Volyn Oblast


Volyn Oblast

Infobox Ukrainian oblast
Name = Volyn Oblast
UkrainianName = Волинська область
TransliteratedName = Volyns’ka oblast’





Ukraine


Nickname = Volyn
Administrative_center = Lutsk
GovernorName = Mykola Romaniuk
GovernorParty = Our Ukraine
ChairmanName = Vasyl Dmytruk
ChairmanParty = Lytvyn's Bloc
CouncilSeats = 80
Raions = 16
CityRaions = 4
Cities = 11
CMTs = 22
Villages = 1,053
AreaRank = 20th
TotalArea = 20,144
LandArea = ?
WaterArea = ?
PercentWater = ?
PopulationYear = 2006
Population_rank = ?
Population = 1,036,891
Density = 66.9
Population_Growth = ?
SalaryYear = ?
Salary_rank = ?
Salary = ?
Salary_Growth = ?
PostalAbbreviation = 43xxx-45xxx
PostalCodePrefix = List of postal codes#U-Z
ISOCode =
FIPSRegionCode =
PhoneCode = +380-33
Website = www.voladm.gov.ua

Volyn Oblast ( _uk. Волинська область, translit. "Volyns’ka oblast’"; also referred to as Volyn’) is an oblast (province) in north-western Ukraine. Its administrative center is Lutsk. Kovel is the westernmost town and the last station in Ukraine of the rail line running from Warsaw through to Kiev.

History

:"See also: Volhynia for earlier history"

Volyn was once part of Kievan Rus before becoming an independent local principality and an integral part of the Halych-Volynia, one of Kievan Rus successor states. In the 1400s, the area came under the control of neighbouring Grand Duchy of Lithuania, in 1569 passing over to Poland and then in 1795, until World War I, to the Russian Empire where it was a part of the "Volynskaya Guberniya". In the interwar period most of the territory, organized as Wołyń Voivodeship was under the Polish control.

In 1939 when following the Molotov-Ribbentrop pact Poland was invaded and divided by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union, Volyn joined the Soviet Ukraine, and on December 4, 1939 the oblast was organized.

Many Ukrainians rejoiced at the "reunification", but the Polish minority suffered a cruel fate. Thousands of Poles, especially retired Polish officers and intelligentsia were deported to Siberia and other areas in the depths of the Soviet Union. A high proportion of these deportees died in the extreme conditions of Soviet labour camps and most were never able to return to Volyn again.

In 1941 Volyn was invaded by the Nazi Germany's Barbarossa Offensive. Nazis, with some local assistance, completed their holocaust of the Jews of Volhynia in late 1942.

Partisan activity started in Volyn in 1941, soon after German occupation. Partisans were involved in the Rail War campaign against German supply lines and were known for their efficiency in gathering intelligence and for sabotage. The region formed the basis of several networks and many members of the local population served with the partisans. The Poles in the area became part of the Polish Home Army, which often undertook operations with the partisan movement.

The Ukrainian Insurgent Army (UPA) began operating in the region in 1942 and then spread to other regions of Ukraine. UPA units fought the German Army, Polish Home Army, then the Soviets for many years after World War II. Some units of this army engaged in bloody widespread actions to ethnically cleanse the region of its local Polish population. Whole Polish settlements in Volyn were massacred, and some 30,000 to 60,000 Poles were killed (Polish sources gave even higher figures) (see Massacres of Poles in Volhynia). Local Polish paramilitary units retaliated, killing around 15,000 or more local Ukrainians.

In January 1944 the Red Army liberated the territory from the Nazi occupation.

In the immediate aftermath of World War II the Polish-Soviet border was redrawn based on the Curzon line. Volyn, along with the neighbouring provinces became an integral part of the Ukrainian SSR. Most Poles who remained in the eastern region were transferred to the Recovered Territories of western Poland (the former easternmost provinces of Germany) whose German population had been expelled. Some of the Ukrainians on the western side, notably around the city of Kholm (Chełm in Polish), were also allowed to move to Ukraine.

The area underwent rapid industrialisation including the construction of the Lutskiy Avtomobilnyi Zavod. Nevertheless the area remains one of the most rural throughout the former Soviet Union. It currently ranks amongst Ukraine's poorest areas, likely due to a lack of investment and a declining infrastructure. Some of its lands are on the edge of the area affected by the Chernobyl disaster.

Historical Sites

The following historical-cultural sites were nominated for the Seven Wonders of Ukraine.
* Upper Castle
* Volodymyr-Volynsky historical-cultural complex
* Villa-museum of Lesia Ukrainka
* Painting of the Holm's Virgin Mary

ubdivisions

The Volyn Oblast is administratively subdivided into 16 raions (districts), as well as 4 cities (municipalities) which are directly subordinate to the oblast government: Kovel, Novovolynsk, Volodymyr-Volynskyi, and the administrative center of the oblast, Lutsk.

External links

* [http://www.lutsk.ua/lutsk_ua/english/english.html Lutsk city council] en icon
* [http://www.voladm.gov.ua/ Volyn Oblast State Administration] uk icon
* [http://www.volynregion.org/ Volyn Region (Newspaper)] uk icon


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