Confession


Confession

This article is for the religious practice of confessing one's sins.

Traditional confessional
A confessional in Colombia
Pilgrims queueing to confess at Međugorje, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

The acknowledgment of sin (or one's sinfulness) is a religious practice in a number of faith traditions.

Contents

Christianity

Catholicism

Modern confessional in the Church of the Holy Name, Dunedin, New Zealand. The penitent may kneel on the kneeler or sit in a chair facing the priest (not shown)

In Catholic teaching, the Sacrament of Penance is the method of the Church by which individual men and women may confess sins committed after baptism and have them absolved by a priest. Although it is not mandatory, the Catholic rite is traditionally conducted within a confessional box or booth. This sacrament is known by many names, including penance, reconciliation and confession (Catechism of the Catholic Church, Sections 1423-1442). While official Church publications always refer to the sacrament as "Penance", "Reconciliation" or "Penance and Reconciliation", many laypeople continue to use the term "Confession" in reference to the Sacrament.

For the Catholic Church, the intent of this sacrament is to provide healing for the soul as well as to regain the grace of God, lost by sin. Catholics priests have been given the authority by Jesus to exercise the forgiveness of sins here on earth and it is in Jesus' Holy Name by which the person confessing is forgiven. In theological terms, the priest acts in persona Christi and receives from the Church the power of jurisdiction over the penitent.

Recently, several electronic applications have been introduced that can aid a penitent in making a good confession, similar to printed works known as "examinations of conscience". Such electronic aids, according to Vatican statements, cannot replace confession direct to a priest, as only a priest can confer sacramental absolution.[1] As of February 2011, one widely publicized example was an "app" for the iPhone called "Confession: A Roman Catholic App".[2]

The Council of Trent (Session Fourteen, Chapter I) quoted John 20:22-23[3] as the primary Scriptural proof for the doctrine concerning this sacrament, but Catholics also consider Matthew 9:2-8,[4] 1 Corinthians 11:27,[5] and Matthew 16:17-20 to be among the Scriptural bases for the sacrament.

The Catholic Church teaches that sacramental confession requires three "acts" on the part of the penitent : contrition (sorrow of the soul for the sins committed), disclosure of the sins (the 'confession'), and satisfaction (the 'penance', i.e. doing something to make amends for the sins).[6] The basic form of confession has not changed for centuries, although at one time confessions were made publicly.[7]

Typically, the penitent begins sacramental confession by saying, "Bless me Father, for I have sinned. It has been [time period] since my last confession." The penitent must then confess what he/she believes to be grave and mortal sins, in both kind and number,[8] in order to be reconciled with God and the Church. The sinner may also confess venial sins; this is especially recommended if the penitent has no mortal sins to confess. "Without being strictly necessary, confession of everyday faults (venial sins) is nevertheless strongly recommended by the Church. Indeed the regular confession of our venial sins helps us form our conscience, fight against evil tendencies, let ourselves be healed by Christ and progress in the life of the Spirit. By receiving more frequently through this sacrament the gift of the Father's Mercy, we are spurred to be merciful as He is merciful".[9]

Eastern Orthodoxy and Eastern Catholicism

Within the Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic churches, it is understood that the Mystery of confession and repentance has more to do with the spiritual development of the individual and much less to do with purification. Sin is not seen as a stain on the soul, but rather a mistake that needs correction.

Russian Orthodox priest hearing confessions before Divine Liturgy, Church of the Protection of the Theotokos, Düsseldorf, Germany.

In general, the Orthodox Christian chooses an individual to trust as his or her spiritual guide. In most cases this is the parish priest, but may be a starets (Elder, a monastic who is well known for his or her advancement in the spiritual life) or any individual, male or female, who has received permission from a bishop to hear confession. This person is often referred to as one's "spiritual father" or "spiritual mother". Once chosen, the individual turns to his spiritual guide for advice on his or her spiritual development, confessing sins, and asking advice. Orthodox Christians tend to confess only to this individual and the closeness created by this bond makes the spiritual guide the most qualified in dealing with the person, so much so that no one can override what a spiritual guide tells his or her charges. What is confessed to one's spiritual guide is protected by the same seal as would be any priest hearing a confession. While one does not have to be a priest to hear confession, only an ordained priest may pronounce the absolution.

Confession does not take place in a confessional, but normally in the main part of the church itself, usually before an analogion (lectern) set up near the iconostasion. On the analogion is placed a Gospel Book and a blessing cross. The confession often takes place before an icon of Jesus Christ. Orthodox understand that the confession is not made to the priest, but to Christ, and the priest stands only as witness and guide. Before confessing, the penitent venerates the Gospel Book and cross, and places the thumb and first two fingers of his right hand on the feet of Christ as he is depicted on the cross. The confessor will often read an admonition warning the penitent to make a full confession, holding nothing back.

