- Ferdinand, Duke of Parma
Ferdinand Duke of Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla Reign 18 July 1765–9 October 1802 Predecessor Philip Spouse Archduchess Maria Amalia of Austria Issue Princess Caroline of Parma
Louis of Parma
Princess Marie-Antoinette of Parma
House House of Bourbon-Parma Father Philip, Duke of Parma Mother Princess Louise-Elisabeth of France Born 20 January 1751
Ducal Palace of Colorno, Parma, Modern day Italy
Died 9 October 1802(aged 51)
Fontevivo, Modern day Italy
Ferdinand Maria Philip Louis Sebastian Francis James of Parma (20 January 1751 – 9 October 1802) was Duke of Parma from 1765 to 1802. He was the second child and only son of Philip, Duke of Parma and Princess Louise-Élisabeth of France, eldest daughter of Louis XV of France and Maria Leszczyńska. His paternal grandparents were Philip V of Spain (in turn a grandson of Louis XIV) and his second wife, Elisabeth of Parma.
Born at the Ducal Palace of Colorno, he was considered to be the favorite grandson of his maternal grandfather King Louis XV of France. As a grandson in the male line of King Philip V of Spain, he was also an Infante of Spain.
As the heir to one of the largest collection of sovereign duchies, Ferdinand was an attractive candidate for many royal ladies of Europe. Probable candidates included the heiress Princess Maria Beatrice Ricciarda of Modena, daughter of Ercole III of Modena and (like Ferdinand) an in law of Marie Antoinette. His possible marriage to Princess Maria Beatrice was, however, very unlikely since the latter had been engaged to Archduke Leopold of Austria (later Emperor Leopold II)at a very young age and later on to Leopold's younger brother, Archduke Ferdinand, upon the death of an older brother, Archduke Charles. It is likely that a union between Parma and Modena was only promoted in vain by Parma's Minister, Du Tillot, since the engagement of Modena's heiress to an Austrian Archduke was already agreed very early on. Another candidate was Louise Marie Thérèse Bathilde d'Orléans who offered a very large dowry; she was the only surviving daughter of Louis Philippe d'Orléans, duc d'Orléans. She was the sister of Philippe Égalité.
The decision of who his future spouse would be, was sealed by his mother's close correspondence with the powerful Empress Maria Theresa of Austria who had promised Ferdinand's parents the throne of the Netherlands, which had been returned to Austrian rule under the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle. This never occurred and, as a result, an alliance with the Austro-Hungarian Empire was used to cement the two nations. This alliance was also encouraged by the Parmese Prime Minister Guillaume du Tillot who had worked at Versailles and had been exiled by Louis XV of France due to his liberal ideas which were not looked upon with much enthusiasm by those at Versailles.
The Prime Minister was again used during Ferdinand's reign when he lost his father in 1765 aged 14. Negotiations and ideas were passed from Vienna to Parma and in 1769, Ferdinand was to marry the Archduchess Maria Amalia of Austria; the eighth child of the Empress and older sister of the Queen of Naples and Sicily and the future Queen of France. Maria Amalia had a marriage by proxy in Vienna on 27 June and left her home on 1 July. The future duchess would meet her husband at Mantua on 16 July. His wife was with her brother Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor and Ferdinand with members of the Sforza family. On 19 July there was a formal ceremony for all at the Ducal Palace of Colorno where Ferdinand had been born. During many festivities, the couple made their official entrance to Parma on 24 July. They had the following children:
- Princess Carolina Maria Teresa Giuseppa of Parma (22 November 1770–1 March 1804), married Prince Maximilian of Saxony
- Prince Louis Francis Philibert of Parma (5 July 1773–27 May 1803). Married his cousin born Maria Luisa Josefa Antonietta Vicentia of Spain and had issue; was the first of only two Kings of Etruria.
- Princess Maria Antonia Giuseppa Walburga Anna Luisa Vicenza Margherita Caterina of Parma (28 November 1774–1841), who became an Ursuline abbess.
