1[87] 8[87]
Adult female (follicular
and luteal phase)
1[87] 11[87]
Adult female (Ovulation) 6[87]
95% PI (standard)
26[87]
95% PI)
5[88]
90% PI (used in diagram)
15[88]
(90% PI)
Post-menopausal female 30[87] 118[87]
Luteinizing hormone (LH)
Female, peak 20[88]
90% PI (used in diagram)
75[88]
(90% PI)
IU/L
Female, post-menopausal 15[89] 60[89]
Estradiol
(an estrogen)
Adult male 50[90] 200[90] pmol/L
14[91] 55[91] pg/mL
Adult female (day 5 of follicular phase,
and luteal phase)
70[90] 500,[90] 600[90] pmol/L
19[91] 140,[91] 160[91] pg/mL
Adult female - free (not protein bound) 0.5[92] 9[92] pg/mL
1.7[92] 33[92] pmol/L
Post-menopausal female N/A[90] < 130[90] pmol/L
N/A[91] < 35[91] pg/mL
Progesterone
Female in mid-luteal phase (day 21-23) 17,[88] 35[93] 92[93] nmol/L
6,[88] 11[94] 29[94] ng/mL
Androstenedione Adult male and female 60[89] 270[89] ng/dL
Post-menopausal female < 180[89]
Prepubertal < 60[89]
SHBG
Adult female 40[95] 120[95] nmol/L
Adult male 20[95] 60[95]

Other hormones

Test Patient type Lower limit Upper limit Unit
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) 4.4[96] 18,[97] 22[96] pmol/L
20[7] 80,[98] 100[7] pg/mL
Cortisol 09:00 am 140[99] 700[99] nmol/L
5[100] 25[100] μg/dL
Midnight 80[99] 350[99] nmol/L
2.9[100] 13[100] μg/dL
Growth hormone (fasting) 0 5[6] ng/mL
Growth hormone (arginine stimulation) 7[6] n/a ng/mL
IGF-1
Female, 20 yrs 110[101] 420[101] ng/mL
Female, 75 yrs 55[101] 220[101]
Male, 20 yrs 160[101] 390[101]
Male, 75 yrs 48[101] 200[101]
Prolactin
Female 71,[102] 105[102] 348,[102] 548[102] mIU/L
3.4,[102] 3.9[102] 16.4,[102] 20.3[102] µg/L
Male 58,[102] 89[102] 277,[102] 365[102] mIU/L
2.7,[102] 3.3[102] 13.0,[102] 13.5[102] µg/L
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) 10,[103] 17[104] 65,[103] 70[104] pg/mL
1.1,[3] 1.8[105] 6.9,[3] 7.5[105] pmol/L
25-hydroxycholecalciferol (a vitamin D)
-Standard reference range
8,[15][106] 9[106] 40,[106] 80[15] ng/mL
20,[107] 23[108] 95,[108] 150[107] nmol/L
25-hydroxycholecalciferol
-Therapeutic target range
30,[109] 40[110] 65,[110] 100[109] ng/mL
85,[56] 100[110] 120,[56] 160[110] nmol/L
Plasma renin activity 0.29,[111] 1.9[112] 3.7[111][112] ng/(mL*hour)
3.3,[113] 21[114] 41[113][114] mcU/mL
Aldosterone
Adult 19,[113] 34.0[113] ng/dL
530,[115] 940[115] pmol/L
Aldosterone-to-renin ratio
Adult 13.1,[116] 35.0[116] ng/dl per ng/(mL·h)
360,[116] 970[116] pmol/liter per µg/(L·h)

Vitamins

Also including the vitamin B12)-related enzyme homocysteine.

Test Patient type Standard range Unit Optimal range
Lower limit Upper limit Lower limit Upper limit
Vitamin A 30[15] 65[15] µg/dL
Vitamin B9
(Folic acid/Folate) - Serum
Age > 1year 3.0[117] 16[117] ng/mL or μg/L 5[118]
6.8[119] 36[119] nmol/l 11[119]
Vitamin B9
(Folic acid/Folate) - Red blood cells
200[117] 600[117] ng/mL or μg/L
450[119] 1400[119] nmol/L
Pregnant ng/mL or μg/L 400[117]
nmol/L 900[117]
Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin) 130,[120] 160[121] 700,[120] 950[121] ng/L
100,[122] 120[3] 520,[122] 700[3] pmol/L
Homocysteine
3.3,[123] 5.9[123] 7.2,[123] 15.3[123] μmol/L 6.3[56]
45,[124] 80[124] 100,[124] 210[124] μg/dL 85[56]
Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid) 0.4[15] 1.5[15] mg/dL 0.9[56]
23[125] 85[125] μmol/L 50[56]
25-hydroxycholecalciferol (a vitamin D) 8,[15][106] 9[106] 40,[106] 80[15] ng/mL 30,[109] 40[110] 65,[110] 100[109]
20,[107] 23[108] 95,[108] 150[107] nmol/L 85,[56] 100[110] 120,[56] 160[110]
Vitamin E μmol/L 28[56]
mg/dL 1.2[56]

Toxins

Test Limit type Limit Unit
Lead Optimal health range < 20[10] or 40[15] µg/dL
Ethanol Limit for drunk driving 0,[126] 0.2,[126] 0.8[126] or g/L
17.4[127] mmol/L

Hematology

Red blood cells

These values (except Hemoglobin in plasma) are for total blood and not only blood plasma.