In cases of emergency, of course, confession may be heard anywhere. For this reason, especially in the Russian Orthodox Church, the pectoral cross that the priest wears at all times will often have the Icon of Christ "Not Made by Hands" inscribed on it.

In general practice, after one confesses to one's spiritual guide, the parish priest (who may or may not have heard the confession) covers the head of the person with his Epitrachelion (Stole) and reads the Prayer of Absolution, asking God to forgive the transgression of the individual (the specific prayer differs between Greek and Slavic use). It is not uncommon for a person to confesses his sins to his spiritual guide on a regular basis but only seek out the priest to read the prayer before receiving Holy Communion.

A penitent confessing his sins in the former Latin rite Catholic, now Ukrainian Byzantine Rite Greek-Catholic church of the Bernhardines in Lviv, Ukraine.

In the Eastern Churches, clergy often make their confession in the sanctuary. A bishop, priest, or deacon will confess at the Holy Table (Altar) where the Gospel Book and blessing cross are normally kept. He confesses in the same manner as a layman, except that when a priest hears a bishop's confession, the priest kneels.

Orthodox Christians should go to confession at least four times a year; often during one of the four fasting periods (Great Lent, Nativity Fast, Apostles' Fast and Dormition Fast). Many pastors encourage frequent confession and communion. In some of the monasteries on Mount Athos, the monks will confess their sins daily.

Orthodox Christians will also practice a form of general confession, referred to as the rite of "Mutual Forgiveness". The rite involves an exchange between the priest and the congregation (or, in monasteries, between the superior and the brotherhood). The priest will make a prostration before all and ask their forgiveness for sins committed in act, word, deed, and thought. Those present ask that God may forgive him, and then they in turn all prostrate themselves and ask the priest's forgiveness. The priest then pronounces a blessing. The rite of Mutual Forgiveness does not replace the Mystery of Confession and Absolution, but is for the purpose of maintaining Christian charity and a humble and contrite spirit. This general confession is practiced in monasteries at the first service on arising (the Midnight Office) and the last service before retiring to sleep (Compline). Old Believers will perform the rite regularly before the beginning of the Divine Liturgy. The best-known asking of mutual forgiveness occurs at Vespers on the Sunday of Forgiveness, and it is with this act that Great Lent begins.

Anglicanism

In the Anglican tradition, confession and absolution is usually a component part of corporate worship, particularly at services of the Holy Eucharist. The form involves an exhortation to repentance by the priest, a period of silent prayer during which believers may inwardly confess their sins, a form of general confession said together by all present and the pronouncement of general absolution by the priest, often accompanied by the sign of the cross.

Private or auricular confession is also practiced by Anglicans and is especially common among Anglo-Catholics. The venue for confessions is either in the traditional confessional, which is the common practice among Anglo-Catholics, or in a private meeting with the priest. Often a priest will sit in the sanctuary, just inside the communion rail, facing toward the altar and away from the penitent. Other times he will use a portable screen to divide himself and the penitent. Following the confession of sins and the assignment of penance, the priest makes the pronouncement of absolution. The seal of the confessional, as with Roman Catholicism, is absolute and any confessor who divulges information revealed in confession is subject to deposition and removal from office.

Historically, the practice of auricular confession was originally a highly controversial one within Anglicanism. When priests began to hear confessions, they responded to criticisms by pointing to the fact that such is explicitly sanctioned in The Order for the Visitation of the Sick in the Book of Common Prayer, which contains the following direction:

Here shall the sick person be moved to make a special Confession of his sins, if he feel his conscience troubled with any weighty matter. After which Confession, the Priest shall absolve him (if he humbly and heartily desire it).

Auricular confession within mainstream Anglicanism became accepted in the second half of the 20th century; the 1979 Book of Common Prayer for the Episcopal Church in the USA provides two forms for it in the section "The Reconciliation of a Penitent." Private confession is also envisaged by the canon law of the Church of England, which contains the following, intended to safeguard the Seal of the Confessional:

if any man confess his secret and hidden sins to the minister, for the unburdening of his conscience, and to receive spiritual consolation and ease of mind from him; we...do straitly charge and admonish him, that he does not at any time reveal and make known to any person whatsoever any crime or offence so committed to his trust and secrecy[10]

There is no requirement for private confession, but a common understanding that it may be desirable depending on individual circumstances. An Anglican aphorism regarding the practice is "All may; none must; some should".[11]

