Lead cooled fast reactor

Lead cooled fast reactor

The lead-cooled fast reactor is a nuclear power Generation IV reactor that features a fast neutron spectrum, molten lead or lead-bismuth eutectic coolant, and a closed fuel cycle. Options include a range of plant ratings, including a number of 50 to 150 MWe (megawatts electric) units featuring long-life, pre-manufactured cores. Plans include modular arrangements rated at 300 to 400 MW, and a large monolithic plant rated at 1,200 MW. The fuel is metal or nitride-based containing fertile uranium and transuranics. The LFR is cooled by natural convection with a reactor outlet coolant temperature of 550 °C, possibly ranging over 800 °C with advanced materials. Temperatures higher than 830 °C are high enough to support thermochemical production of hydrogen.

The reactors are intended for use in nuclear power plants to produce nuclear power from nuclear fuel.

Modular nuclear reactors

The LFR battery is a small factory-built turnkey plant operating on a closed fuel cycle with very long refueling interval (15 to 20 years) cassette cores or replaceable reactor modules. Its features are designed to meet market opportunities for electricity production on small grids, and for developing countries that may not wish to deploy an indigenous fuel cycle infrastructure to support their nuclear energy systems. The modular "battery" system (ie consisting of a number of identical elements, not "battery" in the sense of an electro-chemical energy storage system), is designed for distributed generation of electricity and other energy products, including hydrogen and potable water.

Application

LFR reactors OK-550 and BM-40A, capable of producing 155 MW of power, have been applied on soviet Alfa class submarines. They were significantly lighter than typical water-cooled reactors and had an advantage of being capable to quickly switch between maximum power and minimum noise operation modes, but lacked reliability, as solidifying of lead-bismuth solution turned the reactor inoperable.

See also

*Fast breeder reactor
*Fast neutron reactor
*Sodium-cooled fast reactor
*Integral Fast Reactor
*Gas-cooled fast reactor
*Generation IV reactor

References

* [http://neri.inel.gov/program_plans/pdfs/appendix_4.pdf Lead-Cooled Fast Reactor]
* [http://neri.inel.gov/universities_workshop/proceedings/pdfs/lfr.pdf Advanced reactor, fuel cycle,and energy products workshop for universities]
* [http://www.gen-4.org/Technology/systems/lfr.htm Generation IV International Forum LFR website]

External links

* [http://www.bechtel.com/PDF/BIP/23378.pdf Heavy-Metal Aerosol Transport in a Lead-Bismuth Cooled Fast Reactor with In-Vessel Direct-Contact Steam Generation]
* [http://nuclear.inl.gov/gen4/lfr.shtml INL Lead-Cooled Fast Reactor (LFR)]
* [http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6V4D-4K2T5D7-5&_user=10&_coverDate=08%2F31%2F2006&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=df85272db6aac0f870d0004ed28d513e Comparison of sodium and lead-cooled fast reactors regarding reactor physics aspects, severe safety and economical issues]
* [http://www.iaea.org/OurWork/ST/NE/NENP/NPTDS/Downloads/SMR_CRP1_SRWOSR/2006/RBEC-M%20Kurchatov%20Final.pdf RBEC-M Lead-Bismuth Cooled Fast Reactor Benchmarking Calculations]


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