Test Patient Lower limit Upper limit Unit Comments
Hemoglobin (Hb) male 2.0,[128] 2.1[6] 2.5,[128] 2.7[6] mmol/L Higher in neonates, lower in children.
130,[3] 132,[7] 135[6] 162,[7] 170,[3] 175[6] g/L
female 1.8,[128] 1.9[6] 2.3,[128] 2.5[6][128] mmol/L Sex difference negligible until adulthood.
120[3][6][7] 150,[3] 152,[7] 160[6][15] g/L
Hemoglobin in plasma 0.16[6] 0.62[6] μmol/L Normally diminutive compared with inside red blood cells
1 4 mg/dL
Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) < 50 years 3.6[3] 5.0[3]  % of Hb
> 50 years 3.9[3] 5.3[3]
Haptoglobin < 50 years 0.35[3] 1.9[3] g/L
> 50 years 0.47[3] 2.1[3]
Hematocrit (Hct) male 0.39,[3] 0.4,[7] 0.41,[6] 0.45[15] 0.50,[3] 0.52,[7] 0.53,[6] 0.62[15]
female 0.35,[3] 0.36,[6] 0.37[7][15] 0.46,[6][7][3] 0.48[15]
Child 0.31[7] 0.43[7]
Mean cell volume (MCV) Male 76,[15] 82[7] 100,[15] 102[7] fL Cells are larger in neonates, though smaller in other children.
Female 78[7] 101[7] fL
Red blood cell distribution width (RDW) 11.5[7] 14.5[7]  %
Mean cell hemoglobin (MCH) 0.39[6] 0.54[6] fmol/cell
25,[6] 27[15][3] 32,[15] 33,[3] 35[6] pg/cell
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) 31,[7] 32[15][3] 35,[7] 36[15][3] g/dL
4.8,[129] 5.0[129] 5.4,[129] 5.6[129] mmol/L
Erythrocytes/Red blood cells (RBC) male 4.2,[15] 4.3[6][7][3] 5.7,[3] 5.9,[6] 6.2,[7] 6.9[15] x1012/L
or
mln/mm3
Female 3.5,[6] 3.8,[7] 3.9[3] 5.1,[3] 5.5[6][7]
Infant/Child 3.8[7] 5.5[7]
Reticulocytes 26[3] 130[3] x109/L
Adult 0.5[6][7] 1.5[6][7]  % of RBC
Newborn 1.1[7] 4.5[7]  % of RBC
Infant 0.5[7] 3.1[7]  % of RBC

White blood cells

These values are for total blood and not only blood plasma.

Test Patient type Lower limit Upper limit Unit
White Blood Cell Count (WBC.) Adult 3.5,[3] 3.9,[130] 4.1,[7] 4.5[6] 9.0,[3] 10.0,[130] 10.9,[7] 11[6]
  • x109/L
  • x103/mm3 or
  • x103/μL
Newborn 9[131] 30[131]
1 year old 6[131] 18[131]
Neutrophil granulocytes
(A.K.A. grans, polys, PMNs, or segs)
Adult 1.3,[3] 1.8,[130] 2[131] 5.4,[3] 7,[130] 8[131] x109/L
45-54[6] 62,[6] 74  % of WBC
Newborn 6[131] 26[131] x109/L
Neutrophilic band forms Adult 0.7[131] x109/L
3[6] 5[6]  % of WBC
Lymphocytes Adult 0.7,[3] 1.0[130][131] 3.5,[130] 3.9,[3] 4.8[131] x109/L
16-25[6] 33,[6] 45  % of WBC
Newborn 2[131] 11[131] x109/L
Monocytes Adult 0.1,[3] 0.2[132][120] 0.8[120][131][3] x109/L
3,[6] 4.0 7,[6] 10  % of WBC
Newborn 0.4[131] 3.1[131] x109/L
Mononuclear leukocytes
(Lymphocytes + monocytes)
Adult 1.5 5 x109/L
20 35  % of WBC
CD4+ cells Adult 0.4,[7] 0.5[10] 1.5,[10] 1.8[7] x109/L
Eosinophil granulocytes Adult 0.0,[3] 0.04[120] 0.44,[120] 0.45,[131] 0.5[3] x109/L
1[6] 3,[6] 7  % of WBC
Newborn 0.02[131] 0.85[131] x109/L
Basophil granulocytes Adult 40[130] 100,[120][3] 200,[131] 900[130] x106/L
0.0 0.75,[6] 2  % of WBC
Newborn 0.64[131] x109/L

Coagulation

Test Lower limit Upper limit Unit Comments
Thrombocyte/Platelet count (Plt) 140,[7] 150[6][3] 350,[15][3] 400,[6] 450[7] x109/L
Mean platelet volume (MPV) 7.4[133] 10.4[133] fL
Prothrombin time (PT) 10,[10] 11,[6][134] 12[7] 13,[10] 13.5,[134] 14,[7] 15[6] s PT reference varies between laboratory kits - INR is standardised
INR 0.9[3] 1.2[3] The INR is a corrected ratio of a patient's PT to normal
Activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) 18,[7] 30[10][3] 28,[7] 42,[3] 45[10] s
Thrombin clotting time (TCT) 11 18 s
Fibrinogen 1.7,[7] 2.0[3] 3.6,[3] 4.2[7] g/L
Antithrombin 0.80[3] 1.2[3] kIU/L
Bleeding time 2 9 minutes
Viscosity 1.5[135] 1.72[135] cP

Immunology

Acute phase proteins

Acute phase proteins are markers of inflammation.

