- Race of Jesus
The race of Jesus has been a subject of debate since at least the 19th century. The physical appearance of Jesus of Nazareth was debated by theologians from early on in the history of Christianity, though with no explicit emphasis on race.
Different societies have depicted Jesus and most other biblical figures as their own ethnicity in their art; for example he is primarily white in the West, and black in
Sub Saharan Africa. The current dominant opinion among historians and scientists is that he most likely had olive skin, resembling modern-day persons of Middle Eastern descent. Others, however, have suggested other possible racial backgrounds. For some Christiansthe question is complicated by the belief that his birth was a unique miracle, an "incarnation in flesh of divine substance."
Theories about the race of the historical Jesus
Jesus in the Bible
Contemporary textual evidence on Jesus' life is scarce, and specific descriptions of his appearance even more so. There are no direct references to his appearance during his physical lifetime, though Revelation 1:13–16 describes his features as he appears in his heavenly form, as seen in a vision by
John the Divine. These have sometimes been used in modern arguments concerning Jesus' race,
:1:13 And in the midst of the seven candlesticks [one] like unto the Son of man, clothed with a garment down to the foot, and girt about the paps with a golden girdle. :1:14 His head holy and his hairs were white like wool, as white as snow; and his eyes glowed in the deepest fires of hell; :1:15 And his feet like unto fine brass, as if they burned in a furnace; and His voice as the sound of many waters. :1:16 And He had in His right hand seven stars: and out of His mouth went a sharp two-edged sword: and His countenance [was] as the sun shineth in his strength. (
The whole of the book of Revelation is generally taken as highly symbolic, and this passage is no exception, especially since the remainder of the description clearly cannot be interpreted as being a natural description. Nonetheless this passage has been used to argue that Jesus was black, based on the description of his hair as being "like wool", which is interpreted to refer to hair that is tightly coiled, as many people of African descent have. [ [http://www.angelfire.com/oh/AncientKnowledge/raceofjesus.html Malachi Z York on race in the Book of Revelation] ] However, the full phrase is "white like wool", and it is also compared to snow, complicating this interpretation. In fact, the phrase "white like wool" is reproduced from the
Book of Daniel. ["God at Sinai: Covenant and Theophany in the Bible and the Near East", Zondervan, 1995, p. 322; 345.] It is also comparable to language used in the Apocalypse of Abraham, which describes the angel Yahoelas having a body "like sapphire" a face "like chrysolite" and "the hair of his head like snow". [Peter R. Carrell, "Jesus and the Angels: Angelology and the Christology of the Apocalypse of John", 1997, Cambridge University Press.]
The "feet of fine brass" line has also been used to argue for a dark-skinned race, but many often leave out "burnished" and "glowing". Additionally, the references to having a white "head" and a countenance that is "as the sun shineth" has been used to argue for Jesus being racially white. [Glasgow, James, "The Apocalypse, Translated and Expounded" argues that the hair represents "the beauteous flaxen locks of childhood, thus representing the man Jesus in perpetual youth", T.T. Clark, Edinburgh, 1872, p. 126.]
However, all of these descriptions are full of vague poetic imagery, seeming more like attempts to glorify the heavenly body of Jesus than to accurately describe his appearance when on earth. There is also debate whether "John the Divine", the author of Revelation, was actually
John the Apostle, who knew the earthly Jesus, or even if he was John the Evangelist(see authorship of the Johannine works). The relatively late date ascribed to Revelation by modern scholarship leads many scholars to argue that it seems unlikely that someone who had personally seen Jesus in life wrote the description.
There are also many other later descriptions of Jesus from saints and others who claim they have seen him in a vision.
Early theological debates
Most early theological debate about Jesus' appearance arose from interpretations of Messianic prophecies and on the assumption that his physical form was the result of a miraculous
virgin birthand so was determined rather more by divine will than ordinary biology. However, there were complex Christological debates about mechanisms of the divine incarnation into human flesh and about how Jesus may have inherited his mother's characteristicsFact|date=November 2007 and the lineage of King David(since prophecies stated that the Messiahshould be David's descendent). This debate originated a dispute about the nature of Jesus' physical connection to the Jewishpeople, an issue that was later expressed in more racialized form.
Isaiah53:2, most early theologians, such as Justin Martyr, insisted that Jesus was physically unprepossessing, with "no beauty that we should desire him." The anti-Christian author Celsusstates that he was "short and ugly", an assertion that his Christian opponent Origendoes not dispute. Whether these early debates reflect a purely scriptural view or a continuing oral tradition about his actual physique and physiognomy is not known.
