- Israel–Jordan peace treaty
Israel- JordanTreaty of Peace (full name: Treaty of Peace Between the State of Israel and the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan) ( _he. הסכם השלום בין ישראל לירדן; transliterated: "Heskem Ha-Shalom beyn Yisra'el Le-Yarden") ( _ar. معاهدة السلام الأردنية الإسرائيلية; transliterated: "Mu'ahadat as-Salaam al-'Urdunniyah al-Isra'yliyah", and sometimes referred to as the "Wadi Araba Treaty") is a peace treatysigned in 1994. The treaty normalized relations between the two countries and resolved territorial disputes between them. The conflict between them had cost roughly 18.3 billion dollars. Its signing is also closely linked with the efforts to create peace between Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organizationrepresenting the Palestinian Authority.It was signed at the southern border crossing of Arabahon October 26, 1994, and made Jordan only the second Arabcountry (after Egypt) to normalize relations with Israel.
The relationship between Jewish leaders in Palestine and the Hashemite dynasty in the area was characterized by ambivalence as both parties' prominence grew in the area. Jordan consistently subscribed to the anti-Zionist policy of the Arab world, but made specific decisions in keeping with a pragmatic point of view.
Several factors are cited for their relative pragmatism towards Israel: Their close geographic proximity, King Hussein's pro-Western orientation and modest territorial aspirations.
Nevertheless, a state of war existed between the two countries from 1948 until the treaty was signed. The writers then had another meeting.
Memoir writers and political analysts have identified a number of "back-channel" and at times clandestine communications between the two countries, often resulting in limited accommodations even during times of war.
Fedayeenattacks from Jordan decreased as a result of the victory of Israel in the Suez Warof 1956, the tense relations between Israel and Jordan following the 1948 Arab-Israeli warstarted to ease off. In the 1967 Six Day War, Jordan aligned itself with Nasser's Egyptdespite an Israeli warning not to get involved in the war. This resulted in the fall of East Jerusalemand the West Bankto Israel. Besides the loss of territory, this was also an economic loss to the kingdom since much of the kingdom's economy was based in the West Bank.
King Husseinwaged the war of Black September against the PLO, ejecting the organization which was in real danger of usurping Hussein's rule over his country. During the events of Black September, Syrian troops invaded the kingdom, threatening to further destabilize the King's situation. In response, the Israeli Air Force made a series of overflights over the Syrian forces, prompting them to return to Syria.
The war against the PLO terrorist factions may have strengthened the connections between Israel and Jordan. Some claim that the
Mossadgave warning to Hussein about a Palestinian assassinationattempt and that Hussein warned Israeli Prime Minister Golda Meirin a clandestine face-to-face meeting about Egyptian and Syrian threats prior to the 1973 Yom Kippur War. Hussein's intention was to stay out of the war.
In 1987 Israeli Foreign Affairs Minister
Shimon Peresand King Hussein tried to secretly promote a peace agreement in which Israel would concede control over the West Bankto Jordan. The two signed an agreement defining a framework for a Middle Eastern peace conference, however the proposal was not consummated due to Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Shamir’s objection. The following year Jordanabandoned its claim for the West Bank in favor of a peaceful resolution between Israel and the PLO.
The negotiation of the agreement
During 1994 the ice was broken. Israeli Prime Minister
Yitzhak Rabinand Foreign Minister Shimon Peresinformed King Hussein that after the Oslo Accordswith the PLO, Jordan may be "left out of the game". Hussein consulted with the Egyptian President Hosni Mubarakand the Syrian President Hafez al-Assad. Mubarak encouraged him, but Assad told him only to "talk" with Israel and not sign any accord. U.S. President Bill Clintonpressured Hussein to start peace negotiations and to sign a peace treaty with Israel and promised him that Jordan's debts would be forgiven. The efforts succeeded and Jordan signed a nonbelligerency agreement with Israel. Rabin, Hussein and Clinton signed the Washington Declarationin Washington, DC, on July 25, 1994. The Declaration says that Israel and Jordan would end the official state of enmity and would start negotiations in order to achieve an "end to bloodshed and sorrow" and a just and lasting peace. [http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/Peace+Process/Guide+to+the+Peace+Process/The+Washington+Declaration.htm]
The signing of the agreement
In July 1994 the Prime Minister of Jordan
Abdelsalam al-Majalideclared an "end to the age of wars" and Shimon Peres declared that "the moment of peace has arrived". Rabin and King Hussein held a public meeting with Clinton at the White House.
October 26, 1994Jordan and Israel then signed the historic peace treatyin a ceremony held in the Arava valley of Israel, north of Eilatand near the Jordanian border. Prime Minister Rabin and Prime Minister Abdelsalam al-Majalisigned the treaty and the President of Israel Ezer Weizmanshook hands with King Hussein. It was witnessed by President Bill Clinton, accompanied by US Secretary of State Warren Christopher. Thousands of colorful balloonsreleased into the sky ended the event.