Protestantism

Most Protestant churches believe that no intermediary except Christ is necessary between the Christian and God in order to be absolved from sins. Many mainline Protestant Churches include corporate confession in regular worship. For instance the Presbyterian Church USA's Directory of Worship, in directing the components or worship, states, "A prayer of confession of the reality of sin in personal and common life follows. In a declaration of pardon, the gospel is proclaimed and forgiveness is declared in the name of Jesus Christ. God’s redemption and God’s claim upon human life are remembered."[12]

Some Protestants confess their sins in private prayer before God, believing this suffices to gain God's pardon. However confession to another is often encouraged and in some sects or denominations required when a wrong has been done to a person as well as to God. Confession is then made to the person wronged and also to God, and is part of the reconciliation process. In cases where sin has resulted in the exclusion of a person from church membership due to unrepentance, public confession is often a pre-requisite to readmission. The sinner confesses to the church his or her repentance and is received back into fellowship. In both cases there is a required manner to the confessions: for sins between God and Man and for sins between Man and Man.

Lutheranism

"Private Absolution ought to be retained in the churches, although in confession an enumeration of all sins is not necessary." —Augsburg Confession, Article 9

Lutherans differ from other Protestants as they practice "confession and absolution" (in two forms). They, like Roman Catholics and many Anglicans, see James 5:16 and John 20:22-23 as biblical evidence for confession.[13] The first form of confession and absolution is done at the Divine Service with the assembled congregation (similar to the Anglican tradition). Here, the entire congregation pauses for a moment of silent confession, recites the confiteor, and receives God's forgiveness through the pastor as he says the following (or similar): "Upon this your confession and in the stead and by the command of my Lord Jesus Christ, I forgive you all your sins in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit."[14]

The second form of confession and absolution is known as "Holy Absolution", which is done privately to the pastor (commonly only upon request). Here the person confessing (known as the "penitent") confesses individual their sins and makes an act of contrition as the pastor, acting in persona Christi, announces this following formula of absolution (or similar): "In the stead and by the command of my Lord Jesus Christ I forgive you all your sins in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit."[15] In the Lutheran Church, the pastor is bound by the Seal of the Confessional (similar to the Roman Catholic tradition). Luther's Small Catechism says "the pastor is pledged not to tell anyone else of sins to him in private confession, for those sins have been removed.[16]

In the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, the second form of confession and absolution fell into disuse; at the present time, it is, for example, expected before partaking of the Eucharist for the first time.[17]

Mormonism

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints teaches that "Confession is a necessary requirement for complete forgiveness." The sinner must confess both to those persons wronged by his sin and to God. Confession may also be required to an authorized Priesthood leader: "Those transgressions requiring confession to a bishop are adultery, fornication, other sexual transgressions and deviancies, and sins of a comparable seriousness." The priesthood leader may counsel the sinner to submit to the authority of a disciplinary council, but does not have the authority to forgive sin. However, the confession must be held in strict confidence unless the sinner grants permission to disclose it to the disciplinary council.[18]

Buddhism

In Buddhism, confessing one's faults to a superior is an important part of Buddhist practice. In the various sutras, followers of the Buddha confessed their wrongdoing to the Buddha.[19] Other sections of the earliest Buddhist writings (i.e., the Vinaya) required that monks confess their individual sins before their bi-weekly convening for the recitation of the Patimokkha .

Islam

In Islam, confession, or declaration to be more precise, of faith is one of the five pillars of Islam (see Shahadah) and is recited a minimum of nine times daily as part of each unit (raka'ah) of the five daily prayers (see salat): a minimum of seventeen raka'at are performed daily, with the shahadah recited after every two.

The act of seeking forgiveness for sins from God is called Istighfar. As in Judaism, confession of sins is made directly to God and not through man (except in asking for forgiveness of the victim of the sin). It is taught sins are to be kept to oneself to seek individual forgiveness from God.Allah Almighty forgive those who seek his forgiveness and commit to themselves not to do the sin again. Though some sins in which some other person is involved are not forgiven unless that person forgives you so we should ask them to forgive us as well so God forgive us.[20][21]

Judaism

In Judaism, confession is an important part of attaining forgiveness for both sins against God and another man. Confessions to God are done communally in the plural. Jews confess that "We have sinned." In matters involving offenses against a fellow man, private confession to the victim is a requirement to obtaining forgiveness from the victim, which is generally a requirement to obtaining forgiveness from God. If the victim refuses to forgive, the offender confesses publicly, before larger and larger audience. Confession (viduy) is also performed on one's deathbed, if at all possible.