In later centuries this early view was reversed. The
Church Fathers Saint Jeromeand Saint Augustine of Hippoargued that Jesus must have been ideally beautiful in face and body. For Augustine he was "beautiful as a child, beautiful on earth, beautiful in heaven."
Descriptions of David & Solomon, Jesus' Ancestors
1 Samuel 16:12"And he sent and brought him in. Now he was ruddy and had beautiful eyes and was handsome.""And the LORD said, "Arise, anoint him, for this is he." - Holy Bible; English Standard Version.
1 Samuel 17:41-43"And the Philistine moved forward and came near to David, with his shield-bearer in front of him. And when the Philistine looked and saw David, he disdained him, for he was but a youth, ruddy and handsome in appearance. And the Philistine said to David, "Am I a dog, that you come to me with sticks?" And the Philistine cursed David by his gods." - Holy Bible; English Standard Version.
Song of Solomon 5:10-11 "My beloved is radiant and ruddy, distinguished among ten thousand." - Holy Bible; English Standard Version.
The word given as "ruddy" in the above version of the verses from 1 Samuel is translated as "red-haired" in the
Bible in Basic English, [ [http://www.o-bible.com/cgibin/ob.cgi?version=bbe&search=&keywords=red-haired 1 Samuel 17:42 (Bible in Basic English Translation)] O-Bible.com] but as "healthy complexion" in the God's Wordtranslation. [ [http://www.searchgodsword.org/desk/?query=1sa+17:42&translation=gwd&st=1&new=1&sr=1&l=en 1 Samuel 17:42 (God's Word Translation)] Searchgodsword.org] Other translations do not specify whether the word describes David's hair or skin, or is a general description of his appearance. [ [http://bible.cc/1_samuel/16-12.htm 1 Samuel 16:12 (Parallel Translations)] Biblo.com] [ [http://bible.cc/1_samuel/17-42.htm 1 Samuel 17:42 (Parallel Translations)] Biblo.com] Sephardicand AshkenaziJews have traditions claiming King Davidwas a red-head. [ [http://www.shemayisrael.co.il/parsha/haftorah/archives/shemini62.htmShema Yisrael Torah Network] ]
upposed descriptions of Jesus
Early Middle Agesthe positive view of Jesus' looks was bolstered by a number of descriptions of him purporting to date from his lifetime. Nicephorusquotes a description of him as tall and beautiful with fair wavy hair and dark eyebrows that met in the middle. He had an olive-tinted complexion, "the color of wheat." One Publius Lentulus is supposed to have described him as perfectly beautiful in features, with "hazel-coloured" hair that flowed to his shoulders, and a forked beard. His eyes continually "change their color." Epiphanius Monachus provides a similar description, in which Jesus is six feet tall, golden haired, with black eyebrows, light brown eyes and swarthy skin "like David's." [ Frederic W. Farrarin "Christ in Art" (1894) collects all these descriptions. pp. 67-85. [http://www.cwru.edu/edocs/8%2F221.pdf PDF of Farrar's book] . The descriptions are also collected in other sources: [http://www.thenazareneway.com/likeness_of_our_saviour.htm The Nazarene Way: Likeness of our saviour] .] Almost all modern authors dismiss these descriptions as medieval fabrications. They were, however, copied in many Western artistic portrayals.
Emergence of racial theories
While the early descriptions of hair, skin and eye color clearly have implications for defining Jesus' "race", they are not explicit in their desire to ascribe a racial identity to him in the modern sense. By the 19th century, however, theological arguments were increasingly replaced by more secular biological ones, as attempts were made to envisage Jesus in the context of the people and culture of the
Middle East. While some writers stressed his Jewishness, the growth of anti-Semiticracial theory led others, such as Emile Burnoufand Houston Stewart Chamberlain, to argue that he was racially an " Aryan." This led to portrayals of Jesus as a blond Nordic individual, a concept that was taken up by the Nazi ideologue Alfred Rosenbergand by Hitler. Hitler argued that Jesus was of Celtic ancestry, on the grounds that "Galilee was a colony where the Romans had probably installed Gallic legionaries, and it's certain that Jesus was not a Jew." [ [http://www.davnet.org/kevin/articles/table.html Hitler's Table Talk] ]
a century before Jesus' birth may also have affected the ethnic make-up of the local Jewish populations.