Test Patient Lower limit Upper limit Unit Comments
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate
(ESR)
Male 0 Age÷2[136] mm/hr ESR increases with age and tends to be higher in females.[137]
Female (Age+10)÷2[136]
C-reactive protein (CRP) n/a 5,[138][3] 6[139] mg/L
200,[140] 240[140] nmol/L
Alpha 1-antitrypsin (AAT) 20,[141] 22[142] 38,[142] 53[141] μmol/L
89,[143] 97[3] 170,[3] 230[143] mg/dL

Isotypes of antibodies

Test Patient Lower limit Upper limit Unit Comments
IgA Adult 70,[3] 110[144] 360,[3] 560[144] mg/dL
IgD 0.5[144] 3.0[144]
IgE 0.01[144] 0.04[144]
IgG 800[144] 1800[144]
IgM 54[144] 220[144]

Autoantibodies

Autoantibodies are usually absent or very low, so instead of being given in standard reference ranges, the values usually denote where they are said to be present, or whether the test is a positive test. There may also be an equivocal interval, where it is uncertain whether there is a significantly increased level. All included values[145] are given for the ELISA test.

Test Negative Equivocal Positive Unit
anti-SS-A (Ro) < 15[146] 15-25[146] > 25[146] Units
per
millilitre
(U/mL)
anti-SS-B (La) < 3[146] 3 – 4[146] > 4[146]
Anti ds-DNA < 40[146] 40 – 60[146] > 60[146]
Anti ss-DNA < 8[146] 8 - 10[146] > 10[146]
Anti-histone antibodies < 25[146] n/a[146] > 25[146]
Cytoplasmic/classical
anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic
antibodies
(c-ANCA)
< 20[146] 21 - 30[146] > 30[146]
Perinuclear
anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic
antibodies (p-ANCA)
< 5[146] n/a > 5[146]
Anti-mitochondrial antibodies (AMA) < 10[146] n/a[146] > 10[146]
Rheumatoid factor (RF) < 20 20 - 30 > 30[7]
Antistreptolysin O titre
(ASOT) in
preschoolers
> 100
ASOT at school age > 250[7]
ASOT in adults > 125[7]
Test Negative Low/weak positive Moderate positive High/strong positive Unit
Anti-phospholipid IgG < 20[146] 20 –30[146] 31 – 50[146] > 51[146] GPLU/ml[146]
Anti-phospholipid IgM < 1.5[146] 1.5 –2.5[146] 2 – 9.9[146] > 10[146] MPL /ml[146]
Anti-phospholipid IgA < 10[146] 10 -20[146] 21 – 30[146] > 31[146] arb U/ml[146]
Anti-citrullinated protein antibodies < 20[146] 20 – 39[146] 40 - 59[146] > 60[146] EU[146]

Other enzymes and proteins

Test Lower limit Upper limit Unit Comments
Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) 50[15] 150[15] U/L
0.4[45] 1.7[45] μmol/L
1.8[3] 3.4[3] µkat/L < 70 years old[3]
Amylase 25,[6] 30,[7] 53[15] 110,[7] 120,[147] 123,[15] 125,[6] 190[45] U/L
0.15[3] 1.1[3] µkat/L
200[140] 240[140] nmol/L
D-dimer n/a 500[148] ng/mL Higher in pregnant women[149]
0.5[3] mg/L
Lipase 7,[7] 10,[15] 23[45] 60,[7] 150,[15] 208[45] U/L
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) 23[45] 57[45] U/L
Acid phosphatase 3.0[45] ng/mL
Eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) 2.3[3] 16[3] µg/L

Other electrolytes and metabolites

Electrolytes and Metabolites: For iron and copper, some related proteins are also included.

Test Patient type Lower limit Upper limit Unit Comments
Osmolality 275,[6] 280,[15] 281[3] 295,[6] 296,[15] 297[3] mOsm/kg Plasma weight excludes solutes
Osmolarity Slightly less than osmolality mOsm/l Plasma volume includes solutes
Urea 1.2,[6] 3.0[150] 3.0,[6] 7.0[150] mmol/L BUN - blood urea nitrogen
7[6] 18,[6] 21[7] mg/dL
* Uric acid[7] 0.18[6] 0.48[6] mmol/L
Female 2.0[15] 7.0[15] mg/dL
Male 2.1[15] 8.5[15] mg/dL
Creatinine male 60,[3] 68[151] 90,[3] 118[151] μmol/L May be complemented with creatinine clearance
0.7,[152] 0.8[152] 1.0,[152] 1.3[152] mg/dL
female 50,[3] 68[151] 90,[3] 98[151] μmol/L
0.6,[152] 0.8[152] 1.0,[152] 1.1[152] mg/dL
BUN/Creatinine Ratio 5[15] 35[15] -
Plasma glucose (fasting) 3.8,[6] 4.0[3] 6.0,[3] 6.1[153] mmol/L See also glycosylated hemoglobin (in hematology)
65,[7] 70,[6] 72[154] 100,[153] 110[15] mg/dL
Full blood glucose (fasting) 3.3[3] 5.6[3] mmol/L
60[154] 100[154] mg/dL
Lactate (Venous) 4.5[15] 19.8[15] mg/dL
0.5[155] 2.2[155] mmol/L
Lactate (Arterial) 4.5[15] 14.4[15] mg/dL
0.5[155] 1.6[155] mmol/L
Pyruvate 300[15] 900[15] μg/dL
34[156] 102[156] μmol/L