The Israeli public fully supported the agreementFact|date=May 2008 and was very excited about such a historic moment.
Egyptwelcomed the agreement and Syriaignored it. However, the Lebanese militia group Hezbollahresisted the treaty and 20 minutes prior to the signature ceremony shelled the northern Galileesettlements with mortar shells and rockets. The Israeli residents, who were forced to evacuate into shelters, took with them radiotransistors and mobile TVs in order not to miss the historical moment of signing a second peace treaty with an Arabstate.
Following the agreements, Israel and Jordan opened their borders as borders of peace. Several border-crossings were erected across the border, allowing tourists, merchants and workers to travel between the two states. Israeli tourists started to visit Jordan, many of them traveled especially to see the "sela ha'adom" ("Red Rock") of
Petra- a stone-carved Nabateancity which fascinated Israelis during the 50's and the 60's, often luring adventurers to visit it secretly.
Trade treaty of 1996
In 1996 an additional trade treaty was signed, and Israel provided considerable assistance during the establishment of a modern medical center in
Main principles in the agreement
Borders: the agreed upon border was set to be the Jordan river, and if its flow changed, Jordan's border would be reset by the river's new course. In addition, Israel gave Jordan 300 square kilometers and leased 2850 dunams (2.85 km²) in the Arabah( Muvlaat Tzofar). The border segment from Ein Gedito Beit She'anwas not marked, because Jordan said that the Palestinian Authorityshould be a partner for setting this border.
Normalization: full normalization, establishment of diplomaticrelations and the opening of embassies, granting tourists visas, opening a flight connection, freedom of access to seaports and the establishment of a free tradezone and an industrial parkin the Arava. In the framework of good neighborliness, there is a prohibitation of hostile propagandaand negative expression in the countries' laws.
Securityand Defense: respect for the sovereignty and territory of each side, not entering without permission, cooperation against terrorismand joint counter-terrorefforts; including thwarting border attacks and smugglers, each country is obliged to prevent any hostile attack against the other and not to cooperate with any terrorist organization against the other.
Jerusalem: Jordan will be given preference when it comes to the status of the Muslim holy places in the city (as a guardian or keeper of the Muslimholy places) in any future peace agreement with the Palestinians.
Water: in the framework of a just division of the water of the Jordan River and the Arava's underground water resources, Israel agreed to give Jordan 50 million cubes of water each year (Jordan demanded 100 million) and to share the Yarmouk Riverso that Jordan has 3/4 of it. Both countries will develop other water resources and reservoirs and will help each other in years of drought.
Palestinian refugees: Israel and Jordan will cooperate in order to relieve the suffering of the refugees, including a four-way committee (Israel, Jordan, Egypt and the Palestinians) which will try to work towards a solution.
The treaty consists of a preamble, thirty articles, five annexes, and agreed minutes.
Preamble of the treaty: Desire for peaceIsrael and Jordan note and agree to honor the Washington Declaration, signed July 25,1994, and basing themselves on U.N Security Council Resolution and in all aspects, they declared the termination of the state of belligerency between them and establish peace between them in accordance with the treaty of peace.
Articles of the treaty
The following is a synopsis of the treaty's thirty articles:
Article 1: Peace established
Peace is established between the State of Israel and the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan.
Article 2: Mutual recognition
Recognise and respect each other's sovereignty, territorial integrity and political independence.The Hashemite Kingdom Of Jordan is in harmony with the State Of Israel.
Article 3: Borders
Delineation and recognition of the international boundary between Israel and Jordan was delimited with reference to the boundary definition under the Mandate. The
Peace Islandcame under Jordanian military control, but Israel maintains administration and civilian presence.
Article 4: Security cooperation
Mutual understanding and co-operation in security-related matters would form a significant part of relations. They recognized the achievements of the
European Unionin developing the Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe(CSCE) and committed themselves to the creation, in the Middle East, of a CSCME ( Conference on Security and Co-operation in the Middle East). And to refrain from the threat or use of force or weapons, conventional, non-conventional or of any other kind, and combating terrorism of all kinds.
Article 5: Diplomatic relations
Establishing full diplomatic and consular relations and to exchange resident ambassadors, including normalization of economic and cultural relations.
Article 6: Water resources
Recognizing the rightful
waterallocations of both of them in the Jordan Riverand Yarmouk Riverwaters and Arabah(Arava) ground water and development of new water resources.
Article 7: Economic cooperation
To promote economic cooperation by to removing discriminatory barriers and terminate economic boycotts.
Article 8: Refugees
The problem of displaced persons would also be discussed together with
Egyptand the Palestinians, and the problem of refugees would be discussed in a multilateral manner in conjunction with and at the same time as the permanent status negotiations pertaining to the territories.