It is most commonly argued that Jesus was probably of Middle Eastern descent because of the geographic location of the events described in the
Gospels, and, among some modern Christian scholars, the genealogy ascribed to him. For this reason, he has been portrayed as an olive-skinned individual typical of the Levantregion. A team of forensic scientists recently attempted to recreate what Jesus may have looked like based on human remains from the area where and time period when Jesus is believed to have existed. However, this image does not reveal any specific details about what Jesus looked like; it is intended only to give a view of the typical person living in Jesus' time and place. [ [http://www.cnn.com/2002/TECH/science/12/25/face.jesus/ "From science and computers, a new face of Jesus", By Jeordan Legon, CNN] ] In the December 2002 edition of Popular Mechanics, Jesus was shown as looking like a typical Galilean Semite. Among the points made was that the Bible records that Jesus' disciple, Judas had to point him out to those arresting him. The implied argument being that if Jesus' physical appearance differed that markedly from his disciples, then he would have been relatively easy to identify. [ [http://www.popularmechanics.com/science/research/1282186.html Mike Fillon, "Advances in forensic science reveal the most famous face in history.", "Popular Mechanics", 2002] ]
More recently the claim that Jesus was black has gained some currency, chiefly among
African Americanreligious movements, either as a historical hypothesis often rooted in Afrocentric doctrine or as a symbolic statement of Black Pride. Groups such as Black Hebrew Israelitesclaim that black people are descended from Israelites and that therefore Jesus was black. [ [http://www.theholyconceptionunit.org/ The Holy Conception Unit website] (illustrated with a "black Madonna")]
Not all depictions of Jesus are intended to literally represent how he is thought to have looked; many such representations are largely symbolic, spiritual, and personal, and the race chosen may be intended only to reflect, or more recently to contradict, local expectations. This may be true of both pictorial and cinematic portrayals.
Additionally, whether intended to be realistic or not, images of Jesus throughout history have almost always characterized him as being of the race of the artist or target audience, further complicating the task of determining Jesus' race and sometimes leading to racial tensions. Categories of racial difference have also changed over time. While the German artist
Albrecht Düreroften depicted Jesus as blond and the Spanish artist Velázquez depicted him as Mediterranean, there is no evidence that either of them would have interpreted these differences in terms of separate racial identities as they might be in modern America, in which "WASP" and Hispanicpeoples are sometimes characterized as racially distinct. [Clara E. Rodriguez, "Changing Race: Latinos, the Census, and the History of Ethnicity in the United States", 2000, NYU press, p.172]
More recent artistic and cinematic portrayals have also made an effort to characterize Jesus as
Middle Eastern. In the 2004 movie, " The Passion Of The Christ", Jesus was portrayed by James Caviezelwho wore a prostheticnose during filming and had his blue eyes digitally changed to brown to give him a Middle Eastern appearance. According to designer Miles Teves, who created the prosthesis, "Mel [Gibson] wanted to make the actor playing Jesus, James Caviezel, look more ethnically Middle Eastern, and it was decided that we could do it best by changing the shape of his nose." [ [http://www.graphics.com/modules.php?name=Sections&op=viewarticle&artid=501. Miles Teves: Character Design, from "Designing Movie Creatures and Characters: Discover the Creation Process from the Best in the Business", by Richard Rickitt] ] [ [http://juice.box.sk/newsread.php?newsid=717 James Caviezel was given a prosthetic nose and a raised hairline. His blue eyes were digitally changed to brown on film.] ] In the 2007 Iranian movie Mesih(Messiah), which depicts an Islamic version of Jesus' life, Jesus is played by the Iranian actor Ahmad Soleimani Nia.
In the majority of Western art, narrative and cinema depicting Jesus, he is portrayed with brown hair and brown eyes, having a short beard and white skin. However, some artists, including notably
Dürer, have also depicted him as blond and/or blue-eyed. This is also the case in several films, including "Jesus of Nazareth" (1977) in which he has dark brown hair but pale blue eyes. Nonetheless, because Western or European ethnicities are composed of many subgroups (whether biological or perceived), such as Mediterrean, Slavic, Northern European (Nordic), the issue is more complex than monolithic. In addition, it is possible many European portrayals of Jesus may be based on the appearance of European ( Ashkenazi) Jews, who often have "white" skin tones or facial features, and sometimes blond hair and blue eyes. There is wide variation in appearance within the modern Jewish population upon whose appearance artists may base their depictions.