See also

References

  1. ^ Page 19 in: Stephen K. Bangert MA MB BChir MSc MBA FRCPath; William J. Marshall MA MSc PhD MBBS FRCP FRCPath FRCPEdin FIBiol; Marshall, William Leonard (2008). Clinical biochemistry: metabolic and clinical aspects. Philadelphia: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier. ISBN 0-443-10186-8. 
  2. ^ Page 34: Units of measurement in Medical toxicology By Richard C. Dart Edition: 3, illustrated Published by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2004 ISBN 0-7817-2845-2, 9780781728454 1914 pages
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr ds dt du dv dw dx Reference range list from Uppsala University Hospital ("Laborationslista"). Artnr 40284 Sj74a. Issued on April 22, 2008
  4. ^ a b c Arterial versus venous reference ranges - Brief Article Medical Laboratory Observer, April, 2000 by D. Robert Dufour
  5. ^ PROOPIOMELANOCORTIN; NCBI --> POMC Retrieved on September 28, 2009
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd Last page of Deepak A. Rao; Le, Tao; Bhushan, Vikas (2007). First Aid for the USMLE Step 1 2008 (First Aid for the Usmle Step 1). McGraw-Hill Medical. ISBN 0-07-149868-0. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da Normal Reference Range Table from The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas. Used in Interactive Case Study Companion to Pathologic basis of disease.
  8. ^ a b c d Derived from molar values using molar mass of 22.99 g•mol−1
  9. ^ a b Derived from molar values using molar mass of 39.10 g•mol−1
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m MERCK MANUALS > Common Medical Tests > Blood Tests Last full review/revision February 2003
  11. ^ a b Derived from molar values using molar mass of 35.45 g•mol−1
  12. ^ a b Larsson L, Ohman S (November 1978). "Serum ionized calcium and corrected total calcium in borderline hyperparathyroidism". Clin. Chem. 24 (11): 1962–5. PMID 709830. http://www.clinchem.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=709830. 
  13. ^ a b c d Derived from molar values using molar mass of 40.08  g•mol−1
  14. ^ a b c Derived from mass values using molar mass of 40.08  g•mol−1
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by Blood Test Results - Normal Ranges Bloodbook.Com
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Slon S (2006-09-22). "Serum Iron". University of Illinois Medical Center. http://uimc.discoveryhospital.com/main.php?t=enc&id=1456. Retrieved 2006-07-06. 
  17. ^ a b c d Diagnostic Chemicals Limited > Serum Iron-SL Assay July 15, 2005
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Derived from mass values using molar mass of 55.85 g•mol−1
  19. ^ a b Table 1. Page 133. Clinical Chemistry 45, No. 1, 1999 (stating 1.9–3.3 g/L)
  20. ^ a b Derived by dividing mass values with molar mass
  21. ^ a b c d Ferritin by: Mark Levin, MD, Hematologist and Oncologist, Newark, NJ. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network
  22. ^ a b c d Derived from mass values using molar mass of 450,000 g•mol−1
  23. ^ a b Mitchell ML, Filippone MD, Wozniak TF (August 2001). "Metastatic carcinomatous cirrhosis and hepatic hemosiderosis in a patient heterozygous for the H63D genotype". Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 125 (8): 1084–7. PMID 11473464. http://journals.allenpress.com/jrnlserv/?request=get-abstract&issn=0003-9985&volume=125&page=1084. 
  24. ^ a b Diaz J, Tornel PL, Martinez P (July 1995). "Reference intervals for blood ammonia in healthy subjects, determined by microdiffusion". Clin. Chem. 41 (7): 1048. PMID 7600690. 
  25. ^ a b c d Derived from molar values using molar mass of 17.03 g/mol
  26. ^ a b Derived from mass values using molar mass of 63.55 g•mol−1
  27. ^ a b Derived from mass using molar mass of 151kDa
  28. ^ Walter F., PhD. Boron (2005). Medical Physiology: A Cellular And Molecular Approaoch. Elsevier/Saunders. ISBN 1-4160-2328-3.  Page 849
  29. ^ Reference range for copper at GPnotebook
  30. ^ a b http://www.dlolab.com/PDFs/DLO-OCTOBER-2008-LAB-UPDATE.pdf
  31. ^ a b Derived from molar values using molar mass of 65.38 g/mol
  32. ^ a b Derived from mass values using molar mass of 65.38 g/mol
  33. ^ a b Derived from molar values using molar mass of 24.31 g/mol
  34. ^ a b Derived from mass values using molar mass of 24.31 g/mol
  35. ^ Middleton P, Kelly AM, Brown J, Robertson M (August 2006). "Agreement between arterial and central venous values for pH, bicarbonate, base excess, and lactate". Emerg Med J 23 (8): 622–4. doi:10.1136/emj.2006.035915. PMC 2564165. PMID 16858095. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2564165. 
  36. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l The Medical Education Division of the Brookside Associates--> ABG (Arterial Blood Gas) Retrieved on Dec 6, 2009