See also

The confession, by Pietro Longhi, ca. 1750

References

  1. ^ crunchgear.com
  2. ^ itunes.apple.com
  3. ^ vatican.va
  4. ^ vatican.va
  5. ^ vatican.va
  6. ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church, nn. 1450-1460.
  7. ^ Hanna, E. (1911). The Sacrament of Penance. In The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Retrieved September 14, 2008 from New Advent: http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/11618c.htm
  8. ^ 1983 Code of Canon Law, Can. 988 §1: http://www.vatican.va/archive/ENG1104/__P3H.HTM
  9. ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church, n. 1458.
  10. ^ (Proviso to Canon 113 of the Code of 1603, retained in the Supplement to the present Code)
  11. ^ Becker, Michael Confession: None must, All may, Some should
  12. ^ pcusa.org
  13. ^ Luther's Small Catechism with Explanation
  14. ^ (Lutheran Service Book, Divine Service I)
  15. ^ (Lutheran Service Book, Individual Confession and Absolution)
  16. ^ small cat.
  17. ^ Apology of the Augsburg Confession, article 24, paragraph 1. Retrieved 2010-06-06.
  18. ^ New Era: Confession
  19. ^ san.beck.org
  20. ^ qa.sunnipath.com
  21. ^ hadithcollection.com

External links


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  • confession — [ kɔ̃fesjɔ̃ ] n. f. • 980; lat. ecclés. confessio → confesser 1 ♦ Déclaration, aveu de ses péchés que l on fait à un prêtre catholique, dans le sacrement de la pénitence. ⇒ confesse, pénitence. Confession sincère. ⇒ attrition, contrition,… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • confession — con·fes·sion n 1: an act of confessing 2: an acknowledgment of a fact or allegation as true or proven; esp: a written or oral statement by an accused party acknowledging the party s guilt (as by admitting commission of a crime) compare admission; …   Law dictionary

  • confession — CONFESSION. s. f. Aveu, déclaration que l on fait de quelque chose. Confession sincère, franche, ingénue. Confession forcée, extorquée. Vous demeurez d accord par votre propre confession que.... Désirez vous une plus ample, une plus entière, plus …   Dictionnaire de l'Académie Française 1798

  • confession — Confession. s. f. v. Aveu, declaration que l on fait de quelque chose. Confession sincere, franche, ingenuë. confession forcée, extorquée. vous demeurez d accord par vostre propre confession. que desirez vous? une plus ample, une plus entiere,… …   Dictionnaire de l'Académie française

  • Confession — Con*fes sion, n. [F. confession, L. confessio.] 1. Acknowledgment; avowal, especially in a matter pertaining to one s self; the admission of a debt, obligation, or crime. [1913 Webster] With a crafty madness keeps aloof, When we would bring him… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Confession — Álbum de estudio de Ill Niño Publicación 8 de octubre 2003 Grabación Water Music Studios en Hoboken Jersey y grabadores de imagen en espejo de Nueva York Género(s) Alternative metal …   Wikipedia Español

  • confession — Confession, Confessio. Une faulse et fainte confession faite par aucun de soy mesme et d autres, qu il dit estre ses complices, Indicium adumbratum. Lesquelles choses par la confession d un chacun, sont deshonestes, Quae ex confesso sunt turpia.… …   Thresor de la langue françoyse

  • Confession — (v. lat. Confessio), 1) (Rechtsw.), Geständniß, s.d.; 2) das Bekenntniß eines Schuldners gegen den Gläubiger vor Gericht od. vor Zeugen, die genannte Summe diesem wirklich schuldig zu sein; 3) Geständniß des sündhaften Zustandes od. einer… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Confession — Confession, Bekenntniß, daher vorzüglich in religiöser Hinsicht, das Glaubensbekenntniß. Man bezeichnet mit diesem Worte gewöhnlich die Urkunde, welche eine religiöse Partei als die Grundlage ihres Glaubens und Lehrens aufstellt, so wie auch… …   Damen Conversations Lexikon

  • confession — late 14c., action of confessing, originally in religion, from O.Fr. confession (10c.), from L. confessionem (nom. confessio) confession, acknowledgement, noun of action from pp. stem of confiteri (see CONFESS (Cf. confess)). In law, from 1570s.… …   Etymology dictionary

  • confession — [kən fesh′ən] n. 1. the act of confessing; acknowledgment; specif., a) an admission of guilt, esp. formally in writing, as by a person charged with a crime b) the confessing of sins to a priest in the sacrament of penance c) a general… …   English World dictionary


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