Artists such as
Leonardo da Vinci, Fra Angelicoand Michelangeloall depicted Jesus as white. Nonetheless, it must be noted that most figures of the Bible, including the Israelites and Egyptians described in the Hebrew Scriptures(or Old Testament), were also portrayed as identical in appearance to European whites. In this sense the portrayal may be largely unselfconscious, as might also be the case even in periods with more prominent awareness of race, such as the 20th and 21st centuries.
Because of the commonness of this depiction, it is often confused with historical fact. It has dispersed so widely that many cultures have at least to some extent assimilated the image of a white Jesus. Western Christians spread images of a European Jesus through their encounters with peoples of Africa, the Americas, Australia and parts of Asia (often through
colonization), from the 16th to the 20th century. Many nonwhite regions and ethnicities have depicted Jesus in this way, sometimes routinely, though sometimes with partial adaptations to the local setting, including dress. Moreover, in addition to images, the fact that Christianity was predominantly introduced to them by white individuals makes the racial connection even more complex. Nonetheless, portrayal of Jesus with local features is also common, especially in areas where Christianity has been prominent for a longer period of history.
Additionally, in some cultures nonwhite depictions of Jesus are actually criticized or dismissed outright, with a few considering it blasphemous to portray of Jesus as being of another ethnicity. Ever since the Nazi claim that Jesus was Nordic, Christian white supremacists have commonly equated Christian identity with white racial separatism, sometimes using exegesis of Biblical passages to argue their position. [ [http://www.christianseparatist.org/other/whitejesus.html Christian Separatist page arguing that Jesus was white] ]
", and Janet Mackenzie's "Jesus of the People".
Within the American pop culture milieu, the idea of a black Jesus has also been explored in both cinema and television. In 1992, the African American actor and director
Blair Underwoodstarred as Jesus in "The Second Coming", in which Christ returns to earth in the form of a black man. The Kevin Smithfilm "Dogma" also satirically treats the idea of Jesus as black. Chris Rock's character, "Rufus", is a "13th Apostle" who was alive at the time of Christ; he is working to change the Bible to include the fact that Jesus was black and place himself back into the Gospels. The 1996 TV movie "America's Dream" includes a segment "The Boy Who Painted Christ Black", based on a short story by John Henrik Clarke, about a school principal (Wesley Snipes) in 1940s Georgia torn between supporting the student who painted a black Jesus for entry into an art contest or appeasing the white state school supervisor (Timothy Carhart) who is offended by such a portrayal. [ [http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0115528/ IMDb America's Dream] ] [ [http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1355/is_n13_v89/ai_18005614 Danny Glover, Wesley Snipes, Jasmine Guy star in HBO-TV short stories 'America's Dream] ] The cartoon series The Boondocksalso regularly refers to competing concepts of a "black Jesus" and "white Jesus".
Debate on the color of Jesus' skin has often resulted from interpretations of various darkly-colored, aged depictions of Jesus' mother Mary, referred to as the "
Black Madonna".Fact|date=September 2008 Another catalyst for such debate can be found in the Philippines, where, in the nation's capital, Manila, an image of the Black Nazarenecarrying the cross is revered by thousands of devotees. Yet, it is traditionally posited that the statue was burnt in the ship carrying it to the Philippines, hence the image's dark hue.Fact|please give a reliable source for these assertions|See Talk Page re: "Black Madonna"|date=September 2008
Latin Americamany Saints have been depicted as being mestizo, adapting from Spanish traditions. The Mexican muralistsof the early 20th century depicted Jesus in a variety of dramatic ways, as a revolutionary figure often with local features.
In India, where the
St. Thomas Christianshave been established for nearly two thousand years, there is a long-standing tradition of depicting the Holy Family with local features and costume. During the colonial period many European prints or icons were later copied and adapted to be given more Indian features. Worshippers in Japan, where Francis Xavierpreached, often depict him with Asian features, as do Chinese artists.
* Mosley, William: "What Color Was Jesus". Chicago, Illinois. African American Images Press, 1987 ISBN 0-913543-09-8
Images of Jesus
Controversy over racial characteristics of ancient Egyptians
* [http://www.blackcommentator.com/84/84_email_pf.html Commentators of Jesus' race]
* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/magazine/3958241.stm So what colour was Jesus?]
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