- Princess Carlotta Maria of Parma (7 September 1777–1812), who became a prioress.
- Prince Felipe of Parma (22 May 1783–1786)
- Princess Antoina Luigia of Parma (21 October 1784)
- Princess Luigia Maria of Parma (17 April 1787–1789)
- Princess X of Parma - Stillborn Daughter ( 21 May 1789) (twin)
- Prince X of Parma - Stillborn Son ( 21 May 1789) (twin)
Ferdinand ceded the Duchy of Parma to France in the Treaty of Aranjuez (1801).
The Treaty of Aranjuez was signed on 21 March 1801 between France and Spain. The overall accord confirmed the terms presented in the Treaty of San Ildefonso. Moreover, Ferdinand agreed to surrender the Duchy of Parma (with Piacenza and Guastalla) to France. Ferdinand's son Louis received the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, which became the Kingdom of Etruria. Ferdinand III, the Habsburg Grand Duke of Tuscany, was compensated with the secularized territories of the Archbishop of Salzburg.
He died in Parma at age 51, suspected to be poisoned although French authorities cited another reason for his death. On his deathbed, however, he named a regency council with his wife Maria Amalia as its head, clearly still opposing the terms of the Treaty of Aranjuez regarding his duchy. The regency lasted only for days and the Duchy of Parma was annexed to France.
Ancestors of Ferdinand, Duke of Parma 16. Louis XIV of France 8. Louis, Dauphin of France 17. Maria Theresa of Spain 4. Philip V of Spain 18. Ferdinand Maria, Elector of Bavaria 9. Maria Anna of Bavaria 19. Henriette Adelaide of Savoy 2. Philip, Duke of Parma 20. Ranuccio II, Duke of Parma 10. Odoardo Farnese 21. Isabella of Modena 5. Elisabeth of Parma 22. Philipp Wilhelm, Elector Palatine 11. Dorothea Sophie of Palatine-Neuburg 23. Elisabeth Amalie of Hesse-Darmstadt 1. Ferdinand, Duke of Parma 24. Louis, Dauphin of France (=8) 12. Louis, Dauphin of France (1682-1712) 25. Maria Anna of Bavaria (=9) 6. Louis XV of France 26. Victor Amadeus II of Sardinia 13. Princess Marie-Adélaïde of Savoy 27. Anne Marie of Orléans 3. Louise-Élisabeth of France 28. Rafał Leszczyński 14. Stanisław Leszczyński 29. Anna Jabłonowska 7. Maria Leszczyńska 30. Jan Karol Opaliński 15. Katarzyna Opalińska 31. Zofia Czarnkowska
Titles and Styles
- 20 January 1751 - 18 July 1765 His Royal Highness Prince Ferdinand of Parma
- 18 July 1765 - 9 October 1802 His Royal Highness the Duke of Parma, Plasencia and Guastalla
ReferencesFerdinand, Duke of ParmaCadet branch of the House of CapetBorn: 20 January 1751 Died: 9 October 1802
Regnal titles Preceded by
Duke of Parma, Plasencia and Guastalla
First French Republic
Titles and Succession 2nd GenerationPrince Carlo · Alexander, Duke of Parma 3rd Generation 4th GenerationOdoardo, Duke of Parma · Cardinal-Prince Francesco Maria 5th GenerationRanuccio II, Duke of Parma · Prince Alessandro · Prince Orazio · Prince Pietro 6th Generation 7th Generationnone 8th Generationnone 9th GenerationFerdinand, Duke of Parma 10th GenerationLouis I of Etruria · Prince Philip 11th Generation 12th Generation 13th Generation 14th Generation 15th Generation 16th Generation 17th GenerationPrince Michael · Prince Henry · Prince Amaury*also prince of Luxembourg
^also prince of Nassau