  37. ^ a b Derived from molar values using molar mass of 1.01 g•mol−1
  38. ^ a b c d e f g h Derived from mmHg values using 0.133322 kPa/mmHg
  39. ^ a b Derived from molar values using molar mass of 44.010 g/mol
  40. ^ a b c d Derived from molar values using molar mass of 61 g/mol
  41. ^ Reference range (albumin) at GPnotebook
  42. ^ a b Derived from mass using molecular weight of 65kD
  43. ^ a b c d e Derived from mass values using molar mass of 585g/mol
  44. ^ a b Derived from molar values using molar mass of 585g/mol
  45. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Fachwörterbuch Kompakt Medizin E-D/D-E. Author: Fritz-Jürgen Nöhring. Edition 2. Publisher:Elsevier, Urban&FischerVerlag, 2004. ISBN 3-437-15120-7, 9783437151200. Length: 1288 pages
  46. ^ a b c d GPnotebook > reference range (AST) Retrieved on Dec 7, 2009
  47. ^ a b Helander A, Vabö E, Levin K, Borg S (October 1998). "Intra- and interindividual variability of carbohydrate-deficient transferrin, gamma-glutamyltransferase, and mean corpuscular volume in teetotalers". Clin. Chem. 44 (10): 2120–5. PMID 9761244. 
  48. ^ a b Creatine kinase at GPnotebook
  49. ^ a b c d e f Page 585 in: Lee, Mary Ann (2009). Basic Skills in Interpreting Laboratory Data. Amer Soc of Health System. ISBN 1-58528-180-8. 
  50. ^ a b c d Muscle Information and Courses from MediaLab, Inc. > Cardiac Biomarkers Retrieved on April 22, 2010
  51. ^ a b c d e f g h i j South London Healthcare NHS Trust
  52. ^ a b c Moderately Elevated Serum Troponin Concentrations Are Associated With Increased Morbidity and Mortality Rates in Surgical Intensive Care Unit Patients Rene P. Relos, MD; Ian K. Hasinoff, MD; Greg J. Beilman, MD. Posted: 12/05/2003; Crit Care Med. 2003;31(11)
  53. ^ a b Kay SE, Doery J, Sholl D (February 2002). "Clozapine associated pericarditis and elevated troponin I". Aust N Z J Psychiatry 36 (1): 143–4. doi:10.1046/j.1440-1614.2002.0988f.x. PMID 11929456. 
  54. ^ a b c Brenden, C.; Hollander, J.; Guss, D.; McCullough, P.; Nowak, R.; Green, G.; Saltzberg, M.; Ellison, S. et al. (2006). "Gray zone BNP levels in heart failure patients in the emergency department: Results from the Rapid Emergency Department Heart Failure Outpatient Trial (REDHOT) multicenter study". American Heart Journal 151 (5): 1006–1011. doi:10.1016/j.ahj.2005.10.017. PMID 16644322.  edit
  55. ^ a b c Strunk, A.; Bhalla, V.; Clopton, P.; Nowak, R.; McCord, J.; Hollander, J.; Duc, P.; Storrow, A. et al. (2006). "Impact of the History of Congestive Heart Failure on the Utility of B-Type Natriuretic Peptide in the Emergency Diagnosis of Heart Failure: Results from the Breathing Not Properly Multinational Study". The American Journal of Medicine 119 (1): 69.e1–69.e11. doi:10.1016/j.amjmed.2005.04.029. PMID 16431187.  edit
  56. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Adëeva Nutritionals Canada > Optimal blood test values Retrieved on July 9, 2009
  57. ^ a b c d e f Derived from values in mg/dl to mmol/l, by dividing by 89, according to faqs.org: What are mg/dl and mmol/l? How to convert? Glucose? Cholesterol? Last Update July 21, 2009. Retrieved on July 21, 2009
  58. ^ a b c d Derived from values in mg/dl to mmol/l, using molar mass of 386.65 g/mol
  59. ^ a b c Reference range (cholesterol) at GPnotebook
  60. ^ a b c d e f g h Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia; Cholesterol (HDL and LDL) - plasma or serum Last Updated: Monday, 6 August 2007
  61. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Derived from values in mmol/l, using molar mass of 386.65 g/mol
  62. ^ What Your Cholesterol Levels Mean. American Heart Association. Retrieved on September 12, 2009
  63. ^ American Association for Clinical Chemistry; HDL Cholesterol
  64. ^ GP Notebook > range (reference, ca-125) Retrieved on Jan 5, 2009
  65. ^ ClinLab Navigator > Test Interpretations > CA-125 Retrieved on March 8, 2011
  66. ^ a b Bjerner J, Høgetveit A, Wold Akselberg K, et al. (June 2008). "Reference intervals for carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), CA125, MUC1, Alfa-foeto-protein (AFP), neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and CA19.9 from the NORIP study". Scandinavian journal of clinical and laboratory investigation 68 (8): 1–12. doi:10.1080/00365510802126836. PMID 18609108. 
  67. ^ Carcinoembryonic Antigen(CEA) at MedicineNet
  68. ^ a b c Basuyau, J. -P.; Mallet, E.; Leroy, M.; Brunelle, P. (2004). "Reference Intervals for Serum Calcitonin in Men, Women, and Children". Clinical Chemistry 50 (10): 1828–1830. doi:10.1373/clinchem.2003.026963. PMID 15388660.  edit