Article 9: Holy places
Freedom of access to places of religious and historical significance. Israel would respect the special role of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan in Muslim Holy shrines in
Jerusalem. When negotiations on the permanent status will take place, Israel will give high priority to the Jordanian historic role in these shrines.
Article 10: Culture and science
Establishing cultural and scientific exchanges in all fields, and agree to establish normal cultural relations.
Article 11: Stop propaganda
To abstain from hostile or discriminatory propaganda against each other and to repeal all adverse or discriminatory references and expressions of hostility in their respective legislation.
Article 12: Drugs and crime
Combating crime, smuggling, trafficking in illicit drugs, and bringing to trial the perpetrators.
Article 13: Roads
Permitting the free movement of people and vehicles and not to impose discriminatory taxes or restrictions. To open and maintain roads and border-crossings, and agreed to continue negotiations for a highway to be constructed between
Egypt, Israel and Jordan near Eilat.
Article 14: Freedom of the sea
Right of passage through territorial waters in accordance with the rules of international law with normal access to ports.The
Strait of Tiranand the Gulf of Aqabaare to be international waterways open to all nations.
Article 15: Air travel
Recognition of the rights, privileges and obligations provided for by the multilateral aviation agreements, particularly of the 1944
Convention on International Civil Aviation(The Chicago Convention) and the 1944 International Air Services Transit Agreement.
Article 16: Communications
Having direct telephone and facsimile lines and postal links.
Article 17: Tourism
Promoting co-operation in the field of tourism.
Article 18: Environment
Cooperating relating to the environment, conservation of nature and prevention of
Article 19: Energy
Development of energy resources and projects such as the utilisation of solar energy. Interconnecting of the electric grids in the
Article 20: Rift Valley
Development of the
Jordan Rift Valleyarea, including joint projects in the economic, environmental, energy-related and tourism fields.
Article 21: Health
Cooperation in the area of health.
Article 22: Agriculture
Cooperation in the areas of
agriculture, including veterinary services, plant protection, biotechnology and marketing.
Article 23: Aqaba-Eilat
Arrangements for the joint development of the towns of Aqaba and Eilat, such as tourism development, customs, free trade zone, aviation, prevention of pollution, maritime matters, police, customs and health co-operation.
Article 24: Claims commission
Establish a claims commission for the mutual settlement of all financial claims.
Article 25: Obligations
The treaty would not affect their rights and obligations under the
United Nations Charter, to fulfil in good faith their obligations and to abolish all pejorative references to each other.
Article 26: Legislation
To enact the legislation necessary in order to implement the treaty, and to terminate any international commitments and to repeal any legislation that is inconsistent with it.
Article 27: Ratification
The treaty would be ratified by both countries in conformity with their respective national procedures.
Article 28: Interim measures
Application of interim measures.
Article 29: Dispute resolution
Disputes arising out of the application or interpretation of the treaty should be resolved by negotiations. Any such disputes which cannot be settled by negotiations should be resolved by conciliation or submitted to arbitration.
Article 30: Registration with UN
The treaty would be transmitted to the Secretary General of the United Nations for registration in accordance with the provisions of Article 102 of the Charter of the United Nations.
Annexes of the treaty
Annex 1: Borders
See: "Israel-Jordan Peace Treaty, Annex I, Israel-Jordan International Boundary Delimitation and Demarcation" [http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Peace/annex1.html]
Annex 3: Crime and drugs
See: "Israel-Jordan Peace Treaty, Annex III, Combatting Crime and Drugs" [http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Peace/annex3.html]
Annex 4: Environment
See: "Israel-Jordan Peace Treaty, Annex IV, Environment" [http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Peace/annex4.html]
Agreed minutes of the treaty
See: "Israel-Jordan Peace Treaty, Agreed Minutes" [http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Peace/agmins.html]
*King Hussein of Jordan
Arab-Israeli peace diplomacy and treaties
Paris Peace Conference, 1919
*Faisal-Weizmann Agreement (1919)
1949 Armistice Agreements
Camp David Accords (1978)
*Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty (1979)
Madrid Conference of 1991
*Oslo Accords (1993)
*Israel-Jordan Treaty of Peace (1994)
Camp David 2000 Summit
International law and the Arab-Israeli conflict
List of Middle East peace proposals
Peace process in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict
Projects working for peace among Israelis and Arabs
* [http://www.kinghussein.gov.jo/peacetreaty.html Text of the Treaty] , at the site of King Hussein of Jordan
* [http://www.mfa.gov.il/mfa/go.asp?MFAH00pa0 Text of the Treaty] , at the site of the Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs
* [http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/Peace+Process/Guide+to+the+Peace+Process/The+Washington+Declaration.htm The Washington Declaration] , at the site of the Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs
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