The Bourbons of Spain Philip V of SpainSpouse(s)ChildrenLouis I of Spain* • Felipe of Spain* • Felipe of Spain* • Ferdinand VI of Spain* • Charles III of Spain* • Francisco of Spain* • Mariana Víctoria, Queen of Portugal* • Philip, Duke of Parma* • Maria Teresa Rafaela, Dauphine of France* • Luis, Count of Chinchón* • Maria Antonietta, Queen of Sardinia*SiblingsGrandchildrenMaría Isabel Antonia • María Josefa Antonieta • María Isabel Ana • María Josefa Carmela • Maria Luisa, Holy Roman Empress • Felipe, Duke of Calabria • Charles IV of Spain • María Teresa • Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies • Infante Gabriel of Spain • Ana María • Antonio Pascual • Francisco Javier • Isabella Maria, Archduchess of Austria • Ferdinand, Duke of Parma • Maria Luisa, Queen of Spain • Luis, Count of Chinchón • Maria Teresa, Countess of Chinchón • María Luisa, Duchess of San Fernando de Quiroga Louis I of SpainSpouse(s)HSH Louise Élisabeth d'Orléans Ferdinand VI of SpainSpouse(s) Charles IV of SpainSpouse(s)ChildrenCarlos Clemente • Charlotte, Queen of Portugal • Maria Luisa • Maria Amalia • Carlos Domingo • Maria Louisa, Duchess of Lucca • Carlos Francisco • Felipe Francisco • Ferdinand VII of Spain • Carlos, Count of Molina • Maria Isabella, Queen of the Two Sicilies • Maria Teresa • Felipe Maria • Francisco de PaulaGrandchildrenCarlos, Count of Montemolin • Juan, Count of Montizón • Fernando • Isabella II of Spain • Maria Luisa Fernanda, Duchess of Montpensier • Francisco de Asis • Isabel • Francis, Duke of Cádiz • Henry, Duke of Seville • Luisa, Duchess of Moscoso • Duarte Felipe • Josefina • Teresa • Fernando • Maria Cristina, Infanta of Portugal • Amelia Philippina, Princess Adalbert of Bavaria Ferdinand VII of SpainSpouse(s)Children Isabella II of SpainSpouse(s)Children Alfonso XII of SpainSpouse(s)ChildrenGrandchildrenAlfonso, Duke of Calabria • Fernando, Prince of Bourbon-Two Sicilies • Isabella Alfonsa, Princess of Bourbon-Two Sicilies • Alfonso, Prince of Asturias • Jaime, Duke of Segovia • Beatriz, Princess of Civitella-Cesi • Ferdinand • Maria Cristina, Countess of Marone • Juan, Count of Barcelona • GonzaloGreat grandchildren Alfonso XIII of SpainSpouse(s)ChildrenGrandchildren Juan Carlos I of SpainSpouse(s)ChildrenGrandchildren Infantes of SpainThe generations indicate descent from Charles I, under whom the crowns of Castile and Aragon were united, forming the Kingdom of Spain. Previously, the title Infante had been largely used in the different realms. 1st Generation 2nd Generation 3rd Generation 4th Generation 5th Generationnone 6th Generationnone 7th Generation 8th Generation 9th Generation 10th Generation 11th Generation 12th Generation 13th Generation 14th Generation 15th Generation 16th Generationnone*title granted by Royal Decree
**consort to an Infanta who was naturalized as a Spanish InfantePier Luigi (1545-1547) · Ottavio (1556-1586) · Alexander (1586–1592) · Ranuccio I (1592–1622) · Odoardo (1622–1646) · Ranuccio II (1646–1694) · Francesco (1694–1727) · Antonio (1727–1731) · Charles I (1731-1734) · Charles II (1735-1740) · Maria Theresa (1740–1748) · Philip (1748-1765) · Ferdinand (1765–1802) · Marie Louise (1814–1847) · Charles Louis (1847–1849) · Charles III (1849–1854) · Robert I* (1854–1907) · Henry* (1907-1939) · Joseph* (1939-1950) · Elias* (1950-1959) · Robert II* (1959-1974) · Xavier* (1974-1977) · Carlos Hugo* (1977-2010) · Carlos* (2010-)
- denotes titular Duke
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