  69. ^ The TSH Reference Range Wars: What's "Normal?", Who is Wrong, Who is Right... By Mary Shomon, About.com. Updated: June 19, 2006. About.com Health's Disease and Condition
  70. ^ a b 2006 Press releases: Thyroid Imbalance? Target Your Numbers Contacts: Bryan Campbell American] Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  71. ^ a b The TSH Reference Range Wars: What's "Normal?", Who is Wrong, Who is Right... By Mary Shomon, About.com. Updated: June 19, 2006
  72. ^ a b Demers, Laurence M.; Carole A. Spencer (2002). "LMPG: Laboratory Support for the Diagnosis and Monitoring of Thyroid Disease". National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry (USA). http://www.nacb.org/lmpg/thyroid_LMPG_PDF.stm. Retrieved 2007-04-13.  - see Section 2. Pre-analytic factors
  73. ^ a b c d e f Free T4; Thyroxine, Free; T4, Free UNC Health Care System
  74. ^ Derived from molar values using molar mass of 776.87 g/mol
  75. ^ a b c d e f Derived from mass values using molar mass of 776.87 g/mol
  76. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Table 4: Typical reference ranges for serum assays - Thyroid Disease Manager
  77. ^ a b c d Euthyroid Patient with Elevated Serum Free Thyroxine George van der Watt1,a, David Haarburger1 and Peter Berman
  78. ^ a b c d Derived from mass values using molar mass of 650.98 g/mol
  79. ^ a b Serum concentration of free T3, free T4 and TSH in healthy children Cioffi Michele; Gazzerro Patrizia; Vietri Maria Teresa; Magnetta Rosa; Durante Adriana; D'Auria Annamaria; Puca Giovanni Alfredo; Molinari Anna Maria ;
  80. ^ a b References and further description of values are given in image page in Wikimedia Commons at Commons:Hormones estradiol, progesterone, LH and FSH during menstrual cycle.svg.
  81. ^ a b Life Extension Foundation > Blood Testing Protocols
  82. ^ a b Andrology Australia: Your Health > Low Testosterone > Diagnosis
  83. ^ a b c d Derived from mass values using molar mass of 288.42g/mol
  84. ^ a b c d e f g Derived from molar values using molar mass of 288.42g/mol
  85. ^ a b c d MedlinePlus > Testosterone Update Date: 3/18/2008. Updated by: Elizabeth H. Holt, MD, PhD, Yale University. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director
  86. ^ a b c d Derived from mass values using molar mass of 330.46g/mol
  87. ^ a b c d e f g h i j reference range (FSH) GPnotebook. Retrieved on September 27, 2009
  88. ^ a b c d e f Values taken from day 1 after LH surge in: Establishment of detailed reference values for luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, estradiol, and progesterone during different phases of the menstrual cycle on the Abbott ARCHITECT analyzer. Reto Stricker, Raphael Eberhart, Marie-Christine Chevailler, Frank A. Quinn, Paul Bischof and Rene´ Stricker. Clin Chem Lab Med 2006;44(7):883–887 PMID: 16776638. Alternative link: [1]
  89. ^ a b c d e f New York Hospital Queens > Services and Facilities > Patient Testing > Pathology > New York Hospital Queens Diagnostic Laboratories > Test Directory > Reference Ranges Retrieved on Nov 8, 2009
  90. ^ a b c d e f g GPNotebook - reference range (oestradiol) Retrieved on September 27, 2009
  91. ^ a b c d e f g Derived from molar values using molar mass of 272.38g/mol
  92. ^ a b c d Total amount multiplied by 0.022 according to 2.2% presented in: Wu CH, Motohashi T, Abdel-Rahman HA, Flickinger GL, Mikhail G (August 1976). "Free and protein-bound plasma estradiol-17 beta during the menstrual cycle". J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 43 (2): 436–45. doi:10.1210/jcem-43-2-436. PMID 950372. 
  93. ^ a b Derived from mass values using molar mass of 314.46 g/mol
  94. ^ a b Bhattacharya Sudhindra Mohan (July/August 2005) Mid-luteal phase plasma progesterone levels in spontaneous and clomiphene citrate induced conception cycles J Obstet Gynecol India Vol. 55, No. 4 : July/August 2005 Pg 350-352
  95. ^ a b c d Unit Code 91215 at Mayo Clinic Medical Laboratories. Retrieved April 2011
  96. ^ a b Derived from mass values using molar mass of 4540g/mol according to PROOPIOMELANOCORTIN; NCBI --> POMC Retrieved on September 28, 2009
  97. ^ "Adrenocorticotropic Hormone:Normal". WebMD. 09-03-2006. http://children.webmd.com/adrenocorticotropic-hormone?page=2. Retrieved 2008-11-09. 
  98. ^ Derived from molar values using molar mass of 4540g/mol according to PROOPIOMELANOCORTIN; NCBI --> POMC Retrieved on September 28, 2009
  99. ^ a b c d Biochemistry Reference Ranges at Good Hope Hospital Retrieved on Nov 8, 2009
  100. ^ a b c d Derived from molar values using molar mass of 362 g/mol
  101. ^ a b c d e f g h Ranges estimated from quantile regression as showwn in table 4 in: Friedrich, N.; Alte, D.; Volzke, H.; Spilckeliss, E.; Ludemann, J.; Lerch, M.; Kohlmann, T.; Nauck, M. et al. (2008). "Reference ranges of serum IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels in a general adult population: Results of the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP)". Growth Hormone & IGF Research 18 (3): 228–237. doi:10.1016/j.ghir.2007.09.005. PMID 17997337.  edit
  102. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Taken from the assay method giving the lowest and highest estimate, respectively, from Table 2 in: Beltran, L; Fahie-Wilson, MN; McKenna, TJ; Kavanagh, L; Smith, TP (2008 Oct). "Serum total prolactin and monomeric prolactin reference intervals determined by precipitation with polyethylene glycol: evaluation and validation on common immunoassay platforms". Clinical Chemistry 54 (10): 1673–81. doi:10.1373/clinchem.2008.105312. PMID 18719199.  edit
  103. ^ a b Derived from molar values using molar mass of 9.4 kDa
  104. ^ a b Table 2 in: Aloia JF, Feuerman M, Yeh JK (2006). "Reference range for serum parathyroid hormone". Endocr Pract 12 (2): 137–44. PMC 1482827. PMID 16690460. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1482827. 
  105. ^ a b Derived from mass values using molar mass of 9.4 kDa
  106. ^ a b c d e f Derived from molar values using molar mass 400.6 g/mol
  107. ^ a b c d Bender, David A. (2003). "Vitamin D". Nutritional biochemistry of the vitamins. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-80388-8. http://books.google.com/?id=pxEJNs0IUo4C.  Retrieved December 10, 2008 through Google Book Search.
  108. ^ a b c d Bischoff-Ferrari, H.A., Dietrich, T., Orav, J.E., Hu, F.B., Zhang, Y., Karlson, E., Dawson-Hughes, B. 2004. Higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels are associated with better lower extremity function in both active and inactive adults 60+ years of age. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 80:752-758.
  109. ^ a b c d Reusch J, Ackermann H, Badenhoop K (May 2009). "Cyclic changes of vitamin D and PTH are primarily regulated by solar radiation: 5-year analysis of a German (50 degrees N) population". Horm. Metab. Res. 41 (5): 402–7. doi:10.1055/s-0028-1128131. PMID 19241329. 
  110. ^ a b c d e f g h Letter: Calcium and vitamin D in preventing fractures. Data are not sufficient to show inefficacy Alex Vasquez, researcher. BMJ 2005;331:108-109 (9 July), doi:10.1136/bmj.331.7508.108-b.
  111. ^ a b Converted from values in mcU/mL by dividing with a factor of 11.2 mcU/mL per ng/(mL*hour), as given in: Washington, Department of Laboratory Medicine. Retrieved Mars 2011
  112. ^ a b Pratt, R.; Flynn, J.; Hobart, P.; Paul, M.; Dzau, V. (1988). "Different secretory pathways of renin from mouse cells transfected with the human renin gene". The Journal of biological chemistry 263 (7): 3137–3141. PMID 2893797.  edit
  113. ^ a b c d New Assays for Aldosterone, Renin and Parathyroid Hormone University of Washington, Department of Laboratory Medicine. Retrieved Mars 2011
  114. ^ a b Converted from values in ng/(mL*hour) by multiplying with a factor of 11.2 mcU/mL per ng/(mL*hour), as given in: Washington, Department of Laboratory Medicine. Retrieved Mars 2011
  115. ^ a b Converted from mass values using molar mass of 360.44 g/mol
  116. ^ a b c d Tiu, S. -C.; Choi, C. -H.; Shek, C. -C.; Ng, Y. -W.; Chan, F. K. W.; Ng, C. -M.; Kong, A. P. S. (2004). "The Use of Aldosterone-Renin Ratio as a Diagnostic Test for Primary Hyperaldosteronism and Its Test Characteristics under Different Conditions of Blood Sampling". Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 90: 72–78. doi:10.1210/jc.2004-1149. PMID 15483077.  edit [2]
  117. ^ a b c d e f Central Manchester University Hospitals --> Reference ranges Retrieved on July 9, 2009
  118. ^ University of Kentucky Chandler Medical Center > Clinical Lab Reference Range Guide Retrieved on April 28, 2009
  119. ^ a b c d e Derived from mass values using molar mass of 441 mol−1
  120. ^ a b c d e f g GPnotebook > B12 Retrieved on April 28, 2009
  121. ^ a b Derived form molar values using molar mass of 1355g/mol
  122. ^ a b Derived from mass values using molar mass of 1355g/mol
  123. ^ a b c d The Doctor's Doctor: Homocysteine
  124. ^ a b c d Derived from molar values using molar massof 135 g/mol
  125. ^ a b Derived from mass values using molar mass of 176 grams per mol
  126. ^ a b c For Driving under the influence by country, see Drunk driving law by country
  127. ^ Derived from mass values using molar mass of 46g/mol
  128. ^ a b c d e Derived from mass values using 64,500 g/mol, according to Van Beekvelt MC, Colier WN, Wevers RA, Van Engelen BG (2001). "Performance of near-infrared spectroscopy in measuring local O2 consumption and blood flow in skeletal muscle". J Appl Physiol 90 (2): 511–519. PMID 11160049. 
  129. ^ a b c d Derived from mass concentration, using molar mass of 64,458 g/mol (Van Beekvelt MC, Colier WN, Wevers RA, Van Engelen BG (2001). "Performance of near-infrared spectroscopy in measuring local O2 consumption and blood flow in skeletal muscle". J Appl Physiol 90 (2): 511–519. PMID 11160049. ). 1 g/dL = 0.1551 mmol/L
  130. ^ a b c d e f g h lymphomation.org > Tests & Imaging > Labs > Complete Blood Count Retrieved on May 14, 2009
  131. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u Clinical Laboratory Medicine. By Kenneth D. McClatchey. Page 807.
  132. ^ Determination of monocyte count by hematological analyzers, manual method and flow cytometry in polish population Central European Journal of Immunology 1-2/2006. (Centr Eur J Immunol 2006; 31 (1-2): 1-5) authors: Elżbieta Górska, Urszula Demkow, Roman Pińkowski, Barbara Jakubczak, Dorota Matuszewicz, Jolanta Gawęda, Wioletta Rzeszotarska, Maria Wąsik,
  133. ^ a b Normal Values: RBC, Hgb, Hct, Indices, RDW, Platelets, and MPV (Conventional Units) From labcareplus. Retrieved 4 nov, 2010
  134. ^ a b MedlinePlus Encyclopedia 003652
  135. ^ a b [3] Retrieved on November 20, 2009
  136. ^ a b Miller A, Green M, Robinson D (1983). "Simple rule for calculating normal erythrocyte sedimentation rate". Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 286 (6361): 266. doi:10.1136/bmj.286.6361.266. PMC 1546487. PMID 6402065. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1546487. 
  137. ^ Böttiger LE, Svedberg CA (1967). "Normal erythrocyte sedimentation rate and age". Br Med J 2 (5544): 85–7. doi:10.1136/bmj.2.5544.85. PMC 1841240. PMID 6020854. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1841240. 
  138. ^ C-reactive protein at GPnotebook
  139. ^ 2730 Serum C-Reactive Protein values in Diabetics with Periodontal Disease A.R. Choudhury, and S. Rahman, Birdem, Diabetic Association of Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh. (the diabetics were not used to determine the reference ranges)
  140. ^ a b c d Derived from mass using molar mass of 25,106 g/mol
  141. ^ a b Sipahi T, Kara C, Tavil B, Inci A, Oksal A (March 2003). "Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency: an overlooked cause of late hemorrhagic disease of the newborn". J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol. 25 (3): 274–5. doi:10.1097/00043426-200303000-00019. PMID 12621252. http://www.jpho-online.com/pt/re/jpho/fulltext.00043426-200303000-00019.htm. 
  142. ^ a b Derived from mass values using molar mass of 44324.5 g/mol
  143. ^ a b Derived from molar values using molar mass of 44324.5 g/mol
  144. ^ a b c d e f g h i j The Society for American Clinical Laboratory Science > Chemistry Tests > Immunoglobulins Retrieved on Nov 26, 2009
  145. ^ All values cited from Chronolab are given for ELISA
  146. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq chronolab.com > Autoantibodies associated with rheumatic diseases > Reference ranges Retrieved on April 29, 2010
  147. ^ Reference range (amylase) at GPnotebook
  148. ^ Plasma Measurement of D-Dimer Levels for the Early Diagnosis of Ischemic Stroke Subtypes Walter Ageno, MD; Sergio Finazzi, MD; Luigi Steidl, MD; Maria Grazia Biotti, MD; Valentina Mera, MD; GianVico Melzi d'Eril, MD; Achille Venco, MD. Arch Intern Med. 2002;162:2589-2593.
  149. ^ Kline JA, Williams GW, Hernandez-Nino J (May 2005). "D-dimer concentrations in normal pregnancy: new diagnostic thresholds are needed". Clinical chemistry 51 (5): 825–9. doi:10.1373/clinchem.2004.044883. PMID 15764641. http://www.clinchem.org/cgi/content/full/51/5/825. 
  150. ^ a b Gardner MD, Scott R (April 1980). "Age- and sex-related reference ranges for eight plasma constituents derived from randomly selected adults in a Scottish new town". J. Clin. Pathol. 33 (4): 380–5. doi:10.1136/jcp.33.4.380. PMC 1146084. PMID 7400337. http://jcp.bmj.com/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=7400337. 
  151. ^ a b c d Finney H, Newman DJ, Price CP (January 2000). "Adult reference ranges for serum cystatin C, creatinine and predicted creatinine clearance". Ann. Clin. Biochem. 37 ( Pt 1): 49–59. doi:10.1258/0004563001901524. PMID 10672373. http://acb.rsmjournals.com/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=10672373. 
  152. ^ a b c d e f g h Derived from molar values by multiplying with the molar mass of 113.118 g/mol, and divided by 10.000 to adapt from μg/L to mg/dL
  153. ^ a b MedlinePlus Encyclopedia Glucose tolerance test
  154. ^ a b c Derived from molar values using molar mass of 180g/mol
  155. ^ a b c d Derived from mass values using molar mass of 90.08 g/mol
  156. ^ a b Derived from mass values using molar mass of 88.06 g